Humanities in Comparative, Historical Perspective

Each year the Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities invites scholars, artists, and other cultural figures to participate in a residential program focused upon a particular theme. In 1999/2000 that theme is "Humanities in Comparative, Historical Perspective." During this year at the Research Institute we are interested in how the humanities have developed as a cultural category in the United States and in what work is done (or avoided) by this categorization.

As the full name of our organization might suggest, we are particularly interested in the relation of the history of art to other fields of humanistic study. How have these fields developed in relation to the arts, and how are contemporary artistic practices being informed by and making contributions to these fields today? We are also interested in the connections between the humanities and other areas of culture—including the sciences, popular culture, and religion. How has the identity of the humanities developed in relation and contradistinction to these other areas, and what productive connections can be developed between them? Our approach to these issues is largely comparative and historical. That is, we are exploring how cultural categories analogous to "humanities" (sciences humaines and Geisteswissenschaften, for example) have developed in diverse contexts around the world and are examining the different kinds of cultural work these categories have done.

Some see the humanities as the bearers of a culture's deepest values and expressive resources. Others see them as an elite field of overprotected specialists working on esoteric and irrelevant topics. What do the humanities teach? to whom? for what? How is that teaching related to what is taught by the arts? And how do the answers to these questions differ in various countries and historical periods?

We hope to interest other research institutions here and abroad in pursuing these questions with us. Colloquia, symposia, guest lectures, publications, and scholar exchanges are being discussed as possible ways of benefiting from related investigations.

At the Research Institute, work on the history and sociology of knowledge and on the historical relationships between the humanities and the arts is of especial interest during this year–as are issues raised in the "Humanities and Public Culture Workshop" completed here in March 1998. In conjunction with representatives of humanities state councils, we want to continue our investigation of the role of public-humanities work today by exploring regional varieties of such work in the United States and seeking to understand how contemporary scholarship might better support this work. Finally, we expect to hold discussions with school teachers in Los Angeles to see how the kinds of scholarly research we foster can have a positive impact on the ways the humanities are taught in the schools, especially in relation to the visual arts.

Getty Scholars

David Carrier is professor of philosophy at Carnegie Mellon University. He has written numerous publications in aesthetics and art history, including Artwriting (1987), Principles of Art History Writing (1991), Poussin's Paintings: A Study in Art-Historical Methodology (1993), and High Art: Charles Baudelaire and the Origins of Modernism (1996). At the Research Institute, hewill study how the changing nature of museums and art history departments has affected art historical arguments.

Timothy James Clark is a professor in the department of history of art at the University of California, Berkeley. His books include The Absolute Bourgeois: Artists and Politics in France, 1848-51 (1973), Image of the People: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 Revolution (1973), The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers (1985), and Farewell to an Idea (1999). He will conduct research on avant-garde art in New York and Paris from the late 1950s.

Heinrich Dilly is professor of art history at Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg in Germany. His publications include Kunstgeschichte als Institution: Studien zur Geschichte einer Disziplin (1979), (edited) Altmeister moderner Kunstgeschichte (1989), and Ging Cèzanne ins Kino? (1996). He is working on a bio-bibliography of art historians and studying the international and interdisciplinary development of art historiography in the early 20th century.

Lydia Goehr is professor of philosophy at Columbia University. Her books include The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works: An Essay in the Philosophy of Music (1992) and The Quest for Voice: Music, Politics, and the Limits of Philosophy (1998). She is currently writing Unresolved Endings: Saying, Showing, and Singing in Modern Opera, a set of philosophical essays on modernist operas.

Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann is a professor in the department of art at Princeton University. His books include The School of Prague: Painting at the Court of Rudolf II (1988), The Mastery of Nature: Aspects of Art, Science, and Humanism in the Renaissance (1993), and Court, Cloister, and City: The Art and Culture of Central Europe, 1450-1800 (1995). At the Research Institute, he will write about the geography of art, a book on art-historical writings before Winckelmann, and a study of art in the Low Countries in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

Donata Levi is associate professor of art history at the Università di Pisa in Italy. Her published work includes Giovan Battista Cavalcaselle: Il pioniere della conservazione dell'arte italiana (1988), (edited) L. Lanzi, Il taccuino veneto 1793-94 (1988); and, co-written with P. Tucker, Ruskin didatta. Il disegno tra disciplina e diletto (1997). At the Research Institute, she will continue writing her book provisionally titled The "Art of the Past" and its Uses: The Art Market and Museums in Great Britain and Italy in the Nineteenth Century.

