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Cultural Objects Name Authority Online
3. Editorial Rules, continued
 

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.6

 

Depicted Subject, Iconography Authority

Depicted Subject for CONA works and the Iconography Authority. See also an illustrated training presentation on the topic of CONA and Subject Access.

    Included in this chapter

_______________________________________

     CONA ICONOGRAPHY AUTHORITY

   

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.1

 

 

General Depicted Subject (required)

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.1

 

 

Definition
Indexing terms that characterize in general terms what the work depicts or what is depicted in it. This subject analysis is the minimum required. It is recommended to also list specific subjects, if possible

  • Examples
    allegory
    architecture
    botanical
    cartographic
    ceremonial object
    portrait
    religion and mythology
    seascape
    still life

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.4

 

 

Discussion
The subject matter of a work of art (sometimes referred to as its content) is the narrative, iconographic, or non-objective meaning conveyed by an abstract or a figurative composition. It is what is depicted in and by a work of art. For a fuller discussion and examples for determining subject matter for works, see CONA and Subject Access.

Subject indexing also covers characteristics that are not always considered subject matter per se: For example, the function of an object or architecture that otherwise has no narrative content may be recorded here.

CONA records terms to separately index a general subject and specific subjects.

One term is required, a term for general subject.

What are subjects in CONA?
Subjects include things, places, activities, abstract shapes, decorations, narratives, and events from literature, mythology, religion, or history that are portrayed by the work. Philosophical, theoretical, symbolic, and allegorical themes and concepts may be subjects.

Subjects of representational (figurative) works may be narrative, meaning that they tell a story or represent an episode in a story; they may be non-narrative, representing persons, animals, plants, buildings, or objects depicted in portraits, still lifes, landscapes, genre scenes, architectural drawings, allegories, and so on.

Non-representational works also have subject matter, which may include a reference to abstract content, decoration, function, or implied themes or attributes.

Subject should be recorded for all works and images, even those that have no narrative or figurative "subject matter" in the traditional sense. For abstract works, architecture, decorative arts, furniture, and other works with no narrative or figurative subject matter, their "content" may be the function of the works and important aspects of their form or composition.

Analyzing subject
Recording terms for depicted subject should answer the question: What is the work "of" or "about"? Traditionally, what the work is of (often called ofness) is defined as what would be seen in the work by an objective, non-expert, unknowledgeable viewer; what the work is about (often called aboutness) is defined as its iconographic, narrative, thematic, or symbolic meaning. If the work is the subject term, this is called isness. These concepts are discussed in Zeng et al, FRSAD: Conceptual Modeling of Aboutness.

Consideration of all these aspects of subject matter is important for retrieval. A methodical approach to subject analysis is recommended. Subject may be analyzed by posing successive questions Who?, What?, When?, and Where?

Description, identification, interpretation
Description, identification and interpretation are discussed in Indexing Types below. Catalogers should also examine the work at these various levels of specificity, which are based loosely on theories of human perception and recognition of meaning in images as described by the scholar Erwin Panofsky. Panofsky identified three primary levels of meaning in art: pre-iconographic description, expressional analysis or identification, and iconographic interpretation.

Using a simplified and more practical application of the traditional art-historical approach can be helpful in indexing subjects for purposes of retrieval. The first level, description, refers to the generic elements depicted in or by the work (e.g., man). The second level, identification, refers to the specific subject, including named mythological, fictional, religious, or historical subjects (e.g., George Washington). The third level, interpretation, refers to the meaning or themes represented by the subjects and includes a conceptual analysis of what the work is about (e.g., leadership).

Aboutness, ofness, isness
Another way of looking at subject matter is in terms of aboutness, ofness, and isness.

Aboutness is what the work conveys. Ofness is what the work literally depicts. What a represenational art work is about may be subjective. What the work is of tends to be more concrete and objective.

Aboutness and ofness are not mutually exclusive of description, identification, and interpretation. However, it is recommended to choose one method or the other when cataloging a data set, for the sake of consistency across the data and to allow clarity of goals and procedures among the catalogers involved in the project.

Isness in Indexing Type: Isness implies the class to which the work belongs, what it is. Terms in General and Specific Subject may refer either to the depiction of a work or to the work itself. How are these nuances expressed? It has to do with whether the term chosen refers to what the work is of or about, or what it is. That is, for the general subject term architecture, does it refer to the work itself (isness), or is it a term to describe the drawing depicting a built work (Indexing Type description = ofness)?

CONA allows clarification by flagging isness in the Indexing Type field, discussed below. In retrieval, the distinction may also be made by querying on both the Work Type field and Subject fields together. The work type for a drawing would be drawing; the work type for a built work would refer to the built work, for example, cathedral.

Isness may be used with either method of analysis, both with description, identification, and interpretation (which has no indexing level that maps to isness), and also with aboutness and ofness.

    References: For Description, Identification, Interpretation, see Panofsky, Erwin. Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance New York, Oxford University Press, 1939. For aboutness, ofness, isness, see Zeng, Marcia Lei, Athena Salaba, and Maja Zumer. FRSAD: Conceptual Modeling of Aboutness. Third Millennium Cataloging. Santa Barbara, California: Libraries Unlimited, 2012.

Specificity and exhaustivity
Include a general subject designation (e.g., portrait, landscape).

Specific Subject terms should also be recorded; however, the level of specificity and inclusiveness applied to cataloging the subject content of a work of art or architecture will depend upon various factors, including the depth of the cataloger's expertise and the quality and extent of information available.

Uncertainty
The cataloger should not include information, such as interpretation, if he or she does not have scholarly opinion to support it. Furthermore, if expert knowledge is unavailable, it is better to be broad and accurate rather than specific and incorrect (e.g., index a depicted creature broadly as bird rather than specifically as goldfinch if you are uncertain of the genus or species).

If there is scholarly debate about the subject, explain the uncertainty in the Descriptive Note and index all probable subjects in specific subject.

Why can't Title suffice instead of Subject?
Titles are free text, they often do not contain references to subject matter, and cannot be reliably used to retrieve subject content.

Linking to designated, controlled subject terminology allows the variant terms and other information about the subject to be retrieved, regardless of how it is spelled in the title (e.g., Hercules, Heracles, Herakles, Ercole, Ἡρακλῆς, Херкул in the IA). In addition, links to other subjects and sources may be maintained in the linked Getty vocabularies and IA, thus greatly expanding the potential for retrieval, research, and discovery.

Having designated subject terminology allows research queries such as “return all works with the subject Irises that were Japanese and available in the Netherlands or France during the years when Vincent van Gogh was working.” The word “irises” is not necessarily in the Title.

How to determine subject terms for an existing data set
Retrieval by depicted subject for art works is among the most commonly needed criteria by end users, including both scholars and the general public. In the library and archival communities, the professional standards have long required subject indexing. However, in art museums, adding indexing terms for subject has historically been overlooked.

How can this lack of subject indexing in the source data be addressed when contributing to CONA? Institutions can implement practices and technology that allow new records to be indexed for subject matter as it is cataloged. For legacy data, institutions could a) assign staff or interns to go back over the data to assign a few subject terms, or b) use technical solutions to mine titles and descriptive notes for references to subject, using algorithms to match the terms to the Getty vocabularies and the IA, or to Iconoclass or another subject authority. The results of the latter method would require vetting by human experts; indexing subject matter by algorithm alone would be unreliable and introduce errors.

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.5

 

 

RULES for General Depicted Subject

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for General Depicted Subject

Required: It is required to record at least one term for General Depicted Subject.

It is strongly recommended to also record Specific Depicted Subject terms.

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.5.1

 

 

Choosing an appropriate General Depicted Subject

  • Record one or more general terms that characterize the types of persons, things, places, activities, abstract shapes, decorations, narratives, events from literature, mythology, religion, or history, and philosophical, theoretical, symbolic, or allegorical themes depicted in the work or represented by the work.

    Note that general subject terms place the subject into a broad class of types of subjects. Therefore count nouns are the plural form.

  • Do not index trivial features in the composition, only significant ones.

  • Choose terms based on the following premise: General Subject terms should allow researchers to find all works having broadly similar subjects (e.g., portraits, landscapes, nonrepresentational art).

  • Terms may refer to the content depicted or stated in text. Alternatively, terms may refer to a subject implied; for example, the general subject of a carpet could be utilitarian objects and also ornament, because its depicted design is primarily ornament.

  • In general, avoid repeating a term for Object Type or Classification in General Depicted Subject terms.

    Exceptions to this rule are for architecture, decorative arts, numismatics, and a few others, which may have no depicted or iconographic subject, and thus may repeat the Classification term here. For other types of visual works, avoid repeating Classification as General Depicted Subject.

  • Isness regarding General Depicted Subject terms may be indicated in Indexing Type, particularly when so advised in the annotated list below. For example, if a work is architecture, Indexing Type is isness; if a work depicts architecture, Indexing Type is description (mapping to ofness).

 

 

 

3.6.3.1.5.3

   

List of General Depicted Subject terms

General Depicted Subject is an extensible list. As of this writing, the following are the general depicted subject terms in CONA. Choose one or more terms based on the definitions below.

 

 

 

 

 

30001

undetermined

Do not use this term. It is used only for problematic data loads.

30002

not applicable

Do not use. Applies to guide terms, facets, and othe records where subject is inappropriate.

30101

advertising and commercial

Subjects having to do with commercial or mercantile activities. Examples are posters and other graphics for advertising.

30102

allegory

Subjects referencing complex or abstract ideas under the guise of another subject of aptly suggestive resemblance. An example would be a scene featuring the Roman gods Mars and Venus, where beautiful Venus has subdued Mars and his weapons with her love; it is an allegory for Peace, the victory of love over war. For simple references in which one thing stands for another, prefer symbols.

30103

animals

Subjects having to do with members of the Animal kingdom of living organisms; for humans, prefer human figures. For depictions of the Plant kingdom, prefer botanical.

30104

apparel

Subjects having to do with coverings for the human body, for purposes of warmth, fashion, or to cover nudity. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are apparel from works that depict these things.

30105

architecture

Subjects having to do with built works or parts of built works, particularly those that are the result of conscious construction, are of practical use, are relatively stable and permanent, and are of a size and scale appropriate for--but not limited to--habitable buildings. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type to distinguish works that are architecture from those that depict architecture. For constructions that do not meet the above criteria, such as bridges or docks, prefer structures.

30111

activity

Subjects falling within a broad designation including sequences of actions, mentally executed tasks, physical actions, processes, branches of learning, and life events. For occurrences taking place during a particular interval of time, prefer events.

30201

botanical

Subjects having to do with plants and plant life. Examples include gardens as works and paintings of flowers.

30205

biographical

Subjects having to do with the lives of people.

30301

cartographic

Subjects having to do with representations of the earth or any celestial body at any scale. Examples include maps and globes.

30302

ceremonial object

Subjects having to do with objects used in ceremonies or rituals.

30303

cityscapes

Subjects that are representations of populated places of any size.

30305

calligraphic

Subjects having to do with writing by hand, especially beautiful or elegant writing. Examples include handwritten pages or architectural inscriptions.

30401

didactic and propaganda

Subjects having the purpose of teaching or swaying the opinion of the viewer. Examples are textbooks and political posters.

30411

decorative arts

Subjects that are primarily utilitarian in form or function, but that have aesthetic value provided by the design, decoration, or embellishment; included are ceramics, furniture, textiles, glass, leather, metalwork, arms and armor, clocks, and jewelry, and other household or utilitarian objects. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are decorative arts from those that portray items of decorative arts.

30501

events

Subjects concerning occurrences taking place during a particular interval of time. For a broad designation including mentally executed tasks and physical actions, prefer activities.

30600

fine arts

Term for subjects having to do with fine ats, which include physical objects perceived primarily through the sense of sight, of high quality, requiring refined skill in creation, and typically using the media such as painting, drawing, or sculpture. Generally, do not use this term for the General Subject of works that are fine arts; it is reserved for works that are about fine arts. For works that depict another art work, prefer the General Subject term another work. If necessary, further define the work depicted by linking to the appropriate term in AAT through Specific Subject.

30601

funerary

Subjects having to do with ceremonies or rites held in connection with the burial or cremation of the body of a deceased person.

30605

fantasy

Subjects having to do with the spectacular and improbable, with no or very little relationship to real people, objects, or events.

30611

furnishings

Subjects having to do with artifacts originally created to facilitate human activity and to provide for physical needs of people in a building, generally by offering comfort, convenience, or protection. Examples are furniture, window draperies, and picture frames. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are furnishings from those that portray furnishings.

30701

genre

Use for works that portray scenes and activities of daily life.

30710

games and sports

Subjects having to do with competitive activities that involve skill or physical prowess.

30801

history and legend

Subjects having to do with characters and events that have taken place within a chronological record of actual history or within the context of the traditions of events that are not entirely true. The cataloger need not distinguish. For events and characters having to do with deities or religion, prefer religion and mythology.

30802

human figures

Subjects that are specifically and primarily depictions of human beings or the human form.

30851

humor and comedy

Subjects having a basic objective to amuse, express humor, and induce laughter.

30901

interior architecture

Subjects having to do with the arrangement and layout of spaces inside architectural structures, including furniture and accessories. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are interior architecture from those that portray interior architecture.

31201

landscapes

Subjects, usually in two-dimensional works, depicting an outdoor scene dominated by the land, hills, fields, sky, trees, fields, rivers, lakes, or other small bodies of water, and other natural elements. For subjects focusing on the sea, prefer seascape.

31202

literary

Subjects dealing with written or oral verbal works, whether as themes from literature as portrayed in visual works or as textual works.

31301

machine and equipment

Subjects having to do with equpiment, instruments, tools, and machines used in an activity or operation, usually replacing or assisting manual labor. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are equipment from those that portray equipment.

31302

military

Subjects having to do with the armed forces.

31304

marines

Subjects having to do with boats, harbors, or other aspects of sea life. For portrayals primarily of the sea or coast, prefer seascape.

31320

musical

Subjects having to do with music, which includes vocal or instrumental sounds in measured time, often with rhythm, melody, and harmony.

31401

nonrepresentational art

Use for art works having a visual form with no specific reference to anything outside itself, in contrast to art that depicts subjects found in nature or elsewhere. This term is reserved for art works, such as painting and sculpture.

31405

numismatic

Subjects having to do with coins, tokens, medals, paper money, and objects closely resembling them in form or purpose. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are numismatic objects from those that portray numismatic objects.

31411

natural objects and phenomena

Subject term for objects, occurrences, and conditions found in nature, as contrasted to man-made. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are natural objects from those that portray natural objects.

31501

utilitarian objects

Subject term for objects having a primary purpose of being useful and used, rather than purely decorative. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are utilitarian objects from those that portray utilitarian objects.

31511

ornament

Subject term for works or designs that primarily comprise decorative forms or embellishments. Examples are a carved architectural molding or the design of a textile.

31551

documents

Subjects term for physical or digital representations of a body of information designed with the capacity to communicate. This term is often reserved to index group- and collection-level records.

31552

law and philosophy

Subjects having to do with law (i.e., legislation, custom and policies recognized and enforced by judicial decision), or philosophy (i.e., the critical examination of basic concepts, doctrines, or practices).

31553

science

Subjects having to do with the branches of knowledge concerned with facts and phenomena of the observable or quantifiable world.

31601

performance art

Subject term for works of art that unfold over time and that combine elements of theater and object-oriented art. For the branches of the arts that include dance, singing, theater, etc., use performing arts.

31602

portraits

Subject term for representations of real individuals that are intended to capture a known or supposed likeness, usually including the face of the person.

31605

performing arts

Subjects having to do with the arts that depend upon performances given by actors, musicians, poets, etc., and by public participation. Examples include ballet, other dance, singing, playing musical instruments, theater, cinema, television, pageants, circus, etc. For the works of art that are considered a branch of the visual arts, use performance art.

31801

religion and mythology

Subjects having to do with characters and events orginating in belief systems that encompass various personal and institutional relationships between human beings and what they regard as holy, sacred, or divine. The cataloger need not distinguish here between religion and myth, since the distinction is subjective and dependent upon the time period referenced. For events and characters having to do with actual historical events or traditional legends, where the narratives are not about the sacred or deities, prefer history and legend.

31901

seascapes

Subject term for works that depict the ocean or other large body of water, where the water itself dominates the scene. When a body of water is a secondary component, use landscapes. When ships, shipbuilding, or harbors are the focus, use marines.

31902

still lifes

Subjects term for works that primarily depict inanimate objects, often in an arrangement, as distinguished from art in which such objects are secondary elements in a composition.

31903

sites

Subjects having to do with pieces of land or other physical positions on which something is located, particularly where human habitation or activities have taken place. For depictions of a city or town, prefer cityscapes.

31910

satire

Subjects having the intent to hold human folly and vice to scorn, derision, or ridicule.

31922

structure

Subjects referring to constructions that are artificially fabricated of parts joined together, and which may or may not provide enclosure or shelter. Examples include lean-tos, oil wells, bridges, docks, and railroads. It is strongly recommended to flag isness or description in Indexing Type, to distinguish works that are structures from those that depict structures. Alternatively consider the term architecture, used for built works or parts of built works that are the result of conscious construction, are of practical use, are relatively stable and permanent, and are of a size and scale appropriate for--but not limited to--habitable buildings.

31925

symbols

Subjects in which visible signs, simple designs, personifications, or objects stand for something else, often something abstract or invisible. An example would be a dove that is a symbol for peace. For more complex depictions where one apparent subject actually references another, prefer allegory.

