*For those of you watching* Cursed, *there are spoilers ahead.*\r\n\r\nThe elusive Lady of the Lake from the legends of King Arthur is the leading character, Nimue, in Netflix’s new action-and-magic-packed series *Cursed*. Based on the 2019 graphic novel of the same name, *Cursed* draws upon over a thousand years of Arthuriana, the literary and visual traditions about the mytho-historical ruler of early medieval Britain.\r\n\r\nIn 10 episodes, viewers meet many familiar figures—including Merlin, Guinevere, Gawain (as the Green Knight), Morgan le Fay, Percival, and Lancelot (the last of which is a major reveal)—but the backstory of each, like those of Nimue and Arthur, is given a welcome refresh.\r\n\r\n### The Many Medieval Arthur Legends\n There are as many medieval variations about the Lady of the Lake and her role in giving Arthur the Sword of Power—or, alternately, how Arthur pulled a sword from a stone—as there are theatrical and cinematic versions of the young man’s journey to kingship. Arthur is thought to have lived in the fifth or sixth century CE, and legends of his life proliferated, especially in the 12th century (building upon earlier oral and written stories).\r\n\r\nIn the 1130s, British cleric and writer Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote the chronicle *The History of the Kings of Britain*, in which Arthur defeated the Saxons, wielded the sword *Caliburnus* (which in French becomes Excalibur), and established himself as King of the Britons. We also meet Arthur’s beloved Guinevere, and in other texts by the author, we encounter the prophet-seer (wizard) Merlin.\r\n\r\nA bit later, in the 1170s–90s, the French poet-composer Chrétien de Troyes added the court at Camelot, the quest for the Holy Grail—the cup that Christ drank from during the Last Supper—as well as the knight Lancelot and his love affair with Guinevere, and Morgan le Fay as Arthur’s sister. Around 1200, the French poet Robert de Boron told of the famed Sword in the Stone and provided a lengthy Christian backstory for the Grail.\r\n\r\nThe definitive version of the tale from the period is English writer Sir Thomas Malory’s *Morte d’Arthur* (Death of King Arthur, 1485). In this account, Nimue is the chief Lady of the Lake.\r\n\r\nThe legend developed gradually over time, and the artwork that sometimes accompanied manuscripts about Arthur usually reflected the costumes and architecture of the period in which they were created.\r\n\r\n### A King Arthur Story for Every Generation\n\n\n\r Arthur stories almost always tell us much more about the social priorities, expectations, and values of the creators or historical moment in which they’re made than they do about the Middle Ages. Many literary retellings and the artwork associated with them have shaped our ideas of who Arthur is, some of which are more indebted to the medieval source material than others.\n\nPerhaps the most influential modern literary version of Arthur is T. H. White’s 1958 *The Once and Future King*, which portrays the legendary king as a 14th-century ruler and casts Nimue as a water nymph and enchantress who ultimately traps Merlin. White leaves behind the possible historical origins of the fifth/sixth-century British king and embeds the idea of Arthur firmly in the later Middle Ages. Numerous stage and cinematic tellings of the story rely on White for plot and setting to varying degrees. The Broadway musical *Camelot* (1960), Disney’s *The Sword in the Stone* (1963), *Excalibur* (1981), and *First Knight* (1995) all find inspiration from White. Nimue only appears in the stage version, and while Sean Connery is, admittedly, a pretty memorable King Arthur in *First Knight*, all of these tellings reflect a nostalgic (and ultimately ahistorical) idea of the European Middle Ages as entirely populated by white people and embedded in 19th-century romantic ideas of chivalry and stories of unrequited love.\n\n<iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/t2c-X8HiBng" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>\n\nArthur stories can also take the form of political commentary. In the satirical *Monty Python and the Holy Grail* (1975) and its musical adaptation *Spamalot* (2004), Arthur shares how the Lady of the Lake gave him Excalibur. The response from the peasant is a classic line: “Listen, strange women lying in ponds distributing swords is no basis for a system of government! Supreme executive power derives from a mandate from the masses, not from some farcical aquatic ceremony!”