Robert S. Nelson is a professor in the department of art history and chair of the Committee on the History of Culture at the University of Chicago. His publications include Theodore Hagiopetrites, A Late Byzantine Scribe and Illuminator (1991); (co-edited) Critical Terms for Art History (1996); "The Map of Art History," Art Bulletin (1997); and "Taxation with Representation: Visual Narrative and the Political Field of the Kariye Camii," Art History (1999). He will pursue his work on Byzantine art and the history and practice of art history—focusing in particular on the church of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.

Margaret R. Olin is an associate professor at the department of art history, theory, and criticism at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Her publications include Forms of Representation in Alois Riegl's Theory of Art (1992); "Lanzmann's Shoah and the Topography of the Holocaust Film," Representations 57 (1997); and "From Bezal'el to Max Liebermann: Jewish Art in Nineteenth Century Art Historical Texts," in Jewish Identity in Art History: Ethnicity and Discourse (1999). Her current work focuses on the theoretical underpinnings of art making and the art historical discipline. At the Research Institute, she will complete a study of discourses about the concept of Jewish art in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Ernst Osterkamp
is a professor at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Among his publications are Lucifer: Stationen eines Motivs (1979), Im Buchstabenbilde: Studien zum Verfahren Goethescher Bildbeschreibungen (1991), and Rudolf Borchardt und seine Zeitgenossen (1997). His current project focuses on the German cult of Raphael: its emergence and course, its effect on art, literature, and philosophy, its cultural and historical manifestations, and its cultural and ideological functions.

Erika Rummel is an associate professor at the department of history at Wilfrid Laurier University in Canada. She is the author of many publications, among them Erasmus and His Catholic Critics (1989), The Humanist-Scholastic Debate in the Renaissance and Reformation (1995), and (edited) Erasmus on Women (1996). She will be studying Renaissance controversies resulting from conflicting cultural assumptions and biases, such as anti-Semitism and colonialism.

Elizabeth Sears is an associate professor at the department of history of art at the University of Michigan. She is the author of The Ages of Man: Medieval Interpretations of the Life Cycle (1986), "The Iconography of Auditory Perception in the Early Middle Ages" (1990), and "Ivory and Ivory Works in Medieval Paris" (1997). Her current projects include an edition of the published and unpublished writings of Edgar Wind about the Sistine Ceiling, a co-edited anthology titled Reading Medieval Images: The Art Historian and the Object, and several articles.

Catherine M. Soussloff is professor of art history and Patricia and Rowland Rebele Chair in Art History at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Among her publications are The Absolute Artist: The Historiography of a Concept (1997) and Jewish Identity in Modern Art History (1999). Currently she is preparing a book titled After Aesthetics: Visual Representation in the Late Twentieth Century, an investigation of the history of some of the discursive conditions pertaining to the interpretation of visual culture today: media theory, feminism, and Jewish identity. Other projects include Gianlorenzo Bernini: The Lives of the Artist and Their Histories and several articles.

Visiting Scholars

Visiting Scholars participate in the 1999-2000 scholar year for one to three months.

Stephen Bann is Professor of Modern Cultural Studies at the University of Kent, United Kingdom. His current work is concerned with art and visual culture in 19th century France: in particular, how concepts and practices of reproduction affected the parallel development of painting, printmaking, and photography. His recent publications include Under the Sign: John Bargrave as Collector, Traveler and Witness (1994), Romanticism and the Rise of History (1995), and Paul Delaroche: History Painted (1997). His project at the Research Institute will focus upon the concept of "art for art's sake" and the influence of Ruskin and Pater on French criticism.

Eszter Babarczy is a Junior Fellow at the Collegium Budapest and Adjunct Professor at ELTE. Essayist, editor, and curator, she is particularly interested in how cultural authority has been constructed in Europe and the United States. At the Research Institute she will continue her research on the emergence of the ideal of "high culture" and the "Western canon" in Britain and the United States between 1860 and 1890.

Paul Barolsky is the Commonwealth Professor of Art History at the University of Virginia. He is currently interested in the relation of art history to imaginative traditions of writing. Among his recent books are Michelangelo's Nose: A Myth and Its Maker (1990), Why Mona Lisa Smiles and Other Tales by Vasari (1991), and Giotto's Father and the Family of Vasari's Lives (1992). At the Research Institute he will explore the role of rhetoric in modern art history and the disciplineíss theological roots.

