Representing the Passions

The theme for the 1997/1998 and 1998/1999 scholar years was "Representing the Passions." Scholars in residence at the Research Institute studied the ways in which strong, ungovernable emotions have been represented and classified. Clearly there is an important social need to name the passions, thus distinguishing them from one another, and to develop gestural and rhetorical conventions and codes about them. Yet their ungovernability threatens either to break through or to be lost by the cultural conventions and codes that attempt to fix, ritualize and control them. The problem of coping with this ungovernability has been wrestled with by theorists of human nature, language, and politics since antiquity, and it continues to confront artists of all kinds—painters, actors, writers, musicians. "Representing the passions" is a problem which is woven into the history of the arts and humanities and is an intricate part of their pattern still.

Getty Scholars

Norman Bryson is Professor of Art History at Harvard University. His books include Vision and Painting: the Logic of the Gaze (1983); Tradition and Desire: From David to Delacroix (1984); and Looking at the Overlooked: Four Essays on Still Life Painting (1990). At the Getty Research Institute he worked on two projects: one concerning the archival aesthetic in 20th-century photography, the other dealing with representation of the body in modern Japanese visual culture.

Page Dubois is Professor of Classics and Comparative Literature at the University of California, San Diego. She has many publications addressing issues of gender and the body in classical cultures, including Torture and Truth (1991); Sowing the Body: Psychoanalysis and Ancient Representations of Women (1988); and Centaurs and Amazons: Women and the Prehistory of the Great Chain of Being (1982). Her book project at the Getty was Slaves and Other Objects, which focused upon the overwhelming influence slaves had on everyday life in classical Athens.

Martha Feldman is Associate Professor of Music at the University of Chicago. She is the author of numerous books and articles, including City Culture and the Madrigal at Venice (1995). In her book project at the Getty, she applied anthropological perspectives informed by musicology to opera seria in 18th-century Italy—focusing on how musical dramaturgy, social communication, political symbolism, and aesthetic debate operated in this genre of "serious opera" and affected festive practices integral to absolutist strategies of maintaining power. The project is provisionally entitled The Plight of Princes: Opera, Absolutism, and Festivity on the Eve of Modernity.

Philip Fisher is Reid Professor of English at Harvard University. He is the author of numerous publications, including Making and Effacing Art: Modern American Art in a Culture of Museums (1991); Wonder, the Rainbow and the Aesthetics of Rare Experiences (1998); and Still the New World: American Literature and the Conditions of Culture (forthcoming). His project at the Research Institute explored the roles played by anger, fear, and grief in philosophy and literature — from Homer and Plato to Shakespeare and Hobbes, Spinoza and Hume.

Diego Lanza is Professor of Greek Literature at the University of Pavia, Italy. His present studies concern Greek myth and memory; his studies at the Research Institute addressed questions about the classification, dramatization, recollection, and social role of passions/pathe in ancient Greece. His publications include La disciplina dell'emozione. Una guida alla tragedia greca (1997); Lo stolto. Di Socrate, Eulenspiegel, Pinocchio e altri trasgressori del senso comune (1997); and Lingua e discorso nell'Atene delle professioni (1979).

Reinhart Meyer-Kalkus is Deputy Secretary at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin and author of Wollust und Grausamkeit. Affektenlehre und Affekdarstellung in Lohensteins Dramatik am Beispiel von "Agrippa"(1986)Die akademische Mobilität zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich 1925-1992 (1994); and Rede, damit ich dich sehe! Die Physiognomik der Stimme (1997). His work at the Research Institute dealt with visual and acoustic physiognomy; the comparison of vocal performances in drama, art, and political speech; and the theory and practice of the accent.

Adrian M. S. Piper is Professor of Philosophy at Wellesley College and a well-known artist. Her publications include Out of Order, Out of Sight, Volume I: Selected Writings in Meta-Art 1968-1992 and Volume II: Selected Writings in Art Criticism 1967-1992 (1996); "Kant on the Objectivity of the Moral Law" in Reclaiming the History of Ethics: Essays for John Rawls(1997); and "Impartiality, Compassion, and Modal Imagination" in Ethics 101, 4, Symposium on Impartiality and Ethical Theory (1991). During her tenure at the Research Institute she completed a three-volume work in Kantian metaethics entitled Rationality and the Structure of the Self, a critique of the predominant Humean conception of the self and defense of a Kantian alternative.

