Salt Research: Mechanisms of Salt Decay and Methods of Mitigation

Project Publications

  • Lombardo, T., Doehne, E. and Simon, S. "The response of NaCl and Umm Ishrin sandstone to humidity cycling: mechanisms of salt weathering." STONE 2004, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Stockholm, Sweden, (2004), pp. 203-210.
  • Lombardo, T., and Simon, S. "Desalination by poulticing: Laboratory study on controlling parameters." STONE 2004, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Stockholm, Sweden, (2004): 323-330.
  • Doehne, E. (2003). Salt Weathering: A Selective Review. Natural Stone, Weathering Phenomena, Conservation Strategies and Case Studies, Geological Society Special Publication No. 205. G. S. Siegesmund, A. Vollbrecht & T. Weiss, Eds. London, Geological Society, 205.
  • Doehne, E. "Salt Weathering: A Selective Review." In: Natural stone, weathering phenomena, conservation strategies and case studies, edited by S. Siegesmund, Vollbrecht, S.A. and Weiss, T., Geological Society of London, Special Publication 205 (2002): 51-64.
  • Doehne, E., Selwitz, C. and Carson, D., "The Damage Mechanism of Sodium Sulfate in Porous Stone." In: Proceedings of the SALTeXPERT Meeting, Prague, ARCCHIP and GCI, (2002).
  • Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Linares-Fernandez, L., Doehne, E., and Sebastian, E., "Effects of ferrocyanide ions on NaCl crystallization in porous stone." Journal of Crystal Growth, 243 (2002): 503-516.
  • Selwitz, C. & Doehne, E. "The evaluation of crystallization modifiers for controlling salt damage to limestone." Journal of Cultural Heritage, 3 (2002): 205-216.
  • Rodríguez Navarro, C., and E. Doehne, "How Does Sodium Sulfate Crystallize? Implications for the Decay and Testing of Building Materials." Cement and Concrete Research 30: (2000) 1527-1534.
  • Rodriguez-Navarro, C., E. Doehne, and E. Sebastian, "Influencing Crystallization Damage in Porous Materials Through the Use of Surfactants: Experimental Results Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and catyldimethylbenzylammonium Chloride." Langmuir 16 (2000): 947-954.
  • Rodriguez-Navarro, C., and E. Doehne, "Salt Weathering: Influence of Evaporation Rate, Supersaturation and Crystallization Pattern." Earth Surf. Processes Landforms 24 (1999): 191-209.
  • Rodríguez Navarro, C., & Doehne, E, "Origins of honeycomb weathering: The role of salts and wind." Geological Society of America Bulletin 111: (1999) 1250-1255.
  • Rodriguez-Navarro, C., E. Sebastian, E. Doehne, and W. S. Ginell, "The Role of Sepiolite-Palygorskite in the Decay of Ancient Egyptian Limestone Sculptures." Clays Clay Miner. 46 (1998): 414-422.
  • Simon, S., C. Herm, et al. (1996). Desalination and control of salt transport phenomena: Experiences with compress renderings in the ring crypt of St. Emmeram, Regensburg. Le Dessalement des Matériaux Poreux. 7es journées d'études de la SFIIC, Poitiers, 9 - 10 mai 1996. Section Française de I'lnstitut International de Conservation (SFIIC).
  • Rodriguez-Navarro, C., E. Doehne, W. S. Ginell, and E. Sebastian, "Salt Growth in Capillary and Porous Media." E. M. Sebastian Pardo, V. E., and U. Zezza, editors, 3rd International Congress of Restoration of Building and Architectural Heritage: Granada, Spain. (Santa Fe Granada: Arco Impresores, 1996): 509-514.
  • Ginell, W. S., R. Kumar, and E. Doehne, "Conservation Studies on Limestone from the Maya Site at Xunantunich, Belize." Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 352 (1995): 813-21.
  • Doehne, E., "In Situ Dynamics of Sodium Sulfate Hydration and Dehydration in Stone Pores: Observations at High Magnification Using the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope." Fassina, O. A. Z., editor, The Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. (Venice, Italy, 1994): 143-150.