Michael Brenson is an art critic, art historian, curator, and educator in New York. The author of numerous essays and commentaries on art, its audiences, and its institutions, Dr. Brenson is currently working on the history of the visual artists' fellowship program of the National Endowment for the Arts—seeking to better understand the changing attitudes of the United States Government toward artists. He is also interested in the changing definition of art museums and the effects of these changes on the nature of art and the art experience.

Hubert Damisch is Directeur d'Etudes at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris. Recent publications in English include The Origin of Perspective (1987; trans. 1994) and The Judgment of Paris (1992; trans.1996). He is the curator of the exhibition "The Dispute of Abstraction," which opens in 2001 at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris. In preparation for this, he will spend time at the Research Institute analyzing the relationship of epistemological and philosophical trends to abstraction in 20th-century art.

Victor Estrada is an artist living in Los Angeles and currently participating in a collaborative project with the Los Angeles County Museum of Art as part of the "Made in California" exhibition. His work has been exhibited in the U.S., Europe, and Mexico. His exhibitions include: "The Labyrinth of Multitude: Contemporary Latin American Artists in Los Angeles," California State University, Los Angeles; "Mutate/Loving the New Flesh," Lauren Wittels Gallery, New York; Es Mi Vida Voy A Cambiar El Mundo (It's My Life and I'm Going to Change the World)," Mexico City; and "Helter Skelter: L.A. in the 1990s," Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.

Georges Didi-Huberman is Professor of Art History and Philosophy at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. He is the author of many books, among them: Devant l'image: question posée aux fins d'une histoire de l'art (1990), Le cube et le visage: autour d'une sculpture d'Alberto Giacometti (1993), and L'Èttoilement: conversation avec Hantaiï(1998). At the Research Institute he will pursue his book project on Warburg, Burckhardt and the conception of time.

Bernhard Fabian is Professor Emeritus of English Literature and Bibliography at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany. He is the author of numerous publications, including The English Book in Eighteenth-century Germany (1992) and Der Gelehrte als Leser: über Bücher und Bibliotheken (1998), and is the general editor of Handbuch der historischen Buchbestände, currently at 29 volumes. At the Research Institute he will pursue two lines of investigation related to the institutional basis of humanistic scholarship: one examining the influence of German cultural institutions (primarily museums) on the concept of Kulturwissenschaft in the 19th century and the other exploring the merging of German and American traditions of humanistic scholarship in the second half of the 20th century.

Henry Giroux holds the Waterbury Chair Professorship of Education at Pennsylvania State University. His recent books include Border Crossings: Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education (1992), The Mouse that Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence (1999), and Stealing Innocence: Youth, Corporate Power, and the Politics of Culture (forthcoming). Long interested in the relationships among canon formation, cultural theory, popular culture and pedagogy, Professor Giroux will explore the role of American artists, academics, and cultural workers in sustaining a vibrant democracy.

Tapati Guha-Thakurta is a Fellow in History at the Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta. She is the author of The Making of a New "Indian" Art: Artists, Aesthetics and Nationalism in Bengal, 1850-1920 (1992) and "The Museumised Relic: Archaeology and the First Museum of Colonial India," Indian Economic and Social History Review (1997). She also has edited a special issue of the Journal of Arts and Ideas on "Sites of Art History: Canons and Expositions" (1997). Currently she is preparing a book on the emerging disciplinary practices of archaeology and art history in late-19th- and 20th-century India. The book will be entitled The Institution of Indian Art: Passages from a Colonial to a National History.

Paul Carter Harrison is Professor / Playwright-in-residence, Columbia College Chicago. He has long been involved in theater—as playwright, director, and producer—and is the author of numerous publications on African-American theater. For the past five years he has engaged in the collaborative development of a mixed-media project entitled Doxology Opera: the Doxy Canticle. This project—inspired in part by ancient Greek and traditional African modes of performance—integrates music, text, dance, visual art, and video technology. At the Research Institute he will focus on the project's visual dynamics.

Michael Ann Holly
is Head of Research at the Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, Massachusetts. She is the author of numerous publications, including Panofsky And The Foundations Of Art History (1984) and Past Looking: Historical Imagination And The Rhetoric Of The Image (1996); most recently she is co-editor (with Mark A. Cheetham and Keith Moxey) of The Subjects Of Art History: Historical Objects In Contemporary Perspectives (1998). Currently she is interested in the role of melancholy in art history writing and at the Research Institute will pursue this interest in relation to the work of Aby Warburg.