31935

text

Term for works having a subject that is primarily textual. For the type of textual work, such as book, manuscript, etc., use Work Type.

31951

another work

Subject term used for works that depict another work as the primary subject. For example, a photograph may depict a painting; a sculpture may copy another well-known sculpture. When using another work, to indicate the type of work depicted, use Specific Subject to link to the appropriate AAT term (e.g., sculpture, painting). This term is reserved primarily for visual works other than architecture and performance art, which have their own separate general subject terms.

31961

various subjects

Subjects term for multiple subjects, used when the individual General Depicted Subjects are not included. This term is typically reserved to index group- and collection-level records.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.2

 

 

Sequence Number (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.2.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the sort order of the general depicted subject terms.

 

 

 

3.6.3.2.2

 

 

Values
Numbers, 1 through n.

 

 

 

3.6.3.2.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.2.4

 

 

Discussion

For items: Most CONA records for a single item require only 1 to 3 general depicted subject terms. Catalogers should use Specific Subject for long lists of subjects.

For groups: When recording a group of works, catalogers should use as many general depicted subject terms as necessary to properly index the group.

 

 

 

3.6.3.2.5

 

 

RULES for Sequence Number

 

 

 

3.6.3.2.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Sequence Number

Required-default: Sequence number is required. If there is only one general depicted subject, the default value is 1. If there are multiple general depicted subject terms, sort them in an appropriate sequence.

  • Number the general subject types in continuous sequence. Do not skip numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.2.5.2

 

 

How to sequence general depicted subject terms

  • Order of importance
    In general, sequence the general depicted subject terms in order of importance.

    Place the most prominent or most generally applicable subjects first. As a secondary criterion, try to anticipate the subjects that will be more interesting to most end users.

    For any given set of records, be consistent in the numbering of general depicted subject terms.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.3

 

 

Preferred Flag (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.3.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of whether the general depicted subject term is preferred or non-preferred for this record.

 

 

 

3.6.3.3.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    preferred
    variant

 

 

 

3.6.3.3.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.3.4

 

 

Discussion

The preferred general depicted subject may appear as the default value in short descriptions of the work.

All general depicted subject terms are available in retrieval.

For the preferred general depicted subject, analyze what is the most prominent subject of the work. This will depend upon the way in which the artist has portrayed the subject. For example, for a painted scene depicting the Roman hero Hercules with his attributes of lion skin and club, participating in an activity from his myth, the primary subject would be religion and mythology. A non-preferred general depicted subject term may be human figure. By contrast, if a drawing is a figure study, that seemingly as an afterthought includes an attribute of Hercules, the primary general depicted subject is human figure.

 

 

 

3.6.3.3.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.3.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Preferred Flag

Required-default: Set the flag to Preferred or Non-Preferred, as appropriate. If there is only one general depicted subject, by default it is preferred.

 

 

 

3.6.3.3.5.2

 

 

Choosing the preferred general depicted subject term

  • Choose as the preferred general depicted subject a term that best represents the primary and most prominent subject content of the work.

  • Consistency
    Within a given collection, be consistent in choosing the preferred general depicted subject term. For example, if you have two vase paintings with similar scenes painted in similar ways, do not label one with preferred general depicted subject religion and mythology and the other with preferred general depicted subject human figure.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.4

 

 

Indexing Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.4.1

 

 

Definition
A classification of the level of subject description indicated by the indexing terms, for use if necessary to distinguish between what a work is "of" and what it is "about."

 

 

 

3.6.3.4.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    undetermined
    description
    identification
    interpretation
    isness
    aboutness
    ofness

 

 

 

3.6.3.4.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.4.4

 

 

Discussion
This designation will allow the distinction between a subject reflecting what the work is "of" (description) or from what the work is "about" (identification and interpretation). In addition, the designation isness allows users to retrieve subject terms referring to what the work "is."

 

 

 

3.6.3.4.5

 

 

RULES for Indexing Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.4.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Indexing Type

Optional: Record a term to designate the scope of indexing provided by the subject term being recorded.

 

 

 

3.6.3.4.5.2

 

 

How to choose Indexing Type

    Use indexing type when necessary for clarity.

    It is not required to use indexing type. In some cases it is ambiguous which indexing type applies. If the type is unclear, omit it (leave the field blank).

    Catalogers may use aboutness and ofness, or they may use description, identification, and interpretation. The library community is more familiar with aboutness and ofness, while art historians will be more familiar with description, identification, and interpretation. The terms are not mutually exclusive.

    Choose an indexing type based on the following definitions:

  • undetermined
    Do not use this designation. It is reserved for problematic data loads. If the Indexing Type is unknown or ambiguous, leave the field blank.

  • description
    For terms that index the work according to the generic elements of the image or images depicted in, on, or by it. These are elements that may be recognized by a viewer having little or no knowledge of a particular theme or the iconography depicted. Used in both General Depicted Subject (e.g., a viewer without specialized knowledge may recognize a human figure) and Specific Depicted Subject (e.g., child (people by age group) [AAT 300025945]). Description is usually analogous to ofness.

  • identification
    For terms that name the subject depicted in or on a work: its iconography. Iconography is the named mythological, fictional, religious, or historical narrative subject matter of a work, or its non-narrative content in the form of persons, places, things, from the real world or iconographic themes. Identification requires knowledge of the subject depicted. Used primarily in Specific Depicted Subject (e.g., an image of a child may be identified as Eros (Greek god) [IA 1000613]). Identification may be analoguous to either aboutness or ofness.

  • interpretation
    For terms that refer to the meaning or theme represented by the subject matter or iconography of a work. Interpretation requires access to expert analysis or knowledge of common themes, such as represented in allegory or symbols. Used primarily in Specific Depicted Subject (e.g., an image of Eros symbolizes love (emotion) [AAT 300055165]). Interpreation is usually analogous to aboutness.

  • isness
    For terms that equal the work described or the class to which it belongs, relevant particularly to distinguish when the subject term is the work, as opposed to descriptive of the subject portrayed in the work. Used primarily in General Depicted Subject. For example, if you are cataloging a cathedral as a built work, General Depicted Subject term architecture has Indexing Type isness; if you are cataloging a drawing of a cathedral, architecture has Indexing Type description.

  • aboutness
    If more familiar with aboutness than the Panofsky-inspired terms, cataloging institutions may use this flag to indicate what the work is about. It may analogous to either identification or interpretation.

  • ofness
    If more familiar with ofness than the Panofsky-inspired terms, cataloging institutions may use this flag to indicate what the work is of. It may analogous to either description or identification.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.5

 

 

Subject Extent

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.1

 

 

Definition
When there are multiple subjects, a term indicating the part of the work to which these subject terms apply.

  • Examples
    recto
    verso
    overall

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list; subject to frequent additions.

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.4

 

 

Discussion

This field may be used for clarity when a single work may has multiple subjects. It is more often necessary for Specific Depicted Subject, but may occasionally be needed for General Depicted Subject too.

For example, a pendant may have a portrait on the recto and a genre scene on the verso.

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.5

 

 

RULES for Subject Extent

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Subject Extent

Optional: Record a term designating the part of the work for which the subject terms are pertinent.

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.5.2

 

 

When to use Subject Extent

  • For broad extent
    Use subject extent for broad extent designations, such as primary, secondary, and common (referring to the subjects common to all items in a group).

  • For positional attributes
    Use subject extent terms that describe positional attributes (such as recto, verso, top, bottom) only when necessary for clarity. Do not use positional subject extent terms except when warranted. For example, if the only subject or subjects is overall, omit subject extent.

  • For non-positional attributes
    For non-positional attributes (such as language, related event, dedication, purpose, method of representation, design element), use subject extent terms according to the definitions below, even if there is only one subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.5.5.3

 

 

List of Subject Extent terms

    As of this writing, subject extent terms are those in the list below. Choose subject extent terms based on the following definitions.

 

 

 

 

 

30001

undetermined

Do not use this term. It is used only for problematic data loads.

30002

not applicable

Do not use. Applies to guide terms, facets, and othe records where subject is inappropriate.

30003

common

Typically for groups of works or complex works. For subject terms that apply to all items in the group or all aspects of a work that has multiple aspects.

30004

primary

For subject terms that apply to the main content of the subject, typically used when other terms will also be used to describe secondary content.

30005

secondary

For subject terms that apply to secondary content of the subject, used only to distinguish secondary content from primary content.

30100

<positional extent>

Guide term. Do not use for indexing.

30105

overall

For subject terms that apply to the overall work, typically used for specific subject terms when additional terms describe other positional subject content.

30106

recto

For two-dimensional works. For subject terms that apply to the front of the work. Examples include folios in manuscripts, which have a front and back side.

30107

verso

For two-dimensional works. For subject terms that apply to the back of the work. Examples include folios in manuscripts, which have a front and back side.

31301

main work

For subject terms that apply to the main or primary part of the work; used particularly when components of the work have different subjects.

31302

component

For subject terms that apply to components or parts of the work, particularly when the main or primary part of the work has different subjects.

31901

side A

For vessels and other such works. For subject terms that apply to the main or front side of the work. Examples include ancient Greek vases.

31902

side B

For vessels and other such works. For subject terms that apply to the secondary or back side of the work. Examples include ancient Greek vases.

32101

interior

For architecture, containers, and other works having an interior and exterior area. For subject terms that refer to the inside of the work.

32102

exterior

For architecture, containers, and other works having an interior and exterior area. For subject terms that refer to the outside of the work.

33101

foreground

Refers to positional attributes in a basically two-dimensional composition, referring to the depicted space, not the physical area of the work. For subject terms that refer to subjects appearing in the front or closest to the viewer in the portrayed space of the composition.

33102

background

Refers to positional attributes in a basically two-dimensional composition, referring to the depicted space, not the physical area of the work. For subject terms that refer to subjects appearing in the back or distance space of the portrayed space of the composition.

33198

front

For positional attributes of a three-dimensional work. For subject terms that apply to the main or front-facing surface of the work.

33199

rear

For positional attributes of a three-dimensional work. For subject terms that apply to the back or rear-facing surface of the work.

33201

top

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the highest or top of the work or composition.

33202

bottom

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the lowest or bottom of the work or composition.

33203

side

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to a side of the work or composition.

33204

end

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works. For subject terms referring to an end of the work.

33205

corner

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to a corner of the work or composition.

33211

center

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to middle or center of the work or composition.

33213

right

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the viewer's right-hand side of the work or composition.

33214

left

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the viewer's left-hand side of the work or composition.

33215

upper right

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the viewer's upper right-hand side of the work or composition.

33216

upper left

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the viewer's upper left-hand side of the work or composition.

33217

lower right

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the viewer's lower right-hand side of the work or composition.

33218

lower left

For positional attributes of three-dimensional works or the illusionistic space of a composition. For subject terms referring to the viewer's lower left-hand side of the work or composition.

33241

east

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the eastern area of the work.

33242

north

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the northern area of the work.

33243

northeast

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the northeastern area of the work.

33244

northwest

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the northwestern area of the work.

33245

south

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the southern area of the work.

33246

southeast

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the southeastern area of the work.

33247

southwest

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the southwestern area of the work.

33248

west

For positional attributes typically of architecture or other monumental works. For subject terms referring to the western area of the work.

33280

<non-positional attributes>

Guide term. Do not use for indexing.

33281

language

For textual works; refers to the language of the content.

33285

related event

For subject and other content that is associated with a named event; link to the named event using the Iconography Authority (IA). If a generic event is linked in Associative Relationships, the named event to which it refers may be indexed here.

33287

dedication

For architecture and other works, usually monumental, that are dedicated to a religious, mythological, or legendary person or being. For example, the cathedral of Florence is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. For dedications of movable works to historical persons, use Related People associated with Creation.

33291

purpose

For terms having to do with the purpose or function of the work, particularly terms that were not appropriate for Work Type.

33292


method of representation

For terms having to do with the view and other method of representation of the subject of the work, particularly terms not appropriate for Work Type. An example would be close-up view.

33293

design element

For terms that refer to design elements of the work, not narrative or iconographic content.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.6

 

 

Specific Depicted Subject

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.1

 

 

Definition
Indexing terms that characterize what the work depicts or what is depicted in it, including generic terms and proper names. These terms are more specific than the general subjects discussed above. They are drawn from AAT, TGN, ULAN, IA, and CONA works.

  • Examples

  • single-sitter portrait (portraits, <visual works by subject type>, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300404138]

  • Adoration of the Magi (event; Life of Jesus Christ; Christian iconography; Religion and Mythology) [IA 5000189]

  • Battle of Nördlingen (event; (Thirty Years' War; European History); 1634) [IA 1000639]

  • Hercules (Greek and Roman characters; Greek and Roman iconography; Religion and Mythology) [IA 5000074]

  • Henry IV, King of France (French, 1553-1610) [ULAN 500122324]

  • Mount Fuji (mountain; Honshū (island), Japan) [TGN 1107685]

  • Taj Mahal (mausoleum; patron: Shah Jahan; principal designer: Ustad Ahmad Lahauri; construction began 1632; Āgra (Uttar Pradesh, India)) [CONA 700000214]

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by linking to the AAT, TGN, ULAN, CONA, and the IA.

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.4

 

 

Discussion
Terms for Specific Depicted Subject access may come from various authorities, including AAT, TGN, ULAN, IA and CONA work records.

For terms outside the scope of these four vocabularies, control terminology with the Iconography Authority for the proper names of the following: historical events; fictional characters, places, and events; religious or mythological characters or events; literary themes; iconographic themes.

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.5

 

 

RULES for Specific Depicted Subject

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Specific Depicted Subject

Optional: Optional, but strongly recommended. Link to one or more specific subjects, as appropriate.

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.5.2

 

 

Link to the correct vocabulary
Link to the vocabulary appropriate for the term that you require for indexing.

  • Person or corporate body
    Link to ULAN for people and corporate bodies depicted in the work, including the proper names of sitters and historical characters. For mythical or legendary characters, use the IA.

  • Geographic places
    Link to TGN for geographic locations depicted in the work, such as the proper names of cities or mountains. For fictional places, use the IA.

  • Generic terms
    Link to AAT for subjects depicted that are not described by generic terms rather than proper names (e.g., knight, moated castle, battlefield, horses).

  • Other works
    If the work depicts another work, link to the other work in CONA. For example, if a drawing depicts a built work, link to the separate built work record in CONA.

  • Iconography and events
    Link to the Iconography Authority (IA) for names for iconography and other subject terminology not contained in the other linked vocabularies. The IA includes proper names for historical events, religion and mythology, fictional characters, themes from literature, and fictional places. The IA is discussed in detail below.

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.5.3

 

 

Adding terms to the appropriate vocabulary

  • Stub records
    If the term required is not already present in the AAT, TGN, ULAN, CONA, or IA, add it as a "stub" record.

    In each vocabulary, a candidate hierarchical level has been added to facilitate the quick addition of minimal stub records to which CONA may be linked immediately. As separate editorial projects, these stub records will be filled out and moved to the published hierarchies. Typically, editors should not take time out of their workflow in CONA to add fully researched records in the other vocabularies.

  • Following editorial rules
    If you are assigned the task of filling in fuller records in the other vocabularies, follow the appropriate editorial rules: AAT Guidelines, TGN Guidelines, ULAN Guidelines, IA Guidelines.

  • To which vocabulary should new subject be added?
    To add a stub record, you must determine to which vocabulary it should be added. Do not guess. Do the minimal research required. Once the term has been linked to a given vocabulary, it requires significant editorial effort to instead add it to another vocabulary and correct the links.

    In most cases, it will be clear to which vocabulary a term should belong; but in some cases it may be ambiguous. Based on the definitions above, certain subject terms may seem to conceptually belong to multiple vocabularies.

    • TGN or IA?
      If a place is generally accepted by scholars to be mythical or legendary, or if it is a theological concept from religious texts, put the place in the IA (e.g., Garden of Eden [IA 5000238]).

      However, if the geographic location of a place is unknown or debated, but the place is known in literature and believed by most scholars to have actually existed -- even if documentation derives from a religious text -- add it to TGN with place type lost settlement (e.g., Gath (Israel) (lost settlement)) [TGN 6002210]).

    • ULAN or IA?
      The difference between historical people and legendary characters is not always clear. How can you know if a person is historial, belonging in ULAN, or strictly religious or legendary, belonging in the IA? Base your decision on the current, pervasive scholarly opinion.

      As a geneneral rule: If authoritative, unbiased, scholarly sources call the character a deity or legendary hero, put the person in the IA.

      What if a person is probably historical, but little of his or her biography is known and a large legend and iconography surrounds the person? If he or she is a major protagonist in iconographic themes or narratives, even if they may have existed in history, this justifies placement in the IA. For example, the biblical character, John the Baptist [IA 1001056] is recorded in the IA because, as a subject in art works the bulk of his biography and narratives are biblical, not necessarily historical. His placement in the IA is not a judgment that he did not exist in history. Some such characters may exist in both the IA and in ULAN; however, this duplication should be avoided if possible.

      If the person is was a ruler from any period, or if he or she lived after 1000 CE, typically record them in ULAN, even if he or she is also part of a legend or story (and provided authoritative sources do not call them legendary or mythical). The reason is that for such people, independent sources usually verify the biography. For example, Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee [ULAN 500350196], who is a minor characer in biblical narratives, is recorded in ULAN because his biography is independently verified in various historical sources.

