The Crucifixion (details), probably 1170s, German. Tempera colors, gold leaf, silver leaf, and ink on parchment. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 64 (97.MG.21.86), fol. 86

Outcasts: Prejudice and Persecution in the Medieval World


North Pavilion, Plaza Level

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Medieval manuscripts preserve stories of faith, romance, and knowledge, but their luxurious illuminations can reveal disturbing narratives as well. Often created for the privileged classes, such books nevertheless provide glimpses of the marginalized and powerless and reflect their tenuous place in society. Attitudes toward women, Jews and Muslims, the poor, those perceived as socially divergent, and foreign peoples beyond European borders can be discerned through caricature and polemical imagery as well as marks of erasure and censorship.

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