Neil Harris
is Preston and Sterling Morton Professor of History, University of Chicago. Long interested in the formation of American cultural institutions, he is currently studying the history of the American urban newspaper building. His publications include Building Lives: Constructing Rites and Passages (1999), Humbug: The Art of P.T. Barnum (1973), and The Artist in American Society (1966).

Ingo Herklotz is Professor of the History of Art at the Kunstgeschichtliches Institut, Philipps-Univerisität, Marburg, Germany. He is the author of numerous articles and books, including "Sepulcra" e "Monumenta" del Medioevo. Studi sull'arte sepolcrale in Italia (1985) and Cassiano Dal Pozzo und die Archäologie des 17. Jahrhunderts (1999). At the Research Institute he will be working on Montfaucon and the study of medieval art in 17th- and early-18th-century France.

Barbara Isenberg is the author of Making It Big: The Diary of a Broadway Musical, editor of three books on California theater and a long-time contributor to the Los Angeles Times. Her current project is Ahead of the Wave: An Oral History of California Creativity, a book and interview project being done in conjunction with the Los Angeles County Museum of Art's millennium exhibition, Made in California, 1900-2000. Ahead of the Wave examines both the intersection of the arts and the role of environment in the creative process through extensive interviews with 50 distinguished visual, performing and literary artists.

Steven Marcus is George Delacorte Professor in the Humanities at Columbia University. Professor Marcus is the author of over 200 publications, including The Other Victorians: a Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England (1969), Freud and the Culture of Psychoanalysis: Studies in the Transition from Victorian Humanism to Modernity (1984), and Medicine and Western Civilization (1995). At the Research Institute he will work on a book about fin-de-siÈcle art, literature, and society.

Robert Nozick is Pellegrino University Professor, Harvard University. He is currently working on a booked entitled The Structure of the Objective World that explores issues of truth and relativism, invariance and objectivity, aesthetic value, necessity and contingency, the function of consciousness, and the genealogy of ethics. His publications include Philosophical Explanations (1981), The Examined Life (1989), and Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974).

John Outterbridge is a well-known sculptor and arts administrator in Los Angeles. In the last three years he has had exhibitions at LA Artcore Center, Skirball Cultural Center, Lincoln-Center Out-of-Doors, Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, and the Spirit Square Center for the Arts and Education in Charlotte, NC. From 1975 to 1992 he was Artist/Director of the Watts Towers Arts Center. His current project is a commission by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art for the "Made in California" exhibition. While at the Research Institute, Mr. Outterbridge will focus on his interest in Watts Towers as a cultural heritage landmark.

Griselda Pollock is Professor of Social and Critical Histories of Art, University of Leeds, England. Recent publications include Avant-Gardes and Partisans Reviewed (with Fred Orton, 1996), Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts: Feminist Readings (1996), and Differencing the Canon: Feminist Desire and the Writing of Art's Histories (1999). Currently she is completing a book on Van Gogh and Modernism and also working on issues of feminine and Jewish alterity with special reference to the work of Charlotte Salomon and Bracha Lictenberg Ettinger. At the Research Institute she will explore the theoretical parameters of a "history of art in a virtual feminist museum"—a fundamentally new art history which draws on Malraux's idea of musée imaginaire passed through the possibilities of hyperspace / text.

Ingrid D. Rowland
is Associate Professor of Art History, University of Chicago. She is the author of The Culture of the High Renaissance: Ancients and Moderns in Sixteenth-Century Rome (1998) and co-editor and translator of Vitruvius Pollio: Ten Books on Architecture (1999). She also has been a frequent contributor to The New York Review of Books. She is currently working on a biography of Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno and a translation (with Mario Pereira) of Bruno's De Gli Eroici Furori (The Heroic Frenzies).

Ilona Sármány-Parsons is Visiting Fellow at the Collegium Budapest and a Professor at the Central European University. Dr. Parsons' current work includes a study of Ludwig Hevesi, an art critic who supported the Viennese Secession, and iconographical and stylistic analysis of the painting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1890-1900. Her publications include "Religious Art and Modernity in the Austro-Hungarian Empire around 1900 in Catholicism and Austrian Culture (1990), and "The Attempt to Create a Hungarian National Style in Architecture at the Turn of the Century" in Bauen für die Nation (2000).