Nicola Savarese is Professor of the History of Theater and Performance at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. His work deals with the classical Roman theater, the theater of the Italian Renaissance, and the relations between Asian and Occidental theaters. His publications include Teatro e spettacolo fra Oriente e Occidente (1992), Parigi/Artaud/Bali (1997), and in collaboration with Eugenio Barba, The Secret Art of the Performer (1991). He is editor of the review Teatro e storia and is a founding member of the ISTA, the International School of Theater Anthropology. His research at the Research Institute dealt with the origins of gestural performance techniques in Eurasian theater.

Elaine Scarry is Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and General Theory of Value at Harvard. She is the author of The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World(1985); Resisting Representation (1994); and the forthcoming Making Mental Pictures Fly which examines the construction of mental imagery in different media — including painting, sculpture, poetry, and fiction. At the Research Institute she pursued her exploration of the interior of mental life, studying the nature of color composition and the connection between passive syntax and image-making; she also looked at the structure of mental deliberation in acts of consent.

Debora Silverman is a Professor in the Department of History at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her published works include Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siecle France: Politics, Psychology, and Style (1989) and Selling Culture: Bloomingdale's, Diana Vreeland, and the New Aristocracy of Taste in Reagan's America (1986). Her current work investigates the role of religion in late 19th-century European modernism. Her major work in progress, Weaving Painting: A Life of Vincent van Gogh, focuses on understudied aspects of Van Gogh's development and self-perception, including his identification with laborers deriving from his Dutch Reformed and evangelical Protestantism. At the Research Institute she investigated in particular how Protestantism and Catholicism shaped the artistic practices of Van Gogh and Gauguin and their distinctive conceptions of the Passion of Christ as models for their art.

Lesley Stern is a film historian and theorist who teaches Film and Theatre Studies at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. She has published in the areas of film, theater, photography and cultural studies; recent publications include The Scorsese Connection (1995) and "Meditation on Violence" in Kiss Me Deadly: Feminism & Cinema for the Moment(1995). She also writes fiction and is interested in ficto-criticism. At the Research Institute she pursued several projects: one tracing "histrionics" in film; another, a book about smoking and desire entitled Smokescreen; and a third involving both a book and a film about Township Theatre in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe — an extraordinarily physical theater combining kung fu, dance, music, and drama.

David Summers is William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of the History of Art at the University of Virginia. He is the author of Michaelangelo and the Language of Art (1981) and The Judgment of Sense: Renaissance Naturalism and the Rise of Aesthetics (1987), which was awarded the Morris D. Forkasch Prize for the best book of intellectual history of 1987. At the Research Institute he pursued a major book project entitled Principles of a World Art History and began another to be called The Fear of Art.

Bill Viola is an internationally acclaimed video artist now residing in Long Beach, California. His video and sound installations expressing aspects of the human condition in the media age have been exhibited all over the world and have won him many awards, most recently the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship and the Medienkunstpreis. At the Research Institute he pursued a variety of interests relating to the passions— including the influence of space (natural and architectural) on emotional states and the use of digital video techniques to transform and extend the expressive emotional range of the human form.

Visiting Scholars

Moshe Barasch is Jack Cotton Professor of Architecture and Fine Arts, Emeritus, at Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Professor Barasch's recent publications include The Language of Art (1996), Das Gottesbild (1998), and Modern Theories of Art, 2 From Baudelaire to Kandinsky (1998). While at the Getty, he pursued an analytic project on the tearful face, as well as a study of the image of the possessed.

Andreas Beyer is Professor of the History of Art at the Rheinisch-Westflischen Technischen Hochschule in Aachen, Germany. His recent publications include: Johann Wolgang Goethe—Die Italienische Reise (1992), Die Lesbarkeit der Kunst (1992), and Piero de Medici 'Il Gottoso'—Kunst im Dienste der Mediceer (1993). During his stay at the Research Institute, Professor Beyer worked on a book about the urban iconography of Naples during the reign of the Aragonese, focusing on "Späthumanismus" as scientific topos of the humanist tradition around 1600.

Horst Bredekamp is Professor of Art History at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. His recent publications include The Lure of Antiquity and the Cult of the Machine: the Kunstammer and the Evolution of Nature, Art and Technology (1995), Repräsentation und Bildmagie der Renaissance als Formproblem, and Machines et cabinets de curiositè (1996). During his stay at the Getty, he pursued a book project on a motif of Renaissance iconology: Nihil firmum (Nothing is for certain).

Errol Gaston Hill is Professor Emeritus of Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. He is the author of Shakespeare in Sable: A History of Black Shakespearian Actors (1984), The Theatre of Black Americans (1987), The Jamaican Stage 1655-1900 (1992), and The Trinidad Carnival (new ed. 1997). In addition, he has produced and directed more than 120 plays and pageants in the West Indies, England, Nigeria, Canada, and the United States. During his residency he advanced his work on A History of the African American Theatre: From Slavery to the Millennium, which he is co-authoring with James Hatch.