\n\nIn the last 20 years, filmmakers have attempted to revive the “historical” King Arthur, adding a grittier layer to the otherwise tame modern versions of the tale. *King Arthur* (2004) and Guy Ritchie’s *King Arthur: Legend of the Sword* (2017) both set the story amid the collapse of the Roman Empire. In the former, Clive Owen stars as Arthur and Keira Knightly is the warrior-archer Guinevere who is depicted as a pagan working with Merlin, the leader of the Woads (Indigenous Britons fighting against Roman rule). In the latter, Charlie Hunnam plays Arthur in a film with Vikings, magic, and a cameo from the Lady of the Lake. These films give us a sense of how tenacious the legend is. The silk costumes and overall Gothic settings of the 20th-century films have been substituted for leather and various early medieval time periods when peoples migrated to or invaded Britain.\n \n### Arthuriana 2020\n\n<iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/xLTdy6PfotA" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>\n\nFrom past to present, most Arthur stories were written or produced by white men, and *Cursed* is no exception—it’s by Frank Miller and Tom Wheeler. But in *Cursed,* Arthur is Black and Nimue is the powerful warrior-queen of the fey (magical beings). *Cursed* fits nicely within this well-established tradition of updating the legend for the present. One stereotype perpetuated by the Arthur series is that medieval people were superstitious of magic. Both *Cursed* and the [2008 BBC series *Merlin*](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merlin_(2008_TV_series)) play up that idea.\n\nHowever, *Cursed* sets itself apart from other Arthur adaptations through bold plot and casting decisions that align well with medieval fantasy and history. The legendary storyline now includes a powerful female lead, lesbian nuns, a central conflict between fey-folk and the church, and actors of color in several prominent roles including that of Arthur, all of which may seem surprising at first given how masculinist, heteronormative, non-magical, and white-washed previous cinematic versions of the story have been. But this should not surprise viewers. Medieval Europe was home to [queer individuals and relationships](https://blogs.getty.edu/iris/coming-out-queer-erasure-and-censorship-from-the-middle-ages-to-modernity/), as well as Black knights and citizenry.\n\nThe 13th-century Dutch *Legend of Sir Morien* (also called *Moriaen*) also tells of a Black knight of the Round Table. Black Africans lived in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, as soldiers in armies, ambassadors at court, clerics and pilgrims, and enslaved members of households. (This history is explored in the Getty exhibition [Balthazar: A Black African King in Medieval and Renaissance Art](https://blogs.getty.edu/iris/exhibition-to-examine-balthazar-a-black-african-king-in-medieval-and-renaissance-european-art/).) Europeans were also well aware of Black rulers, and [sometimes created legends about powerful African kings](https://blogs.getty.edu/iris/images-of-african-kingship-real-and-imagined/). And [ideas about race](https://blogs.getty.edu/iris/scholars-respond-to-an-exhibition-about-medieval-prejudice/?fbclid=IwAR0ZIKlScBIT3gMigNKz-kTbEleFlbbaYiF9dEDKz3jCl0G7YajCsRRH_k8) developed in myriad ways during the Middle Ages.\n\nWe’re encouraged to see the more diverse cast of *Cursed* and are looking forward to watching Dev Patel star as the legendary knight Sir Gawain in the upcoming film *The Green Knight*. This tale follows one of the most well-known knights of the Round Table in his quest to accept a combat challenge from the mysterious Green Knight (based, like many of the Arthur stories, on a 14th-century chivalric romance). The [trailer alone](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VoJc2tH3WBw) is chock full of interesting medievalisms that might offer a glimpse into what Arthur and his knights represent to us today.\n\nWe admit that viewers of *Cursed* may be confused about when the show is meant to take place: a key heroine presents as kin of a Viking marauder (they were around from the 8th-11th centuries); at one point Merlin references Charlemagne, the 8th/9th-century Holy Roman Emperor who reigned centuries after Arthur’s supposed rule, and later refers to Byzantium, the Eastern Roman Empire until 1453. Throughout the series, we see wondrous English Romanesque ruins (including Waverley Abbey) and Gothic cloisters (such as Lacock Abbey). And the Pope’s Red Paladins are something like inquisitors, who hunt down heretics (or magical beings in *Cursed*).\n\nThough *Cursed* sometimes seems to suffer from the historical weight of its centuries-old characters, it’s worth a watch as the newest attempt to update the Arthurian stories and characters we’ve all come to know (and maybe even love). Get to know Nimue, and along the way, you’ll gain new insights about badass Guinevere, washed-up Merlin, loyal Percival, tough-guy Gawain, mysteriously cruel Lancelot, and emerging-leader Arthur.