      For characters who are not rulers and reportedly lived earlier than 1000 BCE, use available authoritative information to make a decision. Note that saints and other religious characters are often historical; do the research to determine whether or not they are believed to be historical.

      Named animals: Named animals who are legendary or characters in literary works are recorded in the IA; for example the legendary Nemean lion [IA 5000068] and Bambi [IA 1001086], the white-tailed deer of the Disney story, are in the IA. Named animals who existed in history are recorded in ULAN, for example Secretariat (American racehorse, 1970-1989) [ULAN 500353456].

    • AAT or IA?
      Before assuming the term belongs in the IA, check the AAT for precedents.

      Named events that took place in a given span of time or on a given date belong in the IA (e.g., Battle of Ticinus (event; Ancient History; 218 BCE) [IA 1000374]). The AAT contains the names of holidays (e.g., Chinese New Year [AAT 300400798]) and other recurring events.

      A named individual mythological or legendary being is recorded in the IA (e.g., Anubis (deity) (Egyptian iconography) [IA 1000707]). Generic terms for legendary, religious, or mythical beings are included in the AAT (e.g., angels (spirits) [AAT 300379004]).

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.5.4

 

 

Choosing terms for specific depicted subject

  • Which term within a vocabulary record?
    When linking to the vocabularies, you may link to a particular term within the vocabulary record. Singular or plural, historical or current? Link to the term in the vocabulary record that best describes the subject.

    For example, link to the singular or plural noun in an AAT record as warranted by whether one or more of the object is depicted in the composition. In another example, if the subject is better described by a historical name in a TGN record, link to that historical name. If a portrait depicts the sitter when he was a cardinal rather than a pope, in ULAN link to his name as cardinal.

  • Terms from the titles
    Index all proper names and topics that are named in the title and refer to subject. For example, if the title is Portrait of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, index single-sitter portrait [AAT] (portrait would be the General Depicted Subject), Thomas Jefferson [ULAN], and the built work, Monticello [CONA].

    If the title includes the physical work type or other words unrelated to subject, do not index them here. For example, if the title is Bronze Sculpture of the Buddha, the subject would be Buddha [IA]; bronze is the Material and sculpture is the Work Type.

  • Terms from inscriptions
    If there is an inscription that describes the subject matter of the work, index the important concepts and proper names contained in the inscription.

  • Terms from the descriptive note
    If the descriptive note discusses aspects of the subject, index them here.

  • Terms for recognizable subjects
    Index all subjects readily identifiable from visible inspection, so long as they are important or prominent. This is the description level of subject indexing.

  • Unknown or uncertain
    Catalogers may link to terms for the broad description level of indexing, as necessary, based on their observations. This is the defining characteristic of description, that the subject is apparent to casual viewers having no background information. However, avoid choosing terms that are truly the identification level, more specific than warranted by available information.

    Link to named or otherwise identified subjects only when there is authoritative warrant. Do not guess. Do not rely upon your own observations or assumptions. For example, if a zebra is portrayed, you may index the broader AAT term zebra (mammal). However, do not use the specific term for one of the multiple species of zebra, such as Equus grevyi (species), unless warranted by authoritative sources.

  • Only significant subjects
    Index only prominent or important themes and subjects. Do not index trivial features in the composition. Is the composition "of" or "about" the term? If not, omit it.

    If enough is known to index on the interpretation level of subject indexing, you may find that features that are small in the overall composition may be important, even though not visually prominent. For example, if the scene portays a stormy sea with a small mountain in the distance, the mountain may be important to the meaning of the subject (e.g., The Great Wave by Hokusai, which portrays a compositionally tiny Mount Fuji in the distance). You may index small features that are nonetheless important if you have authoritative information regarding meaning and interpretation. If not, omit them.

  • Organized analysis of composition
    Maintain a consistent and logical survey of the composition to index important subjects. Procede in the following sequence of analysis:

    • Description level subject indexing.
    • Identification level subject indexing.
    • Prominent to the less important subjects; however, omit trivial compositional elements.
    • For three-dimensional works, subjects as depicted front to back or top to bottom.
    • For two-dimensional works, subjects depicted from top to bottom of composition.
    • Alternatively, for two-dimensional works, subjects depicted foreground to background of compositional space.
    • Interpretation of implied themes, if warranted by authoritative sources.

  • Correspondence with General Depicted Subject
    General Depicted Subject is not connected to the AAT. Therefore, it is sometimes important, here in specific subject, to again refer to the subject already indexed as general subject. See discussions below for various examples.

    However, as an overall rule, typically avoid repeating the same term as in general depicted subject here. For specific subject, try to link to a more specific subject than in general subject. For example, if the general subject is portrait [31602], link to the AAT that is a narrower term for portrait, perhaps group portrait [AAT 300124525].

  • Correspondence with Work Type
    Unless warranted by the exceptions for isness described below, do not repeat the work type or classification terms here. Work Type (which is linked to the AAT) and Classification should be used with depicted subject terms in retrieval; therefore, it is not necessary to repeat these terms here in most cases.

  • Correspondence with Associative Relationships
    Associative Relationships includes the relationship type depicted in. When should you use associative relationships instead of, or in addition to, linking to the work depicted as specific depicted subject?

    Works depicting other works: In most cases, the work depicted, when not part of the creation process, should be linked here through specific depicted subject rather than associative relationships.

    Works that are depicted in other works should be linked through associative relationships only in rare cases. If the works are important in the creation process, they should be linked through associative relationships. If the works are themselves works of art that document the depicted work in a particularly important historical context, they may be linked through associative relationships.

    Keep in mind that associative relationships are reciprocal. By linking purely reproductive images through associative relationships, you are causing all of those records for relatively unimportant images to show up in the record for the work of art in the critical associative relationship field. From the art work record, such images may be linked through the Images field, if they are located with a persistent URL. From the reproductive image record, the work of art should be linked through specific subject. See the discussion of Visual Surrogates below.

    For reproductive relationships: For two works of art having a reproductive relationship, such as an art work that is a copy of another art work, link the two works through associative relationships. An example is Rubens' copy of Titian's Bacchanal (Prado, Madrid) or George Baxter's nineteenth-century print of Raphael's Descent from the Cross. The copy here is not a visual surrogate, but itself a work of art. In this case, the work depicted may also be linked as specific depicted subject, as well as through associative relationships.

    Do not link works through associative relationships if one work merely references the other; instead, use specific depicted subject to make the connection. For example, with Marcel Duchamp's "visual quotation" of the Mona Lisa, there should be a link to Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa as a specific depicted subject of the Duchamp painting, but not through associative relationships.

    Visual surrogates: In almost all cases, links for visual surrogates and the work depicted should be made through specific depicted subject rather than associative relationships. For visual surrogates, reproductive prints, or photographs considered works of art, link to the work depicted through associative relationships only if the image is an important document recording the history or construction of the work depicted.

    If the work is a visual surrogate, but not itself a work of art in its own right, place the record in the Visual Surrogates facet and link to the depicted work through specific depicted subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.5.4

 

 

Issues for various types of subject
Below are guidelines regarding some of the most common types of depicted subjects.

  • Portraits and other figures
    If the work is intended to be a likeness of an individual, as the preferred general subject term, choose portraits [31602].

    Identified sitters: For portraits, as the preferred specific subject term, link to the sitter's name in ULAN if known.

    If there are multiple sitters, link to all of them in ULAN, if possible. For the preferred specific subject, use the most prominent sitter or the sitter first or most prominent in the composition; for example, the one furthest to the left or foremost to the front of the composition. Alternatively, list the sitters in alphabetical order.

    Unidentified sitters: If the work is a portrait, but you do not know the name of the sitter, link to an appropriate general AAT term describing the sitter, such as woman (female human) [AAT 300025943].

    Type of portrait: For portraits, it is necessary to convey the meaning of the general subject designation portraits [31602] in specific subject; however, avoid repeating the same word portrait. If possible choose a more specific term under the AAT term portrait [AAT 300015637], such as single-sitter portrait [AAT 300404138], group portrait [AAT 300124525], self-portrait [AAT 300124534], etc.

    Method of representation: If possible, index a reference to the method of representation of the sitter, such as full-length figure [AAT 300343592]. In Subject Extent, flag this term as method of representation.

    Portrait vs. depiction of a generic figure: A portrait is intended to convey an identifiable likeness of a particular person. If the work is a figure study or other depiction that is not intended to convey a particular person's likeness, use the general subject term human figures rather than portraits.

    For the specific subject, reference the figure or figures generically, for example, man (male human), woman (female human), family (kinship group), dancer, etc. However, even if the work is not intended to be a portrait, if the name of the model or sitter is known, include it here by linking to ULAN.

    Religious or legendary figures: If the figure depicted is intended to represent a religious, mythical, legendary, or historical figure (but not a portrait), use the general subject human figures rather than portraits. In general subject, you may also include terms religion and mythology or history and legend. In specific subject, link to any named historical person in ULAN; link to any legendary, religious, or mythical named people in the IA.

    Both portrait and another character: Note that it is possible that the same figure may be a portrait of a known sitter, and at the same time a representation of a mythical, literary, or religious figure. For example, a nobleman may be portrayed in the guise of Hercules. In this example, index both the named sitter using ULAN and the character Hercules using the IA.

  • Landscapes
    As the preferred general subject term, choose landscapes, or another appropriate general term.

    As the preferred specific subject, link to a named place in TGN, if known, whether an adiminstrative entity in which the landscape is located (e.g., Tuscany (Italy)) or a physical feature (e.g., Adirondack Mountains (New York state, United States)).

    Type of landscape: For landscapes, it is necessary to convey the meaning of the general subject designation landscapes in specific subject by linking to the appropriate AAT term. Although typically you should avoid repeating the general subject term here, it may be necessary to include the AAT term landscape (representation) here, if no narrower term for landscape is applicable.

    If pertinent, you may include a reference to the type of view from AAT <views by vantage point or orientation>, such as distant view, imaginary view, or bird's-eye view. Views do not have as a context landscape in the AAT; thus landscape (representation) should also be included.

    Prominent or unusual landscape features: In choosing AAT terms for specific subject, include unusual or particularly prominent features in the landscape. While most landscapes will include sky, a horizon line, hills, and trees, it would be useful to index any notable features. For trees, you may know the type of forest, such as temperate deciduous forest or the type of trees, such as Acer (genus) (i.e., maples). If the time of day is apparent, include it, for example (e.g., sunset). If the clouds are prominent design elements, include the type, if known (e.g., cumulus clouds). If human figures, animals, water elements such as rivers or lakes, or distant towns are included, include terms for them. If buildings are prominent and identifiable index them using CONA built works for named built works (e.g., Chartres Cathedral), or generically using the AAT (e.g., church).

    Secondary landscapes: If a landscape is a secondary element in a composition, such as in the background of a narrative scene or cityscape, generally do not include landscape among the general subject terms. If it is secondary compositionally but remarkable or important in the history of landscape depictions, include landscape (representation) among the specific subject terms, with Extent background. For example, in early Renaissance northern European narrative scenes, landscapes were beginning to become works of art in their own right, albeit in the background of paintings focusing on other subjects.

    Cityscapes and seascapes: If a view focuses primarily on a city, town, the ocean, or seaside, use the general subject terms cityscapes or seascapes; also consider site or marine. In specific subject, index any proper names of the inhabited place or ocean location using TGN, and appropriate generic terms using the AAT. If buildings are prominent and identifiable, index them using CONA built works if named, or the AAT for generic terms.

  • Still Lifes
    For still lifes, use the preferred general subject term still lifes.

    Types of still lifes: As the preferred specific subject term, use an AAT term indicating a more specific type of still life, if appropriate, such as banquet piece, kitchen piece, fruit piece, flower piece, vanitas, etc. If the still life does not meet the definition of a more specific type, use the AAT term still life, even though it repeats the general subject term.

    Important objects: Using the AAT, index an overall term for the objects represented in the piece (e.g., metalwork (visual works) with Indexing type description), or index terms for the primary or most important objects depicted (e.g., pitcher (vessel) and wine glass). Do not index every item in a busy still life.

    If an object is named in the title, index it here.

    As secondary elements: If a grouping of inanimate objects is a secondary element in a composition, do not use the general subject term still lifes. However, if the grouping is nonetheless important or remarkable, even if not the primary focus of the composition, index it as a specific subject.

 

 

 
     
  • Animals and plants
    If the primary subject comprises one or more animals or plants, for preferred general subject use animals or botanical.

    For the preferred specific subject, use the AAT to link to the name of the taxonomic species, genus, or family, to the level of specificity known at the identification level of indexing. Subspecies, varieties, and -- for domestic animals -- the breed may be recorded.

    Latin name or common name: Typically, prefer the Latin scientific name for the animal or plant, ideally the binomial for species, if known (e.g., Ovis aries (species)). The Latin term is often more unique than the common name, which could refer to multiple species. However, if preferred by the cataloging institution, use the common term for the animal or plant rather than the scientific term (e.g., domestic sheep (species)).

    If authoritative information is lacking, link to an AAT term representing the animals or plants at the level of description (e.g., flowers (plant components)) rather than identification.

  • Genre scenes
    For scenes focusing on activities from everyday life, for the preferred general subject term, use genre.

    For the preferred specific subject term, use an AAT term referring to the primary activity (e.g., sewing (needleworking techinique)) or the main protagonists in the scene (e.g., needleworkers).

    If there are real people or places having a known name, index them using ULAN or TGN.

    For known depicted events, literary, religious, or legendary people or places, use the IA. A scene may be both historical, literary, etc. and at the same time a genre scene.

  • Narrative scenes
    For scenes from narratives, for the preferred general subject term, choose history and legend, religion and mythology, literary, or another appropriate term.

    For the preferred specific subject term, choose the named event from the IA, either from history (e.g., Storming the Bastille (French Revolution) European history)) or from religion, mythology, literature, or legend (e.g., Rama battles the demon-king Ravana (Hindu mythology)).

    If the narrative is not a named event, choose a generic term from the AAT describing the narrative (e.g., coronation).

  • Allegory and satire
    If the subject is primarily allegorical or satirical, choose allegory or satire as the preferred general subject term. If the allegory or satire is secondary to another subject, make allegory or satire a non-preferred general subject term.

    For the preferred specific subject term, if the main theme is allegory or satire, list the named allegorical or satirical theme, if appropriate. In the IA are allegorical personifications (e.g., Charity) and activities (e.g., Triumph of Love over War). Physical and mental activities, emotions, seasons, and other pertinent generic terms that could apply to allegories may be found in the AAT (e.g., spring (season)). Index type should be interpretation for the naming of allegorical subjects.

  • Nonrepresentational art
    For nonrepresentational paintings. sculptures, drawings, and other movable works, use nonrepresentational art as the preferred general subject term.

    For architecture, furnishings, and other works that also have no iconographic subject, do not use nonrepresentational art. Instead, use other appropriate terms (e.g., architecture, furnishings, utilitarian objects).

    If there is no theme or implied subject, omit specific depicted subject terms.

    If there is a known implied theme or important design element, index it here using the AAT or other vocabulary as appropriate.

  • Performance Art
    For performance art, use performance art as the preferred general subject term. Note that in art history, performance art is not the same thing as the performing arts.

    As the preferred specific subject term, index the primary theme, activities, and allegorical subjects in the performance. Actions that take place in the performance should be indexed here (e.g., running (physical activity), reclining), not as a technique in Materials and Techniques.

    People in the performance: Index proper names of any people, places, events, literary works, etc. that are referenced. It is not necessary to index the actors or artists here in specific subject. The creators of the performance are included as Related People for creation of the work. In specific subject, index what the work is about. However, if the work is about one or more of the actors or the creator, repeat the link to ULAN here in specific subject.

  • Architecture
    For built works, use architecture or structures as the preferred general subject. If the catalog record is for the built work itself, flag indexing type isness. If the work depicts a built work, flag indexing type description.

    Omit terms for specific subject if none applies. Built works themselves often have no specific subject. Architectural drawings and other depictions of built works usually have specific subjects.

    Depictions of a built work: For architectural drawings, reproductive prints, photographs, and other works that depict a built work, link to the record for the built work as the specific subject depicted. If the built work is the primary subject of the depiction, make this the preferred specific subject. If the work being cataloged is part of the creation process, or if it is a particularly important record of the built work, link it also through Associative Relationships.

    If the depiction is of an unnamed or unknown built work, choose approriate terms from the AAT to index the content. Extent should be labeled depiction.

    Dedication: For cataloging built works themselves, the dedication of a religious structure to a deity or saint may be included as specific subject (e.g., a temple in India may be dedicated to Shiva (Hindu deity) [IA1000021] ). In such cases, the deity's name is often part of the name of the built work and should be indexed. Flag the subject extent as dedication.

    For the status honoring a patron, ruler, or other person -- also called "dedication" and often for a movable work rather than architecture -- use the Related Person fields connected to creation rather than specific subject.

    Design elements: Important design elements that are not appropriately indexed as Materials and Techniques may be indexed here. For example, if an architectural drawing specifically depicts a certain type of floorplan, it may be indexed here using the AAT (e.g., basilican plan). It is indexed as specific subject because it is depicted in the work.

    On the other hand, if you are cataloging a built work itself, basilican plan should be listed with its other physical characeristics in Materials and Techniques.

    Method of representation and Purpose: For architectural drawings, method of representation and purpose should be indexed using the AAT. Flag them with the appropriate Extent (e.g., axonometric projection (image) Extent: method of representation; presentation drawing (proposal) Extent: purpose).