Claude Imbert is Professor of Philosophy and Visual Arts at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, France. Professor Imbert has taught courses in philosophy and logic at universities in Chile, Portugal, Brazil, and the University of California, Davis, and is conducting a parallel passions seminar at the Ecole in Paris.

Gertrud Koch is Professor of Cinema Studies and Aesthetics at Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut in Essen, Germany. She has published numerous articles and books including "Was ich erbaute, sind Bilder" Zum Diskurs der Geschlechter im Film (1988), Die Einstellung ist die Einstellung. Visuelle Konstruktionen des Judentums. (1992), and Siegfried Kracauer zur Einführung (1996). While in residence at the Getty, she worked on two projects. The first was based on the assumption that aesthetic theory needs an anchor in action and communication theory in order to comment upon the internal relationship between "aisthesis", perception, identification, and action. The second project rested on the semantic of the notion of "skin" as the most direct border of the Ego, the body, and the world.

Anne and Patrick Poirier are visual artists who have built a body of work over the past thirty years based on architectural and civilizational ruins, both real and imaginary. Their work has been exhibited internationally at the Venice Biennale in 1976, 1980, and 1985, and at Documenta V Kassel in Germany, as well as in solo exhibitions at museums such as the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; the Brooklyn Museum; and the Museum Moderner Kunst, Vienna. During their stay at the Getty, the Poiriers continued working on a video-sculptural interpretation of the passions theme and the research being done by residential scholars.

Sabine Solf is a historian of art working at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, Germany. At the Research Institute she did research on Guillaume Apollinaire's Poémes: à Lou, a book containing 11 poems and 18 woodcuts by Georges Braque.

David St. John is a Professor of English and Director of Creative Writing at the University of Southern California. He is the author of numerous collections of poetry and in 1999 has two more forthcoming: In the Pines: Lost Poems, 1972-1997 and The Red Leaves of Night.

Viktor Stoichita is Professor of Art History at the Université de Fribourg in Switzerland. Among his most recently published books are: Visionary Experience in the Golden Age of Spanish Art (1995), A Short History of the Shadow (1997), and The Self-Aware Image: An Insight Into Early Modern Meta-Painting (1997). At the Research Institute, Professor Stoichita continued his study of the language of gestures and physiognomics in Goya's oeuvre. He conducted a seminar on the painting of Velazquez and Juan de Pareja for scholars and staff from around the Getty Center.

Pre-doctoral and Post-doctoral Fellows

Elspeth Brown, a Ph.D. candidate in the American Studies Department at Yale University, will be studying the instrumental uses of photographic technology in rationalizing modern subjectivity in America. In her dissertation "Taylorized Bodies: Work, Photography, and Consumer Culture in America, 1890-1930" she will explore how photography was employed at the turn of the century by scientific managers and industrial psychologists to manufacture certain emotions in the work force while controlling others. She will also investigate the role of the photographic image in advertising and the emerging mass consumer culture.

Darcy C. Buerkle, a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of History at the Claremont Graduate School, worked on her dissertation "Reading the Will: Jewish Women, Subjectivity, and Suicide in Weimar Germany," which examines representations of suicides by Jewish women in Berlin during the Weimar Republic. Her Passions seminar was entitled "Longing for Evidence."

Francesco de Angelis, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Rome, works on the representation of myths in classical art. He is currently interested in the significance of mythological images in the funerary art of Hellenistic Northern Etruria. He received his degree in classics from the Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa with a thesis entitled "La Periegesi di Pausania: il viaggio in Grecia e la fruizione delle opere d'arte nel II sec. d.C."

Otniel E. Dror received his Ph.D. from Princeton University. His dissertation, "Modernity and the Scientific Study of Emotions, 1880-1950", studies the transformation of emotions into biomedical objects of knowledge in late-nineteenth through mid-twentieth century Anglo-American science. At the Getty Research Institute he is expanding his historical study of the science of passion and is exploring further associations between emotions, science, technology, and art.

Andreas Gailus is Assistant Professor in the Department of Germanic Studies at the University of Chicago. At the Research Institute he worked on a book manuscript tentatively entitled Crisis: Subjectivity and the Social Bond in Kant, Goethe, and Kleist. His presentation for the Passions seminar was entitled "Enthusiasm and History in Kant."