Gjertrud Schnackenberg is a poet. Her works include The Throne of Labdacus, Supernatural Love: Selected Poems, 1977-1992 (2000), and A Gilded Lapse of Time (1992). She has received numerous awards, including the Rome Prize of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, the Brandeis University Creative Arts Citation in Poetry, a 1998 Academy Award in Literature from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Guggenheim Foundation, and a visiting fellowship from St. Catherine's College at Oxford University. She has been commissioned to write a poem related to the humanities scholar year theme for a special event in April 2000 at the Getty Center.

David Trend
is Chair of the Studio Art Department, University of California, Irvine. He is the author of numerous publications, among them: The Crisis of Meaning in Culture and Education (1995), Radical Democracy: Identity, Citizenship, and the State (1996), and Cultural Democracy: Identity, Media, New Technology (1997). His current work addresses the relationship of cultural identity to digital technology in the arts and education. At the Research Institute he will be focusing on how the arts and humanities have been shaped in the 20th century by various interests under the mantle of technology.

Peter Weingart is Professor of Sociology at the Institut für Wissenschafts- und Technikforschung, Universität Bielefeld. He is the author of numerous publications, including Rasse, Blut und Gene: Geschichte der Eugenik und Rassenhygiene in Deutschland (with J. Kroll and K. Bayertz, 1992) and with S. Maasen "The Order of Meaning: The Career of Chaos as a Metaphor" in Configurations (1997). At the Research Institute he will pursue his interest in how academic work is affected by popular values through the mechanism of media attention, focusing in particular upon the increasing competition between "history" as a discipline and the mass media in representing emotionally and politically charged events.

Michael Werner is Directeur de Recherche at the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. Interested in the history of the sciences humaines in the 19th and 20th centuries—with a particular focus on the history of Germanic studies in France—he is the author of numerous publications on these subjects, among them Philologiques II. Le maître de langues: Les premiers enseignants d'allemand en France (1830-1850), 1991 (with Michel Espagne and Françoise Lagier) and "Das Zweck des Lebens ist das Leben selbst": Heinrich Heine: eine Biographie, 1997 (with Jan-Christoph Hauschild). At the Research Institute he will focus on the concept of "civilisation" and its role in the development of the sciences humaines.

Anna Wessely is Professor of Art History and the Sociology of Culture at Eötvös Lorànd University, Budapest, and Associate Fellow of the Collegium Budapest. Her publications include "Transposing 'Style' from the History of Art to the History of Science," Science in Context, 1991, No. 4; "The Reader's Progress: Remarks on Arnold Hauser's Philosophy of Art History," in K. Gavroglu et al. (eds.), Science, Mind and Art (1995); and A kultúra szociológiája (1998). At the Research Institute she will continue her research on the illustrations of Shaftesbury's Characteristics and work out the details of an international research project on the political roles of the humanities in European social history.

Pre-Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Fellows

Completing the second year of their two-year residencies are six predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows:

Elspeth Brown, a Ph.D. candidate in the American Studies Department at Yale University, will be studying the uses of photographic technology in rationalizing modern subjectivity in America. In her dissertation "Taylorized Bodies: Work, Photography, and Consumer Culture in America, 1890-1930" she is exploring how photography was used at the turn of the century by scientific managers and industrial psychologists to manufacture or control certain emotions in the work force. She is also investigating the role of the photographic image in advertising and the emerging mass consumer culture.

Francesco de Angelis of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut in Rome studies the representation of myths in classical art. He is currently focusing on the significance of mythological images in the funerary art of Hellenistic Nothern Etruria. He received his degree in classics from the Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa with a thesis entitled "La Periegesi di Pausania: il viaggio in Grecia e la fruizione delle opere d'arte nel II sec. d.C.".

Otniel E. Dror received his Ph.D. from Princeton University. His dissertation, "Modernity and the Scientific Study of Emotions, 1880-1950", studies the transformation of emotions into biomedical objects of knowledge in late-19th- through mid-20th-century Anglo-American science. He plans to expand his history of the science of passion and explore further associations between emotions, science, technology and art.

Stefan Jonsson, an independent scholar and writer from Stockholm, Sweden, received his Ph.D. from Duke University with a dissertation entitled "Subject Without Nation: Robert Musil and the History of Modern Identity." He has written numerous works on German literature, cultural theory, and postcolonial literature and culture. He will be revising his dissertation for publication and beginning a project entitled "The Passions of the Crowd: Theories of Fascism and Mass Insanity Between the Wars."