  • Utilitarian objects and furnishings
    For objects that are not primarily art works, use utilitarian objects, furnishing, or another appropriate general subject term. Flag the indexing type isness.

    Omit terms for specific subject if none applies.

    Work type and purpose: For specific subject, do not repeat Work Type. You may indicate purpose as specific subject, if appropriate. Flag it with Extent purpose.

    Designs or subjects depicted: If appropriate, index subjects depicted on the work. For example, a dower chest may be decorated with a scene of cupids or a wedded couple (e.g., cupids [AAT 300380105]); an Aztec jar may be in the shape of a vulture (e.g., Vultur (genus) [AAT 300404089]).

    If appropriate, index important ornament on the work. For example, textiles, windows, and other works may have only patterns or ornament as subject (e.g., checker pattern [AAT 300010111]).

    Do not index minor ornament or decoration.

  • Volumes
    For books and other primarily written works, for general depicted subject use literary, history and legend, religion and mythology, or another appropriate term.

    For the preferred specific subject, link to the named literary work, if any, using the IA (e.g., De duobus amantibus historia (Piccolomini, 15th century)).

    If the content of the work is not a named literary work, use generic AAT terms to describe its content. For example, a breviary may have as subject the AAT terms hours (prayers) and readings.

    Work type: Avoid repeating the work type here. The work type may imply subject, but subject terms should more explicitly state the conent, if possible. For example, for work type breviary in the example above, the subject is hours (prayers).

    The form of the book, such as book or scroll, should be included in work type, not as subject.

    Illuminations: If the work is illuminated or illustrated, the subjects of the illuminations may be listed here. However, if the individual pages or folios are cataloged separately as items, do not repeat the full list of depicted subjects here. Instead, at this broader level of cataloging, choose terms describing the primary, overall subjects.

    Language of texts: The language in which the text is written may be indexed here. Choose the language from the AAT and flag the term as extent language (e.g., Liturgical Latin (language) Extent: language).

  • Groups and collections
    For groups and collections, choose as the preferred general subject the term that best describes the prevalent or most important content in the group or collection. For example, an archive from an advertising firm may have as primary subject advertising and commercial. The general term documents is also often applicable to archival groups; however, make documents a non-preferred general term (rather than specific subject) whenever possible.

    For specific subjects, link to proper names and generic terms representing the primary subjects and content of the group. If the full group or collection will also be cataloged at the item level, the full list of subjects need not be repeated here.

    Creators and originators: As subject, do not repeat creators or administrative originators who are indexed with creation as Related Persons. An exception is when the items in the group are about the originator or creator; in this case, repeat the names as specific subjects, linked to ULAN.

    Work types: Avoid repeating work types, if possible. For example, a group containing primarily photographs of colonial Hildago, Mexico would have as a work type photographs, and as specific subject a link to TGN Hidalgo (state) (Mexico) and any appropriate ULAN and AAT terms (e.g., perhaps colonialism).

    Other subject headings: Groups may be indexed with Library of Congress authority headings; ideally, the headings should be mapped to the linked Getty vocabularies here. In addition, the authority headings and the associated LC Control Number may be included in Outside Iconography.

 

 

 

3.6.3.6.5.5

 

 

Examples of subject indexing

       

 

 

___________________________
    [for the portrait of an identified sitter]
    General Subjects
  • portraits [31602]

    Specific Subjects
  • Reede-Athlone, Maria Frederike van (Dutch countess, 1748-1807) [ULAN 500312914]
  • single-sitter portrait (portraits, <visual works by subject type>, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300404138]
  • child (<people by age group>, People (hierarchy name), Agents Facet) [AAT 300025945]
  • Canis familiaris (species) (Canis (genus), Canidae (family) ... Living Organisms (hierarchy name), Agents Facet) [AAT 300250130]

 

 

 
Jean-Étienne Liotard (Swiss, 1702-1789); Portrait of Maria Frederike van Reede-Athlone at Seven Years of Age; 1755 or 1756; pastel on vellum; 57.2 x 47 cm. (22 1/2 x 18 1/2 inches); J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California); 83.PC.273.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for a seascape and identified built work, documented interpretation concerns fishermen; "seascape" repeated as specific subject]
    General Subjects
  • seascapes [31901]

    Specific Subjects
  • Conway Castle (castle (fortification); Wales; James of Saint George (English mason, active ca. 1270); 1283-1286) [CONA 700000063]
  • seascape (<visual works by subject type>, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300117546]
  • storm (natural events, events (activities) ... Activities Facet) [AAT 300054734]
  • fishermen (people) (<people in agriculture or natural resource occupations>... Agents Facet) [AAT 300025608]

 

 

 
Joseph Mallord William Turner (English, 1775-1851); Conway Castle, North Wales; 1798; watercolor and gum arabic with graphite underdrawing; 53.7 x 76.5 cm (21 1/8 x 30 1/8 inches); J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, CA). 95.GC.10.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for a painted scene on a Maya vessel]
    General Subject
  • religion and mythology [31801]

    Specific Subject
  • Xibalbá (Maya legendary places, Maya iconography, Religion and Mythology) [IA 1000045]
  • Baby Jaguar (Maya king, ruled ca. 317 BCE) [ULAN 500329587]
  • skeleton (animal components) (<skeletons and skeleton components>, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300191778]
  • altar (<altars and altar components>, religious building fixtures, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300003725]
  • death (personal life events, events (activities), Events (hierarchy name) [AAT 300151836] Indexing Type: interpretation
  • sacrifice (religious ceremonies, ceremonies, ... Events (hierarchy name)) [AAT 300263243] Indexing Type: interpretation

 

 

 
unknown Maya; Vessel with Mythological Scene; 8th century; terracotta vase painting; 14 cm (height) (5 1/2 inches); Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, New York, USA); 1978.412.206.

       
      ___________________________
    [for a complex composition, foreground and background]
    General Subjects
  • religion and mythology [31801]

    Specific Subjects
  • Adoration of the Magi (Event; Life of Jesus Christ...Christian Iconography, Religion and Mythology) [IA 1000083]   Extent: foreground
  • Holy Family (Character/Person; Life of Jesus Christ...Christian Iconography, Religion and Mythology) [IA 1000071]
  • Magi (Character/Person; Life of Jesus Christ...Christian Iconography, Religion and Mythology) [IA 1001061]
  • horses (species) (Equus, ... Animalia... Living Organisms, Agents Facet) [AAT 300250148]
  • gifts (property) (legal concept)… Associated Concepts Facet) [AAT 300138913]
  • Epiphany (feast day) (Christian holidays … Events, Activities Facet) [AAT 300264546]   Indexing Type: interpretation
  • Journey of the Magi (Event; Life of Jesus Christ...Christian Iconography, Religion and Mythology) [CONA 1000231]  Extent: background
  • Siena (inhabited place; Tuscany, Italy) [TGN 7011179]  Extent: background
  • continuous representation (visual and representational concepts, … Associated Concepts Facet) [AAT 300056330] Extent: method of representation

 

 

 
Bartolo di Fredi (Sienese, ca. 1330-1410); Adoration of the Magi; altarpiece; ca. 1385; Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena (Siena, Siena province, Tuscany, Italy); no. 104.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for a print depicting an historical event]
    General Subjects
  • history and legend [30801]
  • events [30501]

    Specific Subjects
  • Storming of the Bastille (event; French Revolution, European History, Named Events) [IA 1000248]
  • Bastille (bastide; Built Work; unknown architect, by order of Charles V; begun 1370; Paris, France) [CONA 700001912]
  • attack (armed conflict) (events, ... Activities Facet) [AAT 300404141]
  • cannon (artillery) (<artillery by form>, ... weapons, ...Objects Facet) [AAT 300036936]
  • revolutionaries (<people by ideology...>, ...People, Agents Facet) [AAT 300237490]

 

 

 
Laurent Guyot (French, 1756-1806); Storming the Bastille; etching; ca. 1789; Prints of the French Revolution; Getty Research Institute (Los Angeles, California); 2682-187.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for a depiction of flowers; interpretation based on authoritative sources]
    General Subjects
  • botanical [30201] Indexing Type: description

    Specific Subjects
  • Iris (genus) (Iridaceae (family), ... Living Organisms, Agent Facet) [AAT 300343602] Indexing Type: identification
  • Nature (Associated Concepts, Associated Concepts Facet) [AAT 300179372] Indexing Type: interpretation
  • regeneration (events... Activities Facet) [AAT 300343606] Indexing Type: interpretation

 

 


Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890); Irises; 1889; oil on canvas; 71 x 93 cm (28 x 36 5/8 inches); J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California, USA); 90.PA.20.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for a nonrepresentational sculpture, with interpretation-level subject indexing]
    General Subjects
  • nonrepresentational art [31401]

    Specific Subjects
  • motion (dynamics, mechanics concepts, ... Associated Concepts) [AAT 300056039] Indexing Type: interpretation
  • woman (female human) (<people by gender>, ... Agents Facet) [AAT 300025943] Indexing Type: interpretation
  • space (general physical concept) (attributes and properties by specific type, ... Physical Attributes Facet) [AAT 300404143] Indexing Type: interpretation

 

 

 
Umberto Boccioni (Italian, 1882-1916); Unique Forms of Continuity in Space; 1913; bronze (cast 1931); 111.2 x 88.5 x 40 cm (43 7/8 x 34 7/8 x 15 3/4 inches ); Museum of Modern Art (New York, New York, USA); 1990.38.3.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for a bronze bell, purpose may be included]
    General Subjects
  • ceremonial objects [30302] Indexing Type: isness

    Specific Subjects
  • ceremonial sound device (<sound devices by function>, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300312157] Extent: purpose

 

 

 
unknown Chinese; Zong Zhou Zhong; bell; bronze; ca. 857-842 BCE; 65.6 x 35.2 cm; National Palace Museum (Taipei, Taiwan).

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for an art work depicting a built work]
    General Subjects
  • architecture   Indexing Type: depiction

    Specific Subjects
  • Case Study House No. 21 (house; Pierre Koenig (American architect, 1925-2004); 1958-1959; Los Angeles) [CONA 700000090]
  • reflecting pool (water features (landscaping) … Objects Facet) [AAT 300179485]
  • carport (exterior covered spaces, <rooms and spaces by location or context>, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300004090]
  • dwelling (single built works … Objects Facet) [AAT 300005433]

 

 

 
Julius Shulman (American, 1910-2009); Case Study House No. 21: Reflecting pool, carport, entrance to kitchen and study/bedroom Job 2622-32; photograph; 1958-1959 (Job 2622: Case Study House No. 21 (Los Angeles, Calif.), 1958, 1959, Series III.A. Case Study Houses, 1945-2004, Julius Shuman Photography Archive 1935-2009; Getty Research Institute (Los Angeles, California); Job 2622-32.

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________
    [for a built work]
    General Subject
  • architecture Indexing Type: isness

    Specific Subjects
  • Planetary Gods (Greek and Roman characters, Greek and Roman iconography, Religion and Mythology) [IA 1000079] Extent: dedication
  • Queen of Martyrs (Life of the Virgin Mary, New Testament narratives, Christian iconography, Religion and Mythology) [CONA 1000080] Extent: dedication
  • religious structure (ceremonial structures, ... Objects Facet) [AAT 300007391] Extent: purpose

 

 

 
Pantheon (temple (building); unknown Ancient Roman, for the Emperor Hadrian (Roman emperor and patron, 76 CE-138 CE, ruled 117-138); begun in 27 BCE, completely rebuilt 118/119-125/128) (Built Works)

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.7

 

 

Sequence Number

 

 

 

3.6.3.7.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the sort order for the specific depicted subject terms.

 

 

 

3.6.3.7.2

 

 

Values
Numbers, 1 through n.

 

 

 

3.6.3.7.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.7.4

 

 

Discussion

For items: Most CONA records for a single item require only 1 to 6 specific depicted subject terms. If there are a large number of subjects with proper names, such as a group portrait, more terms may be required.

For groups: When recording a group of works, catalogers should use as many general depicted subject terms as necessary to properly index the group.

 

 

 

3.6.3.7.5

 

 

RULES for Sequence Number

 

 

 

3.6.3.7.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Sequence Number

Required-default: Sequence number is required. If there are multiple depicted subject terms, sort them in an appropriate sequence.

  • Number the specific subject types in continuous sequence. Do not skip numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.7.5.2

 

 

How to sequence specific depicted subject terms

  • Order of importance
    In general, sequence the subject terms in order of importance.

    In establishing sequence, try to order the most prominent subjects first. As a second criterion, try to anticipate the subjects that will be more interesting to most end users.

    For any given set of records, be consistent in the numbering of general depicted subject terms.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.8

 

 

Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.8.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of whether the specific subject term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.

 

 

 

3.6.3.8.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    preferred
    non-preferred

 

 

 

3.6.3.8.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.8.4

 

 

Discussion

The cataloger must choose one specific subject term as preferred, but all specific depicted subject terms are available in retrieval.

The preferred subject should be the one most representative of the composition or the named subject represented by the iconography. Preferences among other types of subjects are also covered in the rules for choosing terms above.

 

 

 

3.6.3.8.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.8.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Preferred Flag

Required-default: Set the flag to Preferred or Non-Preferred, as appropriate. If there is only one specific depicted subject, by default it is preferred.

 

 

 

3.6.3.8.5.2

 

 

Choosing the preferred specific depicted subject term

  • Choose as the preferred specific depicted subject a term that best represents the primary and most prominent subject content of the work. However, do not repeat the General Depicted Subject term here, other than in the exceptions described above.

  • Consistency
    Within a given collection, be consistent in choosing the preferred specific depicted subject term. For example, if you have two portraits of named individuals, do not include the named person from ULAN as preferred in one record and single-sitter portrait [AAT 300404138] as preferred in the other. In this example, both should have the named sitter linked to ULAN as the preferred specific subject term, and single-sitter portrait is a non-preferred subject term.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.9

 

 

Indexing Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.9.1

 

 

Definition
A classification of the level of subject description indicated by the indexing terms, for use if necessary to distinguish between what a work is "of" and what it is "about."

 

 

 

3.6.3.9.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    undetermined
    description
    identification
    interpretation
    isness
    aboutness
    ofness

 

 

 

3.6.3.9.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.9.4

 

 

Discussion
This designation will allow the distinction between a subject reflecting what the work is "of" (description) or from what the work is "about" (identification and interpretation). In addition, the designation isness allows users to retrieve subject terms referring to what the work "is."

 

 

 

3.6.3.9.5

 

 

RULES for Indexing Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.9.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Indexing Type

Optional: Record a term to designate the scope of indexing provided by the subject term being recorded.

 

 

 

3.6.3.9.5.2

 

 

How to choose Indexing Type

    Use indexing type when necessary for clarity.

    It is not required to use indexing type. In some cases it is ambiguous which indexing type applies. If the type is unclear, omit it (leave the field blank).

    Catalogers may use aboutness and ofness, or they may use description, identification, and interpretation. The library community is more familiar with aboutness and ofness, while art historians will be more familiar with description, identification, and interpretation. The terms are not mutually exclusive.

    Choose an indexing type based on the following definitions:

  • undetermined
    Do not use this designation. It is reserved for problematic data loads. If the Indexing Type is unknown or ambiguous, leave the field blank.

  • description
    For terms that index the work according to the generic elements of the image or images depicted in, on, or by it. These are elements that may be recognized by a viewer having little or no knowledge of a particular theme or the iconography depicted. Used in both General Depicted Subject (e.g., a viewer without specialized knowledge may recognize a human figure) and Specific Depicted Subject (e.g., child (people by age group) [AAT 300025945]). Description is usually analogous to ofness.

  • identification
    For terms that name the subject depicted in or on a work: its iconography. Iconography is the named mythological, fictional, religious, or historical narrative subject matter of a work, or its non-narrative content in the form of persons, places, things, from the real world or iconographic themes. Identification requires knowledge of the subject depicted. Used primarily in Specific Depicted Subject (e.g., an image of a child may be identified as Eros (Greek god) [IA 1000613]). Identification may be analoguous to either aboutness or ofness.

  • interpretation
    For terms that refer to the meaning or theme represented by the subject matter or iconography of a work. Interpretation requires access to expert analysis or knowledge of common themes, such as represented in allegory or symbols. Used primarily in Specific Depicted Subject (e.g., an image of Eros symbolizes love (emotion) [AAT 300055165]). Interpreation is usually analogous to aboutness.

  • isness
    For terms that equal the work described or the class to which it belongs, relevant particularly to distinguish when the subject term is the work, as opposed to descriptive of the subject portrayed in the work. Used primarily in General Depicted Subject. For example, if you are cataloging a cathedral as a built work, General Depicted Subject term architecture has Indexing Type isness; if you are cataloging a drawing of a cathedral, architecture has Indexing Type description.

  • aboutness
    If more familiar with aboutness than the Panofsky-inspired terms, cataloging institutions may use this flag to indicate what the work is about. It may analogous to either identification or interpretation.

  • ofness
    If more familiar with ofness than the Panofsky-inspired terms, cataloging institutions may use this flag to indicate what the work is of. It may analogous to either description or identification.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.10

 

 

Subject Extent

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.1

 

 

Definition
When there are multiple subjects, a term indicating the part of the work to which these subject terms apply.

  • Examples
    recto
    verso
    side A
    side B
    overall

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list, subject to frequent additions.

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.4

 

 

Discussion

This field may be used for clarity when a single work may has multiple subjects.

For example, a Greek vase may have the Judgment of Paris on Side A and Amazons on Side B; a polyptych may have multiple subjects on various side panels, components (such as Saint Catherine, Saint Ursula, etc.).