Stefan Jonsson, an independent scholar and writer from Stockholm, Sweden, received his Ph.D. from Duke University with a dissertation entitled "Subject Without Nation: Robert Musil and the History of Modern Identity." He is the author of numerous works on German literature, cultural theory, and postcolonial literature and culture. While in residence at the Research Institute he will be revising his dissertation for publication and beginning a project entitled "The Passions of the Crowd: Theories of Fascism and Mass Insanity Between the Wars."

Juliet Koss is a Ph.D. candidate in Art History in the Department of Architecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the Research Institute she will be completing her dissertation "Empathy and Estrangement in German and Russian Modernism," a project in the history of aesthetic theory which touches upon architecture, the visual arts, and theater. Of particular interest to her is the foundation in 1908 of the Munich Artists' Theater on the basis of empathy theory and the views of Mikhail Bakhtin and Bertolt Brecht on empathy and estrangement. By focusing upon these quintessential emotions of modernism, she will construct a history of shifting models of spectatorship in early twentieth-century aesthetics.

Elizabeth Liebman, a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Art History, University of Chicago, worked on her dissertation "Inevitably Fabulous: Picturing Animals in Eighteenth-Century Natural History," which deals with the subject of the passions in animal representation. She presented "Passionate Animals: Dog Kills, Cat, Self" to the Passions seminar.

Richard Meyer, Assistant Professor of Modern and Contemporary Art in the Department of Art History at the University of Southern California, received his Ph.D. in Art History from the University of California, Berkeley. His dissertation is entitled "Outlaw Representation: Censorship and Homosexuality in American Art, 1934-1994." At the Research Institute he revised the dissertation for publication, paying especial attention to his chapters on Andy Warhol and Robert Mapplethorpe and expanding his discussion of censorship and AIDS by considering the thematics of disappearance in work by contemporary artists.

Margaret Pagaduan, a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of History at the University of California, Berkeley, worked on her dissertation entitled "Physiognomy, Chiromancy, and the Passions in Early Modern Italy," which examines the discourse on passions in physiognomy, a knowledge professing to discern the character and predict the future of an individual through a study of his or her physique, and chiromancy, a knowledge that asserts similar claims through a study of hands and palms. Her presentation to the Passions seminar was entitled "Physiognomy and the Passions in Renaissance Italy."

Linda-Anne Rebhun is Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Yale University. As a Getty Fellow, Dr. Rebhun turned her dissertation into a book (to be published by Stanford University Press) entitled The Heart is an Unknown Country: Love in the Changing Economy of Northeast Brazil. Her presentation to the Passions seminar was entitled "Images of Sentiment in Northeast Brazil."

Catherine Schaller is a doctoral student in the Department of Art History at the University of Fribourg. Her Master's thesis is entitled "Edgar Degas: A Study of Physiognomy." At the Getty she focussed on nineteenth-century portrait painting and the role therein of various physiognomic and psychiatric theories in dictating how bodily and gestural expressions were used to represent passions. "Expression of Passion—Physiognomy" was the title of her seminar presentation.

Meng Yue is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of History at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her dissertation is entitled "The Invention of Shanghai: Passages of Cultural Enterprises from Jiangnan, 1860-1930," reflecting her long-term interest in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century urban culture in China— particularly scientific, literary, theatrical, material, and print cultures in Jiangnan and Shanghai. She has an especial research interest in the theatrical culture of China from 1750 to 1930: in particular, the rise of Chinese opera theaters, how passions were represented in them, and the passions they engendered.

Museum Guest Scholars

Janet Backhouse is former Curator of Illuminated Manuscripts at The British Library in London, England. Her publications include The Lindisfarne Gospels (1981), The Isabella Breviary (1993), and The Illuminated Page (1997). As a Getty Museum Scholar, she continued her work on two projects: a major exhibition of late medieval English manuscript illumination to be mounted at the Royal Academy in 2002, and a catalog of the Yates Thompson collection of illuminated manuscripts at the British Library.

Tilman Falk, Director of the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung in Munich, Germany, was a guest of the Museum's Department of Drawings. He has authored or edited a number of books and exhibition catalogs, including Lukas Cranach: GemS?lde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik (1974-1976), Von Cranach bis Beckmann (1995), and Max Klinger: Zeichnungen, Zustandsdrucke, Zyklen (1996). While in residence, he prepared an exhibition (scheduled to open in Munich in 2000) and catalog of the seventeenth-century German drawings in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung.

