1. Show Pledge of Allegiance image to class. You may wish to have students answer the following questions independently and then discuss them:
Who do you see in this photograph? What are they doing? Where do you think they are looking?
Where are they? What clues help you know?
Where was the photographer standing when she took this photograph? Why do you think the children aren't looking at the camera? Do you think the children were posed for the photograph? If so, why
would a photographer want to pose them?
What other details do you notice in the photograph?
In what decade do you think this picture was made? What clues might help you figure this out?
Describe the variety of facial expressions that you see in this photograph.
2. Have the class recite the "Pledge of Allegiance." Write the pledge on the blackboard, or have students write it out themselves individually. Go over the pledge line by line, discussing its meaning. Give students time to rewrite the pledge in their own words, in more simple language. They can do this for homework.
I pledge allegiance
to the flag
of the United States of America
and to the Republic
for which it stands,
with liberty and justice for all.
3. Distribute copies of the flyer Instructions to All Persons of Japanese Ancestry. Discuss Japanese internment during World War II. See Lange in U.S. History for historical context.
Students answer the following questions in writing on their own for homework or in class as part of class discussion:
Where were the headquarters for the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army Wartime Civil Control Administration located?
How many days were "all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and non-alien" given to evacuate the San Fransisco area?
What items did evacuees have to carry to the Assembly Center?
What could NOT be taken to the internment camps?
How were the evacuees to be transported to the Assembly Center?
How could a person of Japanese ancestry change residence after 12 noon, Tuesday, May 5, 1942? What does P.W.T. stand for?
Where was the Northern California Sector's Civil Control Station located?
Why did the government issue such an order?
4. Have students think about the image Pledge of Allegiance in relation to the historical context:
Look at the exact dates for the flyer and the photograph. How close in time are they?
Knowing exactly when Lange took this photograph, what message do you think she was presenting to her audience?
Explain the inconsistency between this photograph and the reality of the time.
Comment on the line "with liberty and justice for all" in terms of Japanese-American internment.
If you didn't know the historical context of this photograph, would you have a different impression of the image? Explain.
What image would you photograph to point out a similarly troubling and ironic situation in today's world?