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.5

 

 

RULES for Subject Extent

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Subject Extent

Optional: Record a term designating the part of the work for which the subject terms are pertinent.

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.5.2

 

 

When to use Subject Extent

  • For broad extent
    Use subject extent for broad extent designations, such as primary, secondary, and common (referring to the subjects common to all items in a group).

  • For positional attributes
    Use subject extent terms that describe positional attributes (such as recto, verso, top, bottom) only when necessary for clarity. Do not use positional subject extent terms except when warranted. For example, if the only subject or subjects is overall, omit subject extent.

  • For non-positional attributes
    For non-positional attributes (such as language, related event, dedication, purpose, method of representation, design element), use subject extent terms according to the definitions below, even if there is only one subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.10.5.3

 

 

List of Subject Extent terms

    As of this writing, subject extent terms include those in the list Subject Extent Terms. Choose subject extent terms based on the definitions provided.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.11

 

 

Outside Iconography Term

 

 

 

3.6.3.11.1

 

 

Definition
Terms for subjects taken from some outside source not included in AAT, TGN, ULAN, or the CONA Iconography Authority.

 

 

 

3.6.3.11.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Any character in Unicode or numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.11.3

 

 

Sources
Standard sources of iconographic terms, such as Iconoclass or Library of Congress Subject Headings.

 

 

 

3.6.3.11.4

 

 

Discussion

For contributions to CONA, if the contributing institution has linked the subjects to another source, particularly Iconclass or Library of Congress Subject Headings, this information should be captured here.

 

 

 

3.6.3.11.5

 

 

RULES for Outside Iconography Term

 

 

 

3.6.3.11.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Outside Iconography Term

Optional: Record an appropriate value from an outside source of iconographic terms.

 

 

 

3.6.3.11.5.2

 

 

Recording outside terms

Record the term verbatim from an outside source of iconography.

Ideally, the matching term from the AAT, TGN, ULAN, CONA, or the IA should also be linked, as described in the sections above.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.12

 

 

Outside Iconography Code

 

 

 

3.6.3.12.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the code or unique identifier for the subject in the cited iconographic source.

  • Examples
  • sh 85060359
  • 94L

 

 

 

3.6.3.12.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Any character in Unicode or numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.12.3

 

 

Sources
Standard reference work for the iconographic term.

 

 

 

3.6.3.12.4

 

 

Discussion

It is important to capture the unique number or alphanumeric code of the term from the source. The term itself will likely not be unique over time, and is not multilingual. It is the code that allows consistency and persistence of data.

 

 

 

3.6.3.12.5

 

 

RULES for Outside Iconography Code

 

 

 

3.6.3.12.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Outside Iconography Code

Required if applicable: If you record an outside term, it is critical to record the unique identifier. Record the code or unique identifier for the subject in the authority cited.

 

 

 

3.6.3.12.5.2

 

 

Recording the code

  • Cite the code exactly as represented in the authority, including punctuation and capitalization.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.13

 

 

Source

 

 

 

3.6.3.13.1

 

 

Definition
A link to the published work that provided the term used to index the depicted subject.

  • Examples
  • Iconclass 2100 Browser (2009-)
  • Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-)

 

 

 

3.6.3.13.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by the Source Authority.

 

 

 

3.6.3.13.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.13.4

 

 

Discussion

It is critical to cite the source of the outside iconography term. Without a reference to the source, the term is of very little use.

 

 

 

3.6.3.13.5

 

 

RULES for Source

 

 

 

3.6.3.13.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Source

Required if applicable: If an outside iconography term is included, it is required to link to a citation for the source.

 

 

 

3.6.3.13.5.2

 

 

Citing Sources

    For detailed instructions for creating citations, see Appendix C: Sources.

  • Examples

  • Brief title: Iconclass 2100 Browser (2009-)
    Full title: Iconclass 2100 Browser. The Hague: Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, 2009-. http://www.iconclass.org/rkd/9/ (24 August 2010).
    Source ID: 2000052084

  • Brief title: Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-)
    Full title: Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/ (12 August 2003).
    Source ID: 2000052652

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.14

 

 

Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.14.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of whether the outside iconography term is preferred or non-preferred in the source.

 

 

 

3.6.3.14.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    preferred
    non-preferred

 

 

 

3.6.3.14.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.14.4

 

 

Discussion

It is important to note if the term taken from the outside authority is a preferred term for that authority, or is instead a non-preferred see also reference.

 

 

 

3.6.3.14.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.14.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Preferred Flag

Required-default: Record an appropriate value from the controlled list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.14.5.1

 

 

Noting if the term is preferred or not preferred

  • Flag as preferred the term that is the entry term or primary heading for the iconography concept in the source, which may be indicated differently in authorties, dictionaries, and encyclopedia, or glossaries.

  • Other terms from the same source should be flagged as non-preferred for the source.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.15

 

 

Page

 

 

 

3.6.3.15.1

 

 

Definition
Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the term was found.

 

 

 

3.6.3.15.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode values or numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.15.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.15.4

 

 

Discussion

It is important to note the page or other location in the source where the term was found. Users should be able to refer to the source and verify the page or other context where you found the term.

 

 

 

3.6.3.15.5

 

 

RULES for Page

 

 

 

3.6.3.15.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Page

Optional: Optional but strongly recommended. Include the page number or other reference to where in the published work the term was found. If this is a unique identifier for the term, include it in the Code field as well.

 

 

 

3.6.3.15.5.2

 

 

How to record page

  • For pages, do not state "page" or "p." before the numbers. Use the following formats: e.g., 532, 45-53, 12 ff. List the entire number for both numbers in spans of pages (e.g., 691-693, NOT 691-3).

  • For full instructions, see Appendix C: Sources.

 

 

 

 

 

CONA ICONOGRAPHY AUTHORITY

Scope

The Iconography Authority (IA) includes proper names and other information for named events, themes and narratives from religion/mythology, legendary and fictional characters, themes from literature, works of literature and performing arts, and legendary and fictional places. Examples include events (e.g., U.S. Civil War (American History)), mythological characters (e.g., Venus (Greek and Roman mythology)), legendary places (e.g., Xibalba (Maya underworld)), iconographic narratives and themes (e.g., Adoration of the Magi (Christian iconography)), and literary themes (e.g., The Inferno, Dante).

The IA includes subjects not described by AAT (generic terms), TGN (geographic names), ULAN (names of people and corporate body), or CONA works.

The IA is linked to the Getty vocabularies. The IA is linked to other iconography sources, including Library of Congress authorities and Iconclass.

The IA has a thesaural structure. It includes equivalence, associative, and hierarchical relationships.

For an illustrated introduction, see Getty Iconography Authority: Introduction and Overview.

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

List of fields for the Iconography Authority

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.16

 

 

Iconography ID (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.16.1

 

 

Definition
Unique numeric identifier for the Iconography Authority record.

  • Example
  • 1000021

 

 

 

3.6.3.16.2

 

 

Values
System generated.

 

 

 

3.6.3.16.3

 

 

Sources
N/A.

 

 

 

3.6.3.16.4

 

 

Discussion

Unique, persistent numeric identifiers allow the IA records to be linked and tracked over time.

 

 

 

3.6.3.16.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography ID

 

 

 

3.6.3.16.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Iconography ID

Required-default: The number is system generated and may not be edited.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.17

 

 

Iconography Parent (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.17.1

 

 

Definition
The broader context(s) for the iconography record; parents refer to Hierarchical Relationships, which are broader/narrower, reciprocal relationships between records.

 

 

 

3.6.3.17.2

 

 

Values
Values are concatenated automatically by the system, using the preferred name, qualifier (if any), and appropriate indentation.

    Example

    Iconography Root
    ....Religion and Mythology
    ........Greek and Roman narratives
    ............Judgment of Paris

 

 

 

3.6.3.17.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources on the subject of iconography that provide background and context for hierarchical placement by the editor.

 

 

 

3.6.3.17.4

 

 

Discussion
As with all of the Getty vocabularies, each record is linked to its immediate parent by means of a numeric ID. The hierarchy is constructed through these links.

  • Hierarchical relationships form the structure of the Iconography Authority, even though the data may be displayed as a list.

  • The hierarchy in the Iconography Authority refers to the method of structuring and displaying the work records within their broader contexts. Relationships in the hierarchy are indicated with indentation.

  • The subdivisions of the IA are subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following facets provide the top level divisions of the IA. Each main level may have several subfacets.

      Literature
      Named Events
      Legend, Religion, Mythology
      Miscellaneous Allegory and Symbolism
      Miscellaneous Characters
      Miscellaneous legendary Places
      Miscellaneous Themes

  • Hierarchical relationships between records in the Iconography Authority are generally instance or whole/part (rather than genus/species).

  • The Iconography Authority is polyhierarchical, meaning that concepts can belong to more than one parent.

  • Hierarchical relationships are referred to by genealogical terms: child, children, siblings, parent, grandparent, ancestors, descendents, etc.
       

3.6.3.17.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography Parent

 

 

 

3.6.3.17.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Iconography Parent

Required: Link to the appropriate hierarchical level when adding a new Iconography Authority record.

 

 

 

3.6.3.17.5.2

 

 

Choosing the hierarchical placement

For each new concept added to the IA, choose the hierarchical placement based on the following descriptions.

  • Literature
    The Literature facet includes literary works that do not fit more conveniently in Legend, Religion, Mythology facet or as history. As of this writing, the Literature facet is divided into the following divisions.

    Literary characters: Included are named characters from literary, musical, and dramatic works. Examples are Don Quixote (Cervantes, Don Quixote de la Mancha) and Queen of the Night (Mozart, Magic Flute). Through associative relationships, link the character to the literary work in Related Iconographic Subject.

    For religious and mythological characters, place them in the Religion and Mythology facet. Historical characters should be included in ULAN.

    Literary fictional places: Included are legendary or fictional physical features, administrative geographic places, and legendary or fictional built works. An example is Middlemarch (England), the fictional place in the setting for George Eliot's 1872 novel Middlemarch. Through associative relationships, link the place to the literary work in Related Iconographic Subject.

    For religious and mythological places, place them in the Legend, Religion, Mythology facet. Historical places should be placed in TGN.

    Literary themes or narratives: Included are themes and narratives. An example is the tale of the lovers Angelica and Medoro, from Orlando Furioso by Ariosto. Through associative relationships, link the theme or narrative to the literary work in Related Iconographic Subject.

    For religious and mythological narratives, place them in the Legend, Religion, Mythology facet.

    Named written or performed works: Included are named written or performed works. Examples includeThe Odyssey by Homer; De arithmetica by Boethius; Fedra incoronata, a choreographic work; and The Bible as a literary work. Link authors and other creators of the literary work in ULAN through Related People and Corporate Bodies.

  • Named Events
    In the Named Events facet are included events having a proper name, including historical events, named natural disasters, and exhibitions. For generic terms referring to events, use the AAT rather than the IA.

    As of this writing, the Named Events facet is divided into the following subfacets.

    Prehistoric events
    : Includes named events related to human activity in the prehistoric era. Events placed here may also be linked to the hierarchical level for the geographic region where they occurred. For example, Settlement of the Americas may be linked to North and South America history, but also linked here as a Prehistoric event. For events occuring prior to human activity, place them under Named natural events facets.

    Ancient history: Includes named events related to human activity taking place in ancient history, in any location but particularly those that are unrelated to modern political-geographic designations. For localized ancient events, you may instead place them under the appropriate modern political-geographic subfacet elsewhere in the IA hierarchy.

    North and South American history: Includes named events taking place in North, South, or Central America. The subfacet is further divided, for example United States history and Pre-Columbian history.

    African history: Includes named events taking place in Africa. The subfacet is further divided by nation or area.

    Asian history: Includes named events taking place in Asia. The subfacet is further divided by nation or area; for example, Chinese history and Indian history.

    European history: Includes named events taking place in Europe. The subfacet is further divided by nation or area.

    Global historical events: Includes named events related to human activity and taking place over several nations. An example is World War II. For events that took place in one area, but should have a part/whole relationship to a global event, make the preferred parent the specific location and a second parent the global event (e.g., Battle of Maastricht took place in the Netherlands, but is part of World War II). For ancient events taking place over multiple areas, prefer Prehistoric events or Ancient events facets. For named events that primarily affect nature, even if created by humans, place the concept in the Named natural events facet.

    Named natural events: Includes named events that were natural in origin, or that affect nature. An example is the Eruption of Krakatoa (1883, Dutch East Indies). For generic terms referring to events or processes that are natural or that affect nature, such as global warming, use the AAT.

    Named exhibitions: Includes exhibitions that have proper names and where art and other works of cultural heritage were exhibited. The exhibition may be indexed as a generic event exhibition, with location and date applicable to the Work in the Location area of a Work record. The proper name of the exhibition should be linked in the Specific Subject area of the Work record.

    For exhibitions that recur, if the location and coverage of the exhibition is basically the same every year, do not necessarily make a separate entry for every year in which the exhibtion took place (e.g., International Art Exhibition (Venice, Italy)). On the other hand, if the exhibition occurs less frequently and is located in a different place each time, often with a different focus, you may create a separate record for each exhibition (e.g., French Industrial Exposition (Paris, 1844)).

    Recurring holidays and seasons are recorded in the AAT, not in the IA.

  • Legend, Religion, Mythology
    The Legend, Religion, Mythology facet includes themes, narratives, characters, and places associated with the iconography of legend, religion, and mythology. Historical events are included in the Named Events facet.

    Concepts in this facet are numerous, given the rich heritage of depictions in the history of art. As of this writing, the facet is further divided into the following subfacets.

    Prehistoric iconography: Includes named iconographic subjects dating to prehistory. It may be divided into subfacets representing regions or cultures.

    Christian iconography: Includes named iconographic subjects from the Christian tradition. It is further divided into various subfacets, including Christian allegory and symbolism, Christian characters, Christian legendary places, New Testament narratives, and Other Christian narratives.

    Egyptian iconography: Includes named iconographic subjects from the ancient Egyptian tradition. It is further divided into subfacets Egyptian allegory and symbolism, Egyptian characters, Egyptian legendary places, Egyptian narratives.

    Greek and Roman iconography: Includes named iconographic subjects from the ancient Greek and Roman tradition. It is further divided into subfacets Greek and Roman allegory and symbolism, Greek and Roman characters, Greek and Roman legendary places, Greek and Roman narratives.

    Hindu iconography: Includes named iconographic subjects from Hindu traditions. It is further divided into subfacets Hindu allegory and symbolism, Hindu characters, Hindu legendary places, Hindu narratives.

    Buddhist iconography: Includes named iconographic subjects from Buddhist traditions. It is further divided into subfacets Buddhist allegory and symbolism, Buddhist characters, Buddhist legendary places, Buddhist narratives.

    Islamic iconography: Includes named iconographic subjects from Islamic tradition.

    Old Testament iconography: Includes iconography from the Hebrew Bible and first section of the Christian Bible. It is further divided into subfacets Old Testament allegory and symbolism, Old Testament characters, Old Testament legendary places, Old Testament narratives.

    Norse iconography: Includes mythology of the North Germanic people from Norse paganism and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. It is further divided into subfacets Norse allegory and symbolism, Norse characters, Norse legendary places, Norse narratives.

    Pacific Islander iconography: Includes iconography of the traditional cultures of the Pacific Islands. It is further divided into subfacets Pacific Islander allegory and symbolism, Pacific Islander characters, Pacific Islander legendary places, Pacific Islander narratives.

    Persian iconography:
    Includes the iconography of various belief systems of the area of ancient Persia, particularly the iconography of Proto-Indo-Iranian religion and Zoroastrianism, but also including Zurvanism, Mandaeism, and others. It is further divided into subfacets Persian allegory and symbolism, Persian characters, Persian legendary places, Persian narratives.

    Pre-Columbian iconography: Includes the iconography of various belief systems of the Pre-Columbian Americas. As of this writing, it is further divided into Maya and Aztec iconography and Southwestern Native American iconography, each of which has further subdivisions by allegory and symbolism, characers, legendary places, and narratives.

    Taoist iconography: Includes the iconography of Taoism. It may be further subdivided.

    Tribal African iconography: Includes the iconography of African traditional religions. It may be further subdivided.

  • Miscellaneous Allegory and Symbolism
    This facet includes named allegorical and symbolic subjects that do not fit into another facet. For generic terms referring to allegory or symbolism, use the AAT rather than the IA.

  • Miscellaneous Characters
    This facet includes named characters that are subjects but do not fit into another facet. An example is the allegorical portayal using human figures to represent the Four Winds.

  • Miscellaneous legendary Places
    This facet includes named legendary places that do not fit into History, Religion, and Legend facet or any other facet.

  • Miscellaneous Themes and Narratives
    This facet includes named themes and narratives that do not fit into the Literature facet, the Named Events facet, or the Legend, Religion, Mythology facet.

 

 

 

3.6.3.17.5.2

 

 

Placement in IA or another Getty vocabulary?

  • Person or corporate body
    ULAN contains records for people and corporate bodies depicted in the works, including the proper names of sitters and historical characters. For mythical or legendary characters, the works will be linked to characters in the IA.

  • Geographic places
    TGN contains for geographic locations depicted in the works, such as the proper names of cities or mountains. For legendary or fictional places, the works will be linked to the IA.

  • Generic terms
    AAT contains terms used for subjects that are described by generic terms rather than proper names (e.g., knight, moated castle, battlefield, horses).

