For a second year, the 2021/2022 term of the Getty Scholars Program at the Villa will focus on the ancient cultures of the Levant and their relations with the classical world. Lying on the eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean, the Levant was a crucial crossroads between the classical world of Greece and Rome and the kingdoms of the Near East. Home to the ancient peoples of Phoenicia, Ugarit, Canaan, Philistia, Jordan, Israel, and Judah, this region participated in a vibrant Bronze-Age network of trade that flourished for many centuries until a combination of warfare, migration and famine around 1200 BCE destroyed these palace societies.

In the first millennium BCE, a Greek-Phoenician rivalry for control of colonies and seaborne trade routes as far west as Spain caused considerable conflict but also bore fruit in the diffusion of alphabetic scripts and cross-influences in literature, mythology, and the arts. The conquest of the Levant by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE and its absorption into Rome in the first century BCE resulted in Greco-Roman style becoming the public face of institutional culture and Greek vying with Aramaic as the vernacular language. Rome, too, was transformed by the encounter, especially through its conflicts with Judaism and the early followers of Christ, which had tumultuous consequences for the Holy Land and the Western world.

Getty Villa Scholars


Giorgos Bourogiannis is a postdoctoral researcher at the National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece. His research focuses on Phoenician, Punic, and Greek archaeology, as well as trade networks and contacts from the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age in the Mediterranean.
Phoenician, Punic and Greek Interaction between the Sixth and Fourth Centuries BCE: Views from East and West
(January–April)

Eric Cline is Professor of Classics and Anthropology at George Washington University, Washington, DC. His research focuses on the archaeology and history of the ancient Near East during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age.
After 1177: The Rebirth of Civilization
(September–December)

Helen Dixon is Assistant Professor of History at East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina. Her research centers on Phoenician history and religion, with a particular focus on mortuary practice and social identities.
Translating for the Gods: Phoenician Sacred Space between Greece and Persia
(January–April)

Brien Garnand is Assistant Professor of Classics at Howard University, Washington DC. His research encompasses the history, archaeology, and literature of the ancient Mediterranean, especially Phoenician colonies in the Central Mediterranean.
At the Margins: The Maintenance of Ethnic Boundaries between Phoenicians and Greeks
(September–December)

Brett Kaufman is Assistant Professor of Classics at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. His research focuses on cultural history and anthropological archaeology of the ancient Mediterranean and Near East.
Iron Age Phoenician Political Economy: Democracy, Diplomacy, and Destruction at Tyre and Carthage
(April–June)

Susan "Becky" Martin is Associate Professor of Archaeology and the History of Art & Architecture at Boston University, Massachusetts. Her research focuses on Greek and Phoenician art and archaeology.
The Forging of Dōros: Greek Myth and Coin Imagery from a Phoenician Port
(January–April)

Hanan Mullins is Associate Professor in the Arts and Archeology department at Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon. Her research focuses on Near Eastern art and archaeology, particularly Lebanese archaeology.
Ethnogenesis of Phoenician Material Culture: Transmission Mechanisms of Canaanite "Savoir-Faire"
(January–April)

Jessica Nitschke is a research associate in the Department of Ancient Studies at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Her research focuses on Phoenician art and archaeology, with particular emphasis on the built environment.
Phoenician Archaeology and the Museum: Display and Reception of the "Greek" Sculpture from Sidon
(September–December)

Adriano Orsingher is a postdoctoral fellow at Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain. His research focuses on Phoenician and Punic archaeology.
Beyond Theatre. Performance, Age and Gender in Phoenician and Punic Masks
(April–June)

Gary Rendsburg is the Blanche and Irving Laurie Chair in Jewish History at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. His research focuses on Semitic languages and ancient Near Eastern literature.
The Spread of Phoenician Writing Culture to Ancient Greece
(April–June)