Selected materials relevant to salt research and building material preservation

  • Amoroso, G. G., and V. Fassina, Stone Decay and Conservation: Atmospheric Pollution, Cleaning, Consolidation and Protection. (Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1983): 28-48.
  • Arnold, A., and K. Zehnder, "Monitoring Wall Paintings Affected By Soluble Salts." The Conservation of Wall Paintings. (Marina del Rey: Getty Conservation Institute, 1987).
  • Baer, N., and R. E. Snethlage, Eds., Saving Our Architectural Heritage: The Conservation of Historic Stone Structures. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997).
  • Balboni, Enrica, Rosa M. Espinosa-Marzal, Eric Doehne, and George W. Scherer. "Can Drying and Re-Wetting of Magnesium Sulfate Salts Lead to Damage of Stone?" in Environmental Earth Science, Special Issue. 2010 DOI: 10.1007/s12665-010-0774-1
  • Charola, A. E. (2000). "Salts in the deterioration of porous materials: An overview." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 39(3): 327-343.
  • Chatterji, S., and N. Thaulow, "Unambiguous Demonstration of Destructive Crystal Growth Pressure." Cement and Concrete Research 27 (1997): 811-816.
  • Correns, C. W., "Growth and Dissolution of Crystals Under Linear Pressure." Discussions of the Faraday Society, London 5 (1949): 267-271.
  • Doehne, E., and J. L. Drever, "Appendix I: Report on the Impromptu Discussion Session on Stone Conservation." Krumbein, W. E., P. Brimblecombe, D. E. Cosgrove, and S. Staniforth, editors, Durability and Change: The Science, Responsibility, and Cost of Sustaining Cultural Heritage. (London: J. Wiley and Sons Ltd., 1994): 287-289.
  • Evans, I. S., "Salt Crystallization and Rock Weathering: A Review." Rev. Geomorphol. Dyn. 19(4) (1970): 153-177.
  • Everett, D. H. (1961). "The thermodynamics of frost damage to porous solids." Transactions of the Faraday Society 57: 1541–1551.
  • Gauri, K., and J. K. Bandyopadhyay, Carbonate Stone: Chemical Behavior, Durability and Conservation. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999): 284 p.
  • Goudie, A. S., and H. Viles, Salt Weathering Hazards. (Chichester: John Wiley, 1997): 241 p.
  • Lewin, S. Z., "The Mechanism of Masonry Decay Through Crystallization." Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments. Proceedings of the conference held in Washington, DC, February 2-4, 1981. (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1982).
  • Maliva, R. G., and R. Siever, "Diagenetic Replacement Controlled by Force of Crystallization." Geology 16 (1988): 688-691.
  • McMahon, D. J., P. Sandberg, et al., "Deterioration Mechanisms of Sodium Sulfate." International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone. (Lisbon, Portugal: Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, 1992).
  • Price, C. A. and Steiger, M. (2000). An expert chemical model for determining the environmental conditions needed to prevent salt damage in porous materials. European Commission Research Report 11, Protection and Conservation of European Cultural Heritage, London: Archetype Publications.
  • Price, C. A., Stone Conservation: An Overview of Current Research. (Marina del Rey: The Getty Conservation Institute, Research in Conservation Series, 1996): 7-9.
  • Snethlage, R. (1984). Steinkonservierung, mit einem Beitrag von Hannelore Marschner. Forschungsprogramm des Zentrallabors für Denkmalpflege 1979 - 1983. Bericht für die Stiftung Volkswagenwerk, Bayer. Landesamt f. Denkmalpflege, München.
  • Sperling, C. H., and R. U. Cooke, "Laboratory Simulation of Rock Weathering by Salt Crystallization and Hydration Processes in Hot, Arid Environments." Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms 10(6) (1985): 541-555.
  • Sunagawa, I., "Characteristics of Crystal Growth in Nature as Seen From the Morphology of Mineral Crystals." Bull. Minéral. 104 (1981): 81-87.
  • Vergès-Belmin, Veronique and Bromblet, Philippe (2001) La pierre et les sels, Monumental, Laboratoire/Recherche, pp. 225-261.
  • Winkler, E. M., "Salt Action on Stone in Urban Buildings." Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art. (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1973).

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Last updated: January 2011