  • Other works
    If a work depicts another work, the subject will be that other work in CONA. For example, if a drawing depicts a built work, the drawing will be linked to the separate built work record in CONA.

    Fictional built works may be included in the IA; this is contrasted to works planned by architects but not built, which are in CONA. The IA could contain records for fictional built works named in a literary work, for example.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.18

 

 

Broad Iconography Type (required)

 

 

 

3.6.3.18.1

 

 

Definition
A term indicating the general type of subject represented in the authority record.

  • Examples

    event/narrative
    character/person
    legendary place

 

 

 

3.6.3.18.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list; may be subject to occasional additions.

 

 

 

3.6.3.18.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.18.4

 

 

Discussion

An indication of the general type of subject represented in the IA record. The type of record, in combination with its hierarchical placement and other information in the record,

 

 

 

3.6.3.18.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.18.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Iconography Type

Required: It is required to classify the iconography authority record according to general types.

 

 

 

3.6.3.18.5.2

 

 

Choosing Iconography Type

    Choose an appropriate term based on the descriptions below.

  • Event/Narrative
    For named events, activities, and narrative stories (e.g., Adoration of the Magi (Christian iconography) and the Battle of Bull Run (United States history)).

  • Religion/Mythology/Legend
    General term for a subject that is not history, but from the realm of religion, myth, or legend. Used for such subjects when Event/Narrative, Literature, or Character/Person is not appropriate.

  • Literature
    For named works of literature or performance (e.g., Dante, Divine Comedy).

  • Character/Person
    For named people or beings who are included in the IA (e.g., Achilles (Greek legend), but not appropriate for ULAN.

  • Named Legendary Animal
    For fictional named animals (e.g., the Nemean Lion). In extremely rare cases, a fictional named plant may be included here. Named historical animals should be recorded in ULAN.

  • Legendary Place
    For named fictional or legendary places (e.g., the Maya underworld, Xibalba). Included are physical geography (e.g., fictional mountains) and administrative entities (e.g., fictional kingdoms).

  • Legendary Built Work
    For named legendary or fictional architecture or structures (e.g., the Norse hall of the afterlife, Valhalla). Not to be confused with planned but not executed built works, which belong in CONA as a work record. A fictional built work is one that is named in literature or another source, but not having plans, an architect, etc.

  • Allegory/Symbolism
    For allegorical or symbolic themes that have proper names (e.g., Triumph of Love over War). Generic allegorical and symbolic terms are in the AAT.

  • Root Record
    Used only for the top of the hierarchy, called the Iconography Root.

  • Facet
    Major subdivisions of the IA, located under the Root level.

  • Guide Term
    Used for subfacets, located under the facet level and used to organize the postable terms of the IA.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.19

 

 

Iconography Label (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.19.1

 

 

Definition
Concatenated string used to give a brief identification of the iconographic subject in a form intelligible to end users.

 

 

 

3.6.3.19.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and, if required, numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.19.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.19.4

 

 

Discussion

A label is a brief description of the iconographic subject, to be used in results lists and other displays of IA data.

While the Iconography_ID uniquely identifies the record from a systems perspective, the Label identifies the iconographic subject and distinguishes it from similar iconographic subjects for human readers in results lists and various other displays.

 

 

 

3.6.3.19.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography Label

 

 

 

3.6.3.19.5.1

 

 

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: The Editor cannot edit the Label directly. In VCS, it is created by the system from the descriptor of the iconography concept record and the parent string (a string of the preferred descriptors for its parents (see Parent Key above).

 

 

 

3.6.3.19.5.2

 

 

Elements of the Iconography Label

    Implementors should construct the Label using the following fields in the order indicated below.

    1. The record-preferred name of the iconographic subject (e.g., Shiva).

    2. The Qualifier/Descriptive Phrase in parentheses, if any (e.g., Hindu deity).

    3. The Iconography Type (e.g., Character/Person).

    4. The parent string, in ascending order. Include the immediate parent and the Facet name; abbreviate intervening level names as necessary using elipsis (e.g., Hindu characters, … Legend, Religion, Mythology).

    5. The Iconography ID, in square brackets (e.g., 1000021).

    • Example
    • Shiva (Hindu deity) (Character/Person; Hindu characters, … Legend, Religion, Mythology) [1000021]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.20

 

 

Iconography Name (required)

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.1

 

 

Definition
The names used to refer to the subject, including the preferred form of the name, which is the form most commonly found in published sources. It also includes synonyms and variant names for the subject.

  • Examples
    Adoration of the Magi
    Adorazione dei Magi
    Hercules
    Herakles
    Ganesh
    Reclining Buddha
    Bouddha couché
    涅槃仏
    Olouaipipilele
    Virgin Hodegetria
    World War I
    WWI
    Coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte
    American Civil War
    Death and the Miser
    Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and, if required, numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.4

 

 

Discussion
It is important to include names identifying the subject and facilitating effective retrieval. One name is flagged as preferred, to be used for display in results lists and other contexts. All names are equal in retrieval.

All iconography names in the record should be exact synonyms, interchangeable (as warranted by sources) in describing the subject concept
If, based on warrant by sources, iconography name B (a Used For) does not have exactly the same meaning as iconography name A (a Descriptor), make a separate record for iconography name B.

The language of the name should be included, so that users who prefer other languages may find the name they require.

The sources of the name should be included. If the name derives from an existing subject authority, such as Iconclass or the Library of Congress Authorities, include the unique identifier of the subject for that authority so that links may be made between those sources and the the IA. (The unique identifier is recorded in the Page field, as described below.)

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography Name

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Iconography Name

Required: It is required to record at least one name - the preferred name, which is the name or term used most often in scholarly literature to refer to the subject. Record one or more terms, names, appellations, or other identifying phrases for the subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5.2

 

 

What is an iconography name?

  • Unique concepts only
    Note that the iconography record must stand for a unique, definable subject concept.

    All iconography names in the record should be exact synonyms, interchangeable (as warranted by sources) in describing the subject concept.

    If a related subject name has a different meaning in authoritative sources, create a second record for the second subject concept and use qualifiers for both homographs.

  • Warrant for names
    Iconography names should be found in authoritative published literature or affirmed by an authoritative source, such as a scholar on a specialized topic.

    For a source to be used for a name, the name must be used or described in the source in the same way as intended in the IA.

    Also see information about sources at Name Sources below.

    When there is no source: If no source is available, names may be constructed, as described below.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5.3

 

 

Form and syntax

  • Record a brief, concise word or phrase referring to the topic. Do not use a long descriptive phrase. If a source, such as Iconclass, uses a long phrase for the topic, for the IA name, isolate the core words or phrase that uniquely and concisely describe the subject topic.

  • Record proper names with initial capitals.

  • For the names of events or narrative subjects, use title case for English names. Follow standard rules of capitalization for other languages.

  • Avoid abbreviations for the preferred name (e.g., Saint John the Apostle).

  • Include common abbreviations in variant names to provide additional access points (e.g., St. John the Apostle).

  • Use diacritics as appropriate. Use Unicode.

  • Express the name in natural order, typically not in inverted order.

    Exceptions for preferred names may exist if the natural order form of the name would cause a descriptive word rather than a primary word to appear first in the string (e.g., Angels, Host of rather than Host of Angels).

  • Avoid initial articles (e.g., Argonaut Series rather than The Argonaut series).

  • Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax in IA names across the database where possible.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5.3

 

 

Preferred name

  • Record-preferred name
    For the record-preferred name, use a name or term in English (e.g., Adoration of the Magi rather than the Italian Adorazione dei Magi).

    Languages: Terms in other languages will also be flagged, so that users may choose the language they prefer for displays.

    Note that, in some cases, the name most often used in English for a subject is in another language rather than English; if there is no English equivalent for a subject, use a name in the appropriate language (e.g., Ecce Homo).

  • Choosing among sources
    To select a preferred name, consult the recommended sources.

    The preferred name should be the name in English used most often to refer to the subject in authoritative scholarly works and standard general reference works on history, iconography, or other pertinent topics.

    If the name does not appear in authoritative or scholarly literature on the subject, choose the name used most often in the literature of art history or other professional literature in English (e.g., Hercules or Coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte).

    For names that are not found in authoritative sources, construct a preferred name (see below).

    Express the preferred names in the form that would be best used to index the subject in alphabetical lists, as described in the section above.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5.4

 

 

Variant names

  • Synonyms
    Include all synonyms for the subject. All variant names should be synonyms, as established by authoritative warrant.

  • Published variants
    Include all variant names that appear in published sources and represent significant differences in form or spelling, variants that differ in diacritics and punctuation, name inversions, and other variations.

  • Multilingual
    Include names in other languages. Flag the language so that it may be used for displays and in retrieval.

    • Example
      [the following list contains names that all refer to the same concept]
    • Three Magi
      Three Kings
      Three Wise Men
      Tre Re Magi

  • Historical names
    Most names in the IA will be Current names for the subject topic. However, if there are historical names for the iconography concept, provided it is indeed an exact synonym, it may be included and flagged Historical Flag = historical.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5.5

 

 

Names from other subject authorities

  • Check established authorities
    For subjects within the scope of established subject authorities, including Iconclass and the Library of Congress Authorities, add the names provided in those authorities.

  • Note the source: In the Sources area of the IA record, note the source for the name and in the Page field, the unique identifier within that authority. This is required to allow linking between subject authorties.

 

 

 

3.6.3.20.5.6

 

 

How to construct a name for a subject

    If the name of the subject cannot be verified in authoritative sources, construct a name.

  • Use words from description in a source
    Extract or recombine words and phrases describing the subject from authoritative sources. For example, in a text on French history, the author may refer to the "coronation of Louis XIV..."

  • Proper names
    Include proper names of people and places as appropriate.

  • Concise and specific
    Construct a name for the subject that is concise and specific. Avoid long phrases and sentence-like structure.

  • Meaning of the subject in context
    Create a name that is relatively unique and unambiguous within the context of related subjects (e.g., Coronation of Louis XIV; not Coronation of the King).

  • Formatting the name
    For constructed subject names in English, capitalize the first word and all nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and subordinate conjunctions; use lower case for articles, coordinate conjunctions, and prepositions, unless they are the first word of the title. For titles in other languages, follow capitalization rules of that language.

    For the preferred name, avoid abbreviations.

    Follow other rules for Form and Syntax as described above.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.21

 

 

Iconography Term ID (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.21.1

 

 

Definition
Unique numeric identifier for the name in the Iconography Authority record.

  • Example
  • 5000014

 

 

 

3.6.3.21.2

 

 

Values
System generated.

 

 

 

3.6.3.21.3

 

 

Sources
Not applicable.

 

 

 

3.6.3.21.4

 

 

Discussion

Unique, persistent numeric identifiers allow the IA names to be linked and tracked over time.

 

 

 

3.6.3.21.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography Term ID

 

 

 

3.6.3.21.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Iconography Term ID

Required-default: The number is system-generated and may not be edited.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.22

 

 

Sequence Number (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.22.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the sort order for the names of the iconographic subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.22.2

 

 

Values
Numeric, 1 through n.

 

 

 

3.6.3.22.3

 

 

Sources
The cataloger should determine the logical sequence of names.

 

 

 

3.6.3.22.4

 

 

Discussion
Most IA records have 1 to 8 names. If you need to add more than 15 names, consult your supervisor.

 

 

 

3.6.3.22.5

 

 

RULES for Sequence Number

 

 

 

3.6.3.22.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Sequence Number

Required-default: For the name in position number 1, use the record-preferred name.

 

 

 

3.6.3.22.5.2

 

 

How to sequence the subject names

  • Number the names in sequence. Do not skip numbers. Arrange the names in a logical order.

  • The name in sequence number 1 must be the overall record default Preferred name.

  • After the Preferred name, list other names grouped by language or another logical order.

  • Position all historical names, if any, at the bottom of the sequence, after all of the current names.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.23

 

 

Preferred Flag (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.23.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of whether the name is preferred or non-preferred for the iconography authority record.

 

 

 

3.6.3.23.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    preferred
    variant

 

 

 

3.6.3.23.3

 

 

Sources
Editors should determine which name is preferred, bases on common usage in authoritative sources.

 

 

 

3.6.3.23.4

 

 

Discussion
Every IA record must have one preferred name to use as a default in displays. This is referred to as the record-preferred name. In addition, for each language there may be a preferred name, allowing users to choose a name other than the record-preferred name for displays.

 

 

 

3.6.32.23.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.23.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Preferred Flag

Required-default: Record an appropriate value from the controlled list, indicating if this is the preferred name or a non-preferred variant name for the iconographic subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.23.5.2

 

 

Flagging the preferred name

  • The name at sequence number 1 is automatically flagged preferred by the system. If this is not correct, change the Preferred Flag to variant and alter the sequence numbers accordingly.

  • The preferred subject name should be a brief name that is warranted by common usage in authoritative sources in English.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.24

 

 

Other Flags

 

 

 

3.6.3.24.1

 

 

Definition
Flags designating the kind or type of subject name.

 

 

 

3.6.3.24.2

 

 

Values
Controlled by an extensible list..

 

 

 

3.6.3.24.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.24.4

 

 

Discussion
Other flags are necessary for flagging certain characteristics of the subject name, as when it is a constructed name rather than a name having been found in a source.

[As of this writing, Other Flags are not yet included in the IA fields.]

 

 

 

3.6.3.24.4

 

 

RULES for Other Flags

 

 

 

3.6.3.24.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Other Flags

Optional: For many subjects, it is recommended to include Other Flags when applicable.

 

 

 

3.6.3.24.5.2

 

 

List of Other Flags

    Choose a flag as necessary, based on the definitions below.

  • undetermined: Do not use this flag. Reserved for problematic loads. If no flag applies, leave the field blank.

  • not applicable: Do not use. Reserved for problematic data loads, guide terms, etc.

  • former: For names of the subject that were formerly used, but are no longer in use.

  • original: For the original name of the subject, which is now known by another name.

  • translated: For the name of a subject that has been translated into another language by an expert translator or a published source.

  • constructed: For the name of a subject that has been constructed by the cataloger, when the subject topic cannot be found as a name in published sources.

  • abbreviated: For an abbreviation for the name of a subject (e.g., WWII).

  • full name: For the full name of a subject, used when there is also an abbreviated or brief name, or for a variant name when the preferred name has been shortened because the full name is too long.

  • brief name: A brief name for the subject, shorter than a full name.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.25

 

 

Term Type (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.25.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the type of name, to allow the authority to be compliant with standards for thesaurus construction, or to distinguish nouns from adjectival forms of names.

 

 

 

3.6.3.25.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    undetermined
    not applicable
    descriptor
    alternate descriptor
    used for term

 

 

 

3.6.3.25.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.25.4

 

 

Discussion
Term type for IA names borrows the same types as used by the AAT, defined by thesaurus standards.

Each language may have one descriptor. Alternate descriptors are alternate syntactical expressions of the descriptor. Within one language, all other names are used for terms.

 

 

 

3.6.3.25.5

 

 

RULES for Term Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.25.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Term Type

Required-default: If there is only one name for the subject in a language, this is the Descriptor for that language. If other names exist for that language, adjust term types as necessary.

 

 

 

3.6.3.25.5.2

 

 

Choosing Term Type

    Select an appropriate term type for each subject name based on the definitions below.

  • undetermined
    Do not use. Reserved for problematic data loads.

  • not applicable
    Do not use. Reserved for facets and data loads.

  • descriptor
    The descriptor should be the name in the order expected in alphabtetical lists. Typically this is the natural order form of the name, but occasionally it may be an inverted form.

    The descriptor is the name that will be used by default in displays for a given language. The preferred term for a language should be a Descriptor; every record should have a descriptor for each language.

  • alternate descriptor
    If the name is in the same language but has a different grammatical form or syntax than the descriptor, flag it as an Alternate Descriptor. In the IA, alternate descriptors are typically the natural order form of a name in the rare event that the descriptor is an inverted form.

  • used for term
    For all names within a given language thatare not descriptors or alternate descriptors, flag them as used for terms.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.26

 

 

Qualifier / Descriptive Phrase

 

 

 

3.6.3.26.1

 

 

Definition
Word or phrase used as necessary to provide clarification or disambiguation.

  • Examples

  • daughter of Laomedon
  • daughter of Oedipus

 

 

 

3.6.3.26.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters, and if necessary, numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.26.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.26.4

 

 

Discussion
Although this field is called "qualifier," it is not a qualifier according to the definition of thesaurus standards, where a simple word or phrase is used to disambiguate homographs. In thesaurus standards, a qualifier should not be used to describe or define the term.

In the IA, the Qualifier / Descriptive Phrase field indeed contains a short descriptive phrase used to identify the subject in results lists. It may also disambiguate homographs, but its primary purpose is to describe and identify.

The qualifier / descriptive phrase is generally displayed with the preferred name in parentheses, often with the Iconography Type and the hierarchical parents.

 

 

 

3.6.3.26.5

 

 

RULES for Qualifier / Descriptive Phrase

 

 

 

3.6.3.26.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Qualifier / Descriptive Phrase

Optional: For all subjects, it is recommended to include a descriptive phrase to identify the subject name in results lists and other displays.

 

 

 

3.6.3.26.5.2

 

 

When to include a Qualifier / Descriptive Phrase

  • Homographs
    If the name is a homograph for another name in the IA, add a qualifier.

    • Examples
    • Antigone (daughter of Laomedon)
    • Antigone (daughter of Oedipus)

  • Descriptive phrases
    For most names in the IA, add a short descriptive phrase based on the following guidelines.