Juliet Koss is a Ph.D. candidate in Art History in the Department of Architecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the Research Institute she will be completing her dissertation "Empathy and Estrangement in German and Russian Modernism," a project in the history of aesthetic theory which touches upon architecture, the visual arts, and theater. She is interested in the founding in 1908 of the Munich Artists' Theater on the basis of empathy theory and the views of Mikhail Baktin and Bertolt Brecht on empathy and estrangement. By focusing upon these quintessential emotions of modernism she will construct a history of shifting models of spectatorship in early 20th-century aesthetics.

Yue Meng is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of History at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her dissertation, "The Invention of Shanghai: Passages of Cultural Enterprises from Jiangnan, 1860-1930," reflects her long-term interest in 19th- and early 20th-century urban culture in China— especially scientific, literary, theatrical, material, and print cultures in Jingnan and Shanghai. She is particularly interested in the theatrical culture of China from 1750 to 1930 and in the rise of Chinese opera theaters.

Museum Guest Scholars

Museum Guest Scholars are in residence at the Research Institute, invited by the various departments of the J.Paul Getty Museum to work on particular projects.

Martin Clayton is Assistant Curator of Prints and Drawings at the Royal Library, Windsor Castle. Among his publications are Poussin: Works on Paper (1995), Leonardo da Vinci: One Hundred Drawings (1996), and Raphael and his Circle: Drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle (1999). At the Getty he will work on several projects, among them his revision of Rudolf Wittkoweríss catalogue of the drawings by the Carracci in the Royal Collection and his preparations for an exhibition of Raphael drawings that will show at the J. Paul Getty Museum in the Fall of 2000.

Michael Hall, an independent scholar from London, England, serves as curator to Edmund de Rothschild. His current project concerns the English Rothschilds as collectors from 1840 to 1920. While at the Getty he will write an essay and catalogue entries for an upcoming exhibition on the Rothschilds as Collectors.

Francis Haskell is Professor Emeritus of the History of Art, Oxford University. Among his most recent publications are The Painful Birth of the Art Book (1987), History and its Images (1993), and L'Amateur d'Art (1997). During his stay at the Research Institute he will continue his research into the history of Old Master exhibitions and their impact on perception, taste, scholarship, and art collecting in Europe and the United States over the last two centuries.

Catherine G. Johnston is Curator of European Art at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. Her current research centers on the paintings and drawings of Guido Reni, Lorenzo Lotto's Portrait of a Man (recently acquired by the National Gallery of Canada), and a catalogue of Bolognese drawings in the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.

Carol Mattusch is Mathy Professor of Art History at George Mason University. Her publications include Classical Bronzes: The Art and Craft of Greek and Roman Statuary (1996), The Fire of Hephaistos: Large Classical Bronzes from North American Collections (1996), and The Victorious Youth (1997). She will be studying the large-scale bronze statues from the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum, especially their ancient casting techniques, alloys, and restoration in the 18th century.

Elena Phipps is Conservator, Textile Conservation Department, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. While in residence at the Getty she will seek new techniques for studying the organic colorants of Martin de Murúa's 17th century manuscript History of the Incas, now in the collection of the Getty Museum. She will also continue work on her book project Tapestries of the Colonial Period: Material and Techniques of Cultural Transformation in 16th-18th Century Peru and Bolivia.

Roger Taylor is an independent scholar from Bradford, West Yorkshire. His recent publications include "Priority & Precedence; The Graphic Society and Photography, 1839" in the History of Photography Journal, 1999, and "Some Other Occupations: Lewis Carroll and Photography" (1998). During his stay here he will study the Getty collection of photographs made from paper negatives in Britain and France between 1839 and 1865 and will correlate them with exhibitions of the period in which they were made. This project is part of his ongoing research on the rise and decline of the paper negative process.

Ray Williams is Curator of Education at the Ackland Art Museum of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was co-curator of "Visions of Faith: Photographs by Wendy Ewald and Children," and directs the Ackland Art Museum's "Five Faiths Project," which brings together works of religious art, sacred stories, and the perspectives of both scholar and practitioner to teach about world religions. While at the Getty he will prepare a series of articles on the connections between gallery teaching and current trends in the field of education with a focus on how art museum education contributes to critical thinking, multicultural education, and social/emotional skill development.