Giancarlo Gentilini is a professor of art history in the Facoltà di Beni Culturali, Università degli Studi di Lecce, Italy. His particular field of interest is Italian sculpture of the Renaissance. Among the many books and exhibition catalogs he has authored or edited are Omaggio a Donatello: 1386-1986 (1985), Collezione Chigi Saracini. 4. La scultura (1989), I Della Robbia: la scultura invetriata nel Rinascimento (1992), and I Della Robbia e l' "arte nuova" della scultura invetriata (1998). While at the Getty he will study fifteenth-century Italian sculpture in the Museum's collection, including Laurana's Saint Cyricus, della Robbia's Bust of a Man, and a maiolica Bust of Christ by an unknown artist.

Ioanna Kakoulli is an independent conservator from London, England. She has carried out field research in a wide range of areas in sites in northern Greece, Italy, Cyprus, Egypt, and Peru. During her stay at the Getty she conducted research in two areas: analytical investigation of alteration products and mechanisms of "Egyptian blue" from ancient artifacts, and the manufacturing techniques used to produce "Egyptian blue" in the Hellenistic and Roman periods.

Scot McKendrick is Curator of Manuscripts at the British Library, London. He is the author of The History of Alexander the Great (1996) and joint editor of Illuminating the Book: Makers and Interpreters (1998). His current work includes research for a major loan exhibition on late medieval and early Renaissance Flemish manuscript illumination at the British Library.

Engin Ozgen is the Chair of the Department of Classical Archeology at Hacettepe University in Ankara, Turkey. Professor Ozgen's most recent publications include: "Oylum Höyük 1991 ve 1993 Kazilari" XVI.Kazi Sonuclari Toplantisi (1994), "Oylum Höyük 1994" XVII.Kazi Sonuclari Toplantisi I (1995) and "Oylum Höyük l995" XVIII.Kazi Sonuclari Toplantisi I (1996) While at the Getty, Professor Ö;zgen plans to work on a publication based on ten years of work excavating the Oylum Höyük, one of the largest mounds in Southeastern Turkey.

Nicholas Penny is Curator of Italian Painting and Sculpture (1500-1600) at the National Gallery in London. As a Getty Museum Scholar, Dr. Penny will be completing catalog entries for the majority of the National Gallery's paintings of the sixteenth century from Venice or the Veneto, including some of the best known paintings of Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto, a very large collection of works by Moretto and Moroni and masterpieces by Lotto, Savoldo, Palma Vecchio and Bassano, but also many works by minor and even unknown artists.

Ashok Roy is Scientific Advisor, The National Gallery, London. He received his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry and then joined the Scientific Department of the National Gallery in 1977 to work with Joyce Plesters on the technical examination of Old Master paintings. He became head of the department in 1990. He has been Editor of the National Gallery Technical Bulletin since 1978 and has contributed to other National Gallery technical publications, including three "Art in the Making" catalogues. His research interests center on the scientific and technical study of Old Master paintings of all periods. Currently he is working on a survey of the material and technical aspects of Nicolas Poussin's paintings methods and their development through his career.

Marjorie Trusted is the Deputy Curator of the Sculpture Department of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Among her recent publications is the Catalogue of the Spanish Sculpture in the Victoria and Albert Museum (1996). She is also editor of the Sculpture Journal which was inaugurated in 1997 and will publish its second volume this year. During her stay at the Getty, she will further her study of baroque ivories and will also continue her study of Spanish sculpture.

Carolyn Sargentson is a Research Fellow in furniture history at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England. In 1994 she was responsible for the redecoration and redisplay of the Continental Art and Design galleries, 1600-1800, at the V & A. Among her publications are essays on the furniture trade in eighteenth-century Paris and a book on Merchants and Luxury Markets: The Merchands Merciers of Eighteenth-century Paris (published jointly by the V & A and the J. Paul Getty Trust in 1996). While at the Getty she worked on a catalog of the Victoria and Albert's collection of French furniture, 1640-1790.

Kathleen Walsh-Piper is Associate Director in charge of Education and Public Programs at the Dallas Museum of Art. Her publications include: Art Museums and Children in the United States (1994), Museum Education and the Aesthetic Experience (1994), and Teachers' Planning Guide to the Art Institute of Chicago (1984). Her current work includes the use of "creative writing as an interpretive method" in art museums.

Mike Weaver is Professorial Fellow Emeritus of Linacre College, Oxford University. Among his many publications are Julia Margaret Cameron, 1815-1879 (1984), Alvin Langdon Coburn: Symbolist Photographer, 1882-1966 (1986), and The Art of Photography 1839-1989 (1989), which he edited. While a guest of the Museum's Department of Photographs, Dr. Weaver continued work on his book project Photography: An Illustrated History, an interpretive account of the medium with documentary texts by photographers and critics.