    Characters: For human or animal characters, use the religious, mythological, literary, or other context, also repeating the role/attribute that has been linked from the AAT Relationships.

    • Examples
    • Anubis (Egyptian, diety)
    • Beatrice (literary character, Dante's Divine Comedy)

    legendary Places: Include geographical or cultural context, and brief description of the nature of the place.

    • Example
    • Elysium (Greek, place of aferlife)

    Narratives and events: Include a broader context and date, if applicable.

    • Examples
    • Battle of Muye (Chinese history, ca.1046 BCE)
    • Fall of the Rebel Angels (Old Testament iconography)

    Literature: Include a repetition of the AAT role/attribute for the type of literary work, the author, and date of authorship.

    • Example
    • Jane Eyre (novel, Charlotte Brontë, 1842)
    • Decretum Gratiani (canon law, Gratian, 12th century)

    Allegory and symbolism: Include a brief generic description of the theme.

    • Example
    • Fortitude (allegorical figure)

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.27

 

 

Iconography Part of Speech

       

3.6.3.27.1

   

Definition
Indicates the category into which the Iconography name would be placed relative to its normal function in a grammatical context.

       
3.6.3.27.2    

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list.

    Undetermined
    Noun
    Adjectival/Possessive
    Phrase
    Not Applicable
       

3.6.3.27.3

   

RULES for Iconography Part of Speech

       

3.6.3.27.3.1

   

Minimum Requirement

Optional: Part of Speech is optional, but recommended.

       

3.6.3.27.3.2

   

How to choose Part of Speech

  • Choose part of speech flags based on the following definitions:
       

 

3.6.3.28

 

 

Language

 

 

 

3.6.3.28.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the language of the name.

    Examples

    English
    Italian
    Chinese (transliterated Pinyin)

 

 

 

3.6.3.28.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list, mapped to the AAT language hierarchy. In the future, the language will be linked directly to the AAT.

 

 

 

3.6.3.28.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.28.4

 

 

Discussion
The language of the subject name should be recorded, when known. The addition of terms in various languages improves retrieval of subject concepts; labeling the language allows for identification of terms for display by users preferring one language over another.

 

 

 

3.6.3.28.5

 

 

RULES for Language

 

 

 

3.6.3.28.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Language

Optional: It is optional, but strongly recommended, to record the language of the name, if known from authoritative sources.

 

 

 

3.6.3.28.5.2

 

 

Indicating the language of subject name

    Indicate the appropriate language for every subject name, as far as your expertise, time, and editorial priorities allow.

  • Uncertainty
    Label a language only if your source indicates what it is. Do not guess.

    If you are uncertain regarding a specific language, use the broader designation. For example, if your source does not specify if the title is Ancient Latin, Medieval Latin, or Liturgical Latin, but you are positive that it is Latin, use the more general designation Latin.

  • Transliterated names
    For many languages in the language list, there are different designations for the transliterated language and the language expressed in its native alphabet , logography, syllabary, or other writing system. Choose the designation for transliteration when appropriate.

    For example, if the title is in Chinese characters, but you are not sure of the type of script, use the more general 72550/Chinese designation. If you know that the script is traditional script rather than simplified, use the more specific 72551/Chinese (traditional).

    Likewise, if you are entering a transliterated Chinese title, but you do not know the transliteration method, use the language designation 72581/Chinese (transliterated). If you know that it is a Pinyin transliteration, use the more specific 72583/Chinese (transliterated Pinyin).

    Translation projects: If you are working for an authorized translation project, guidelines regarding translations of subject terminology will be similar to those for translating AAT terms. See Contributing Translations.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.29

 

 

Preferred Flag (required-default)

 

 

 

3.6.3.29.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of whether this name is the preferred name for this subject in a given language.

 

 

 

3.6.3.29.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    preferred
    non-preferred

 

 

 

3.6.3.29.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.29.4

 

 

Discussion
The term labeled preferred for a given language is intended for users who prefer to index with or display the subject terminology in a language other than English.

 

 

 

3.6.3.29.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.29.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Preferred Flag

Required-default: Record an appropriate value from the controlled list indicating if the name is preferred or variant in a given language for this iconographic subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.29.5.2

 

 

How to choose the preferred term for a language

  • Choose as preferred the term for the subject concept that is used most often in authoritative sources in the language.

  • Do not flag a language preference unless one of the following is true: a) you have literary warrant in an authoritative source or b) you are an expert in the given language.

  • The default for this field is Undetermined. If you have enough information to know, change the flag to Preferred the most commonly used form of the term in a particular language; flag the other terms in that language as Non-preferred.

  • The preferred term for any language must have the Term Type descriptor.

  • There may be only one preferred term per language.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.30

 

 

Name Source (required)

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the source used as warrant for this name.

  • Examples

  • Iconclass 2100 Browser (2009-)
  • Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-)
  • Garnier, Thesaurus iconographique (1984)
  • Magill, Cyclopedia of Literary Characters (1990-1998)

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by the Source authority.

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.4

 

 

Discussion
This section discusses both which sources should be preferred for the IA name and other information, and how to format the references to the sources.

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.5

 

 

RULES for Name Source

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Name Source

Required: Record the source(s) used for the name.

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.5.2

 

 

How to choose the subject term in a source

  • In order to be stated as having derived from a source, the name should have been transcribed precisely, retaining the diacritics, capitalization, and punctuation of the source.

  • There are a few exceptions, where the formatting of the source is specialized, and contradicts form and syntax rules of the IA.

  • Transcribe the name of the subject as found in an authoritative source.

  • Prefer the most authoritative, up-to-date sources available, which may include the following, arranged according to preference:

Standard general reference sources
- major authoritative dictionaries and encyclopedia
- LC Subject Headings

Other authoritative sources
- other authoritative subject thesauri and controlled vocabularies (e.g., Iconclass)
- textbooks on art history, history, or other relevant topics

Other material on pertinent topics
- books, journal articles, and newspaper articles
- archives, historical documents, and other original sources (for historical terms only)

Other sources
- repositories' databases, Websites, or catalogs; certain subject names are used as titles of works of art, thus a survey of titles may be useful
- databases of other contributors
- articles or databases on museum or university Web sites

  • Standard general sources include the following, arranged in order of preference:

    Iconographic Themes
    - Garnier, François. Thesaurus iconographique : système descriptif des représentations. Paris: Léopard d'or, 1984.
    - Iconclass (most useful for Western religious and mythological subjects) http://www.iconclass.nl/.
    - Narkiss, Bezalel, et al. Index of Jewish Art: Iconographical Index of Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts. Jerusalem and Paris: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities: Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes, 1976-1988.
    - Roberts, Helene E. ed. Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998.
    - Stutley, Margaret. Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.

    legendary Characters
    - Magill, Frank N. Cyclopedia of Literary Characters. Revised Ed. Edited by A.J. Sobczak. Pasadena, California: Salem Press, 1990-1998.
    - Seymour-Smith, Martin. Dent Dictionary of Fictional Characters. London: Orion Publishing Co., 1991.

    Events

    - Grun, Bernard. Timetables of History: Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. 3rd ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.
    - Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary. 2nd ed. Thompson, Sue Ellen and Helene Henderson, compilers. Detroit, Michigan: Omnigraphics, 1997.
    - Kohn, George Childs. Dictionary of Wars. Revised ed. New York: Facts on File, 2000.
    - Library of Congress Subject Headings. Library of Congress Authorities. [online] Washington, DC: Library of Congress. http://authorities.loc.gov/.
    - Mellersh, H.E. L. and Neville Williams. Chronology of World History. 4 vols. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 1999.

 

 

 

3.6.3.30.5.3

 

 

Citing sources

  • Link to sources already created in the Sources authority file.

  • Create new source records as necessary. For detailed instructions for creating citations, see Appendix C: Sources.

    • Examples
    • Brief title: Iconclass 2100 Browser (2009-)
      Full title: Iconclass 2100 Browser. The Hague: Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, 2009-. http://www.iconclass.org/rkd/9/ (24 August 2010).
      Source ID: 2000052084

    • Brief title: Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-)
      Full title: Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/ (12 August 2003).
      Source ID: 2000052652

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.31

 

 

Source Preferred Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.31.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of whether this name was the preferred or entry-form name for this iconographic subject in the source.

 

 

 

3.6.3.31.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    preferred
    non-preferred

 

 

 

3.6.3.31.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.31.4

 

 

Discussion

It is important to note if the term taken from the outside authority is a preferred term for that authority, or is instead a non-preferred see also reference.

 

 

 

3.6.3.31.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Source Flag

 

 

 

3.6.3.31.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Preferred Source Flag

Required-default: Record an appropriate value from the controlled list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.31.5.2

 

 

Noting if the term is preferred or non-preferred

  • Flag as preferred the term that is the entry term or primary heading for the iconography concept in the source, which may be indicated differently in authorties, dictionaries, and encyclopedia, or glossaries.

  • Other terms from the same source should be flagged as non-preferred for the source.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.32

 

 

Page

 

 

 

3.6.3.32.1

 

 

Definition
Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the name was found.

    Examples
    54
    23 ff.
    7:128

 

 

 

3.6.3.32.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode values or number.

 

 

 

3.6.3.32.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.32.4

 

 

Discussion

It is important to note the page or other location in the source where the term was found. Users should be able to refer to the source and verify the page or other context where you found the term.

 

 

 

3.6.3.32.5

 

 

RULES for Page

 

 

 

3.6.3.32.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Page

Optional: Optional but strongly recommended. Include the page number or other reference to where in the published work the term was found. If this is a unique identifier for the term in an authority, include it in the Code field as well.

 

 

 

3.6.3.32.5.2

 

 

How to record page

  • For pages, do not state "page" or "p." before the numbers. Use the following formats: e.g., 532, 45-53, 12 ff. List the entire number for both numbers in spans of pages (e.g., 691-693, NOT 691-3).

  • For full instructions, see Appendix C: Sources.
       

 

3.6.3.33

 

 

Descriptive Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.1

 

 

Definition
Additional information about the iconographic topic, including a discussion of its history, particularly noting any controversies or issues, presented in a form to be displayed to end users.

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.4

 

 

Discussion

The Descriptive Note should contain a single coherent statement covering some or all of the salient characteristics and historical significance of the subject. Topics covered in the note may include a discussion of the subject and its history and derivation.

It includes brief scholarly discussions and clarification of other fields.

  • As a supplement to information recorded in controlled fields, free-text notes, such as the descriptive note, allow for the nuance and detail necessary to capture a precise description. This makes it possible to include very specific details that cannot be described in other elements.

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.5

 

 

RULES for Descriptive Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Descriptive Note

Optional: Record a single coherent statement covering some or all of the salient characteristics and historical significance of the iconographic subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.5.2

 

 

How to write a descriptive note

  • Brevity and clarity
    The descriptive note should be relatively brief and concise. It is intended to clarify issues and touch upon the major relevant points of the subject; it is not a comprehensive encyclopedia entry.

    Include a brief description of the salient facts, actions, and events having to do with the subject. Note how the iconographic subject is generally depicted in art, if pertinent, but avoid including the names of specific works of art or architecture.

    The length may vary from a few sentences to a paragraph of around 250 words.

  • Form and syntax
    Use natural word order.

    You may use phrases or complete sentences, but always begin the note with capital letter and end it with a period.

    Use sentence case (not all capitals or title case). Capitalize proper names.

    Avoid abbreviations.

    Write the note in English. Names and other words in foreign languages may be used within the note when there is no commonly used English equivalent. Use diacritics as appropriate.

 

 

 

3.6.3.33.5.3

 

 

Examples of Descriptive Notes for subjects in the IA

  • Examples

    [for the personification of Charity (personification of virtue)]
  • Descriptive Note: Personification, usually in the form of a human female, representing benevolent giving. In a theological sense, she can represent the theological virtue by which we love God above all things and our neighbor as ourselves. She may be portrayed nursing infants or prisoners.

    [for the Adoration of the Magi (Life of Christ )]
  • Descriptive Note: Episode in the Life of Christ in which the three magi travel from the East, following a star, to worship the newborn Jesus Christ. The magi are represented as three or more astrologers or wise men with Phrygian caps in early depictions; later they are represented as three kings, representing the three ages of man and the then-known three continents (Africa, Asia, and Europe). They bring three gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, representing Christ's kingship, his divinity, and his sacrifice (myrrh being an embalming spice). The kings are often accompanied by a retinue of servants and animals representing the exotic realms from which they have traveled. In general, this feast symbolizes the recognition of Jesus as king by the gentiles and by the earthly rulers of the world. In the Western church calendar, this event is commemorated as the Feast of the Epiphany on January 6. In the Orthodox Church calendar, it is commemorated on the same day as the Feast of the Nativity, December 25. The story originates in the Biblical Gospel of Matthew (2:1-11), although it was much enhanced.

    [for the American Revolution]
  • Descriptive Note: Refers to an insurrection of 13 of Great Britain's North American colonies, from 1775 to 1783, which resulted in political independence and the formation of the United States of America. Satirical images of the American grievances against Britain appeared in the years before war broke out. Depictions of themes and battles of the war itself first appear in the late 1770s, during the period when the war was still taking place. Romanticized depictions of the American victories and of theme of independence were popular through the 19th century, and often include George Washington and other major American protagonists.

    [for Quetzalcóatl (Feathered Serpent)]
  • Descriptive Note:The Feathered Serpent is one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. Representations of a feathered snake occur as early as the Teotihuacán civilization (3rd - 8th centuries CE) on the central plateau, where Quetzalcóatl seems to have been conceived as an earth (vegetation) and water deity associated with the rain god Tlaloc. When Nahua-speaking (Toltec) tribes from the north arrived in the area, Quetzalcóatl's cult underwent significant changes, including an emphasis on blood sacrifice. The later Toltec culture (9th - 12th centuries), centered at the city of Tula, emphasized war and human sacrifice linked with the worship of heavenly bodies. In Aztec times (14th - 16th centuries) Quetzalcóatl was honored as the patron of priests, goldsmiths, craftsmen, and the calendar and books. He was also identified with the planet Venus, and was the god of the morning and evening star; thus he was the symbol of death and resurrection. In addition to being represented as a plumed serpent, Quetzalcóatl was often depicted as a man with a beard. He may be represented with his companion Xolotl, a dog-headed god. He may appear as Ehécatl, the wind god, when he is shown wearing a mask with two protruding tubes (through which the wind blew) and a conical hat typical of the Huastec tribe of northeastern Mexico. His representations may be associated with circular temples, which were believed to please Ehécatl because they offered no sharp obstacles to the wind.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.34

 

 

Iconography Display Date

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.1

 

 

Definition
The date or range of dates during which the iconographic subject is relevant or was portrayed in art.

    Examples
    from 3rd century CE
    25 June 1876
    Aztec era (flourished ca.1400-1520 CE)

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.4

 

 

Discussion
Use this field to record dates associated with the subject.

Dates may be estimated to a year, range of years, or century. Expressions of uncertainty and nuance should be included.

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography Display Date

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Iconography Display Date

Optional: Record the dates during which an iconographic subject was relevant. Include nuance and expressions of uncertainty as necessary.

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.5.2

 

 

How to record display date

  • Record a year, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date associated with the subject.

  • Specificity
    Record the date with the greatest level of specificity known, but expressed in a way that conveys the correct level of uncertainty or ambiguity to the end user (e.g., ca. 1820).

    Do not assume or guess; use only dates as found in authoritative sources.

  • Format and syntax
    Use natural word order.

    Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names.

    Avoid abbreviations, except with ca. (for "circa"), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., record 1780-1795, not 1780-95).

    Use ordinal numbers (e.g., 17th) and Arabic numbers (e.g., 1959), as appropriate.

  • Language
    Express words and phrases in the language of the catalog record (the IA is in English), except in rare cases where no English-language equivalent exists or where the foreign term is most commonly used (e.g., with the name of a period). Use diacritics as required.

  • Calendar
    Use the proleptic Gregorian calendar (the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction).

    If dates are expressed according to systems other than the Gregorian calendar (such as Julian, Napoleonic, or Islamic calendars), this fact should be clearly designated (e.g., 1088 AH (1677 CE)) notes the year in the Islamic calendar with the year in the Gregorian calendar (Common Era) in parentheses). Indexing in Start Date and End Date will use numbers representing years in the Gregorian calendar.

  • BCE, CE, Before Present
    Use BCE (Before Common Era) to indicate dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

  • For dates after the year 1, generally do not include the designation CE (Current Era), except where confusion may occur because a) the span of dates begins BCE and ends CE (e.g., 75 BCE-10 CE) or b) the date is within the first few centuries of the Current Era.

    Do not use BC (Before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini).

    For very ancient works, artifacts, and in certain other disciplines where BCE is not appropriate (e.g., for Paleolithic artifacts), use the phrases years ago or before present to reflect your source's indication of age relative to the present rather than an absolute date. Do not abbreviate these designations (e.g., do not use y.a. or B.P.).

 

 

 

3.6.3.34.5.3

 

 

Dates for various types of subjects

    Estimate display dates based on the criteria below. For further discussion of Start Date and End Date, which are used for indexing the Display Date, see below.

  • For events
    For named events, for display date use the date when the event took place. Start Date and End Date should represent the year or span of years during which the event took place.

  • For narratives
    For legendary, religious, or mythological narratives, or for characters or fictional places associated with the narrative, for display date use the dates when the narrative is first known or depictions were first seen. Start Date and End Date should represent the span of years during which the narrative was or is depicted. For narratives that are still today depicted, End Date should be 9999.

  • For literary themes
    For literary works, characters, and events associated with the literary work, for display date use the date of creation or publication. Start Date and End Date should represent the year or span of years during which the work was written or first published. If the literary work is republished at later dates, this is irrelevant to dating here; the year or span of years for Start and End Dates represent the creation or first publication of the literary work.

  • For themes and symbolic subjects
    For named themes or symbolic subjects, for display date use the dates when the subject is first known or depictions were first seen. Start Date and End Date should represent the span of years during which the symbolism or themes are relevant; if themes are still in use in new creations today, End Date should be 9999.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.35

 

 

Start Date and End Date

 

 

 

3.6.3.35.1

 

 

Definition
The earliest date and latest possible dates when an iconographic subject was first established or was used.

  • Example
  • Start Date: -1250 End Date: 1500

 

 

 

3.6.3.35.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled format. Numbers are used to represent years, with negative numbers representing dates BCE.

 

 

 

3.6.3.35.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.35.4

 

 

Discussion
Display dates should always be carefully expressed so as to not misrpresent known information about dating. However, end users do not see Start and End Dates, thus you may estimate for retrieval purposes in these fields.

Estimating dates: For uncertain dates for the subject, the start date and end date should be estimated broadly using available information.

Dates represented as broad historical periods, such as Medieval, could be indexed with years representing the broadest span applicable for that period. If there is great uncertainty, an estimate could be made to the nearest century or span of 100 years, indexing start date and end date as the beginning and end of the 100-year span (e.g., 15th century would be indexed as start date = 1400, end date = 1499).

For a subject, such as an event, that is a single year, both start date and end date should be the same year (e.g., for a painting created in 1674, start date = 1674, and end date = 1674). The day and month may be expressed in the display date, but the year is entered in start date and end date.

 

 

 

3.6.3.35.5

 

 

RULES for Start Date and End Date

 

 

 

3.6.3.35.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Start Date and End Date

Required if applicable: If an Iconography Display Date is recorded, it is required to index it with start and end dates.

 

 

 

3.6.3.35.5.1

 

 

How to record start date and end date

  • Form and syntax
    Record numbers to represent years in the start and end date fields, without commas or other punctuation. An exception is the dash/hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers for dates BCE.

    Use four digits for most years. Dates BCE may require more than four digits (e.g., -10000).

  • Calendar
    Always record years for indexing in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, even if another calendar was referenced in the Display Date.

  • Start date and end date record the broadest estimated span of time applicable to the subject.

    If the subject is still relevant in the current era, use end date 9999.

  • Estimate broadly
    End users do not see the start and end dates, thus you may estimate broadly in these fields.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.36

 

 

Related Iconographic Subject: IA to IA

 

 

 

3.6.3.36.1

 

 

Definition
Associative relationships within the Iconography Authority. The identification of any iconographic subjects that have important ties or connections to the iconographic subject being cataloged, excluding hierarchical whole/part relationships

  • Examples
  • First Shenandoah Valley Campaign (American Civil War, Historical Events)
  • Joseph (New Testament, Christian Iconography)
  • Hindu gods (Hindu Iconography)
  • Labors of Hercules (Story of Hercules, Greek heroic legends, Classical Mythology)

 

 

 

3.6.3.36.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by linking to another record in the Iconography Authority.

 

 

 

3.6.3.36.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.36.4

 

 

Discussion
Linking IA subject records through associative relationships is one of the most important features of the IA, making it powerful for research and discovery.

 

 

 

3.6.3.36.5

 

 

RULES for Related Iconographic Subject

 

 

 

3.6.3.36.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Related IA Subject

Optional: Identify any subject related to the subject being cataloged where there is an important associative relationship. Associative relationships are to "see also" references, and exclude whole/part hierarchical relationships

 

 

 

3.6.3.36.5.2

 

 

When to link to a related IA subject

  • Link one IA subject to another IA subject when the relationship is direct and important, but not hierarchical.

  • Link only subjects for which the relationship is constant or usual. Do not link subjects that are only occasionally related in depictions.

  • Link subjects that may be confused with each other or have overlapping meaning as distinguished from or meaning/usage overlaps with or another appropriate relationship type.

  • Characters linked to narratives or literary works
    For fictional characters, link them to records for the narrative or literary work to which they belong. For example, the magus Balthasar (Three Magi, Christian iconography) is linked to the narrative Adoration of the Magi (Christian iconography) as an actor.

  • Characters linked to each other
    If characters are related to each other, link them. For example, Oedipus (Greek and Roman characters) may be linked to his daughter, Antigone.

  • Narratives and events linked to each other
    If two narratives or events are directly related to each other, but the relationship is not hierarchical, link them here through associative relationships.

  • Legendary places linked
    If a legendary or fictional place is related to a narrative or character, link them.

  • Allegory and symbolism linked
    If an allegory or symbolic subject is directly linked to a narrative, fictional place, or character, link them.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.37

 

 

Relationship Type: IA to IA

 

 

 

3.6.3.37.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the type of relationship between the iconographic subject and another iconographic subject.

  • Examples

  • predecessor of
    associated with

 

 

 

3.6.3.37.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.37.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.37.4

 

 

Discussion
Relationship type explains and defines the relationship between the two IA records. The relationship is reciprocal; it appears in both linked records.

 

 

 

3.6.3.37.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Type: IA to IA

 

 

 

3.6.3.37.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Type

Required if applicable: If an associative relationship is added, it is required to record a Relationship Type. Record an appropriate value from the controlled list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.37.5.2

 

 

List of relationship types: IA to IA

  • The list of relationship types is extensible and subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following are the IA to IA relationship types.

5000

related to

5000

5001

formerly related to

5001

5003

associated with

5003

5005

creator of

5006

5006

creator is

5005

5100

distinguished from

5100

5110

meaning/usage overlaps with

5110

5210

focus of

5211

5211

has as focus

5210

5250

attribute of

5251

5251

has as attribute

5250

5301

manifestation of

5302

5302

has as manifestation

5301

5310

predecessor of

5311

5311

successor of

5310

5410

related event is

5411

5411

is related event for

5410

5500

actor is

5501

5501

is actor for

5500

5510

relative of

5510

5520

consort/spouse of

5520

5530

child of

5531

5531

parent of

5530

5535

sibling of

5535

5540

ruler is

5541

5541

has as ruler

5540

5551

partner/companion of

5551

5552

member of

5553

5553

has as member

5552

5810

location of

5811

5811

has as location

5810

5825

topic is

5826

5826

has as topic

5825

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.38

 

 

Relationship Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.38.1

 

 

Definition
Note containing additional information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.38.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.38.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.38.4

 

 

Discussion
The IA Relationship note may refer to dates of affiliation, conditional circumstances of affiliation, or other information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.38.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.38.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Note

Optional: Record a relationship note as required.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.39

 

 

Related Generic Concept: IA to AAT

 

 

 

3.6.3.39.1

 

 

Definition
Information about a generic concept related to the subject at hand, including roles or other terms that characterize significant aspects of the iconographic subject.

  • Examples

  • deity
  • warrior
  • freedom
  • Christmas (Christian holidays)

 

 

 

3.6.3.39.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a link to the AAT.

 

 

 

3.6.3.39.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.39.4

 

 

Discussion
Linking IA subject records to the AAT is one of the most important features of the IA, making it powerful for research and discovery.

The goal of indexing these aspects of the subject is to allow access to the material by characteristics other than name. For example, the subject Ganesha could be indexed by terms indicating who Ganesha is and what he symbolizes: Hindu god, good fortune, elephant, good nature, strength, ritual circumambulation.

 

 

 

3.6.3.39.5

 

 

RULES for Related Generic Concept: IA to AAT

 

 

 

3.6.3.39.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Related Generic Concept

Optional: Optional but strongly recommended.

 

 

 

3.6.3.39.5.2

 

 

When to link to an AAT term

  • Link the IA subject to the AAT when the relationship is direct and important

  • Major roles and attributes
    Record a term or terms that characterize the most role or significant characteristics of the subject.

    Include all terms that refer to the following: physical characteristics (e.g., elephant), characteristic roles (e.g., savior, king ), major functions (e.g., castle), activities (e.g., farming), purpose (e.g., transport), political anatomy (e.g., duchy), symbolic significance (e.g., charity), or other major characteristics.

  • Omit trivial characteristics
    Record terms only if they refer to the most significant or major characteristics of the subject, or otherwise are deemed critical for retrieval.

    Do not try to describe the subject using these terms; use the Iconography Authority Descriptive Note to describe the iconographic subject.

  • Subject in general
    Link subjects to AAT terms only where the relationship is constant or usual. Do not link to AAT terms that are only occasionally related in depictions of the subject.

    Record generic terms that characterize significant aspects of the subject in general. These are not characteristics of only one particular depiction of the subject (which is recorded in depicted subject for the work); instead, they should be general characteristics that will aid retrieval of all works that portray a given subject, no matter what the particular depiction in any single given work.
  • Form of term
    In the current IA system, you may link only to the subject_id of AAT, not to terms within the AAT. [In future, when linking to individual terms is allowed: For singular iconographic subjects, link to the singular noun in the AAT (the AD).]

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.40

 

 

Relationship Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.40.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the type of relationship between the iconographic subject and the generic concept (AAT term).

    Examples
    attribute is
    culture/religion is

 

 

 

3.6.3.40.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible controlled list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.40.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.40.4

 

 

Discussion
Relationship type explains and defines the relationship between the IA subject record and the linked AAT term. The relationship appears only in the IA record, not in the AAT. However, in retrieval, the full set of AAT terms for the concept and all data links are available to retrieve IA subjects.

 

 

 

3.6.3.40.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Type: IA to AAT

 

 

 

3.6.3.40.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Type

Required if applicable: If a link to the AAT is added, it is required to record a Relationship Type. Record an appropriate value from the controlled list

 

 

 

3.6.3.40.5.2

 

 

List of relationship types: IA to AAT

  • The list of relationship types is extensible and subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following are the IA to AAT relationship types.

    6000 related to
    6001 formerly related to
    6010 role/attribute
    6100 distinguished from
    6110 meaning/usage overlaps with
    6201 affiliated/associated with
    6301 culture/religion is
    6311 is personification of
    6315 literary work in
    6317 topic is
    6320 counterpart is

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.41

 

 

Relationship Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.41.1

 

 

Definition
Note containing additional information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.41.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.41.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.41.4

 

 

Discussion
The IA Relationship note may refer to dates of affiliation, conditional circumstances of affiliation, or other information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.41.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Note: IA to AAT

 

 

 

3.6.3.41.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Note

Optional: Record a relationship note as required.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.42

 

 

Related Place: IA to TGN

 

 

 

3.6.3.42.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of a geographic place related to the iconographic subject at hand.

  • Examples
  • Jerusalem (Yerushalayim district, Israel) (inhabited place)
  • Oe-yama (Kyoto prefecture, Kinki, Japan) (mountain)
  • Baetica (Roman Empire) (province)

 

 

 

3.6.3.42.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a link to TGN.

 

 

 

3.6.3.42.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.42.4

 

 

Discussion
Linking IA subject records to the TGN is one of the most important features of the IA, making it powerful for research and discovery. In addition to the variant names and power of the links within TGN, TGN could be linked to a GIS, to allow the placement of subjects on maps.

 

 

 

3.6.3.42.5

 

 

RULES for Related Place: IA to TGN

 

 

 

3.6.3.42.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Related Place

Optional: Make links between the iconographic subject and geographic places. Link only places that have a direct and important relationship to the iconographic subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.42.5.2

 

 

When to link to a TGN term

  • Important places
    Link the IA subject to the TGN when the relationship is direct and important. For example, if a historical event or mythological narrative took place in a named location, link it to TGN.

  • Omit trivial references
    Record TGN names only if they refer to the most significant or major places related to the subject. Omit casual or minor references to places.

  • Form of name
    In the current IA system, you may link only to the subject_id of TGN, not to names within the TGN. [In future, when linking to individual names is allowed: Link to the current or historical name that most closely matches the reference in the subject.]

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.43

 

 

Relationship Type: IA to TGN

 

 

 

3.6.3.43.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the type of relationship between the iconographic subject and the place.

  • Examples

  • located in
    born in
    ruler of

 

 

 

3.6.3.43.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list, subject to frequent additions.

 

 

 

3.6.3.43.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.43.4

 

 

Discussion
Relationship type explains and defines the relationship between the IA subject record and the linked TGN name. The relationship appears only in the IA record, not in the TGN. However, in retrieval, the full set of TGN names for the place and all data links are available to retrieve IA subjects.

Only to places that exist or have existed are within scope for TGN. For mythological places, make a record in the CONA Iconography Authority, and link to it via an associative relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.43.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Type: IA to TGN

 

 

 

3.6.3.43.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Type

Required if applicable: If a link to the TGN is added, it is required to record a Relationship Type. Record an appropriate value from the controlled list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.43.5.2

 

 

List of relationship types: IA to TGN

  • The list of relationship types is extensible and subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following are the IA to TGN relationship types.

    7000 related to
    7001 formerly related to
    7100 distinguished from
    7101 associated with
    7110 meaning/usage overlaps with
    7310 located in
    7320 born in
    7321 died in
    7350 flourished/active in
    7360 ruler of
    7370 participant was

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.44

 

 

Relationship Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.44.1

 

 

Definition
Note containing additional information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.44.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.44.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used, including data from the repostory of the work.

 

 

 

3.6.3.44.4

 

 

Discussion
The IA relationship note may refer to dates of affiliation, conditional circumstances of affiliation, or other information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.44.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.44.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Note

Optional: Record a relationship note as required.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.45

 

 

Related Person or Corporate Body: IA to ULAN

 

 

 

3.6.3.45.1

 

 

Definition
An identification of people or corporate bodies associated with the iconographic subject.

  • Examples
  • Washington, George (American president, 1732-1799)
  • Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius (Roman general, ca. 63-12 BCE)

 

 

 

3.6.3.45.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a link to ULAN.

 

 

 

3.6.3.45.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.45.4

 

 

Discussion
Linking IA subject records to the ULAN is one of the most important features of the IA, making it powerful for research and discovery. In addition to the variant names and power of the links within ULAN, ULAN has links to Library of Congress Autorities, VIAF, and other resources.

 

 

 

3.6.3.45.5

 

 

RULES for Related Person or Corporate Body: IA to ULAN

 

 

 

3.6.3.45.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Related Person / Corporate Body

Optional:
Link only to people or groups of people (corporate bodies) who are directly related to the iconographic subject.

 

 

 

3.6.3.45.5.2

 

 

When to link to a ULAN name

  • Important people
    Link the IA subject to ULAN when the relationship is direct and important. For example, if a historical event had an important protagonist, link it to ULAN. If there is a relationship between a literary character in the IA and a real person in ULAN, such as between the protagonist Beatrice in Dante's Divine Comedy and the real person Beatrice Portinari in ULAN, link them here.

  • Omit trivial references
    Record ULAN names only if they refer to the most significant or major actors related to the subject. Omit casual or minor references to people.

  • Form of name
    In the current IA system, you may link only to the subject_id of ULAN, not to names within the ULAN. [In future, when linking to individual names is allowed: Link to the current or historical name that most closely matches the reference in the subject; for example, if the event has to do with the person when cardinal, link to that name rather than his name as pope.]

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.46

 

 

Relationship Type

 

 

 

3.6.3.46.1

 

 

Definition
An indication of the type of relationship between the iconographic subject and the person or corporate body.

  • Examples
    protagonist was
    founder was

 

 

 

3.6.3.46.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list, subject to frequent additions.

 

 

 

3.6.3.46.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.46.4

 

 

Discussion
Relationship type explains and defines the relationship between the IA subject record and the linked ULAN name. The relationship appears only in the IA record, not in the ULAN. However, in retrieval, the full set of ULAN names for the person and all data links are available to retrieve IA subjects.

Only people who exist or have existed are within scope of ULAN. For mythological figures, and for ancient religious people who have actually existed, record them in the CONA Iconography Authority and link through associative relationships.

 

 

 

3.6.3.46.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Type: IA to ULAN

 

 

 

3.6.3.46.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Type

Optional: If a link to ULAN is added, it is required to record a Relationship Type. Record an appropriate value from the controlled list.

 

 

 

3.6.3.46.5.2

 

 

List of relationship types: IA to ULAN

  • The list of relationship types is extensible and subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following are the IA to ULAN relationship types.

    8000 related to
    8001 formerly related to
    8100 distinguished from
    8110 meaning/usage overlaps with
    8111 identified as
    8310 actor is
    8320 protagonist is
    8340 ruler is
    8511 author is
    8512 patron is
    8513 dedicatee is
    8514 translator is

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.47

 

 

Relationship Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.47.1

 

 

Definition
Note containing additional information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.47.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.47.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.47.4

 

 

Discussion
The IA relationship note may refer to dates of affiliation, conditional circumstances of affiliation, or other information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.6.3.47.5

 

 

RULES for Relationship Note

 

 

 

3.6.3.47.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Relationship Note

Optional: Record a relationship note as required.

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.48

 

 

Iconography Source

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.1

 

 

Definition
References to bibliographic sources or unpublished sources for the Descriptive Note and other information recorded in this Iconography Authority record, particularly for information other than names (which are linked in a separate instance of the Source Authority).

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by a link to the Source Authority.

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.4

 

 

Discussion
It is important to note the published or other sources of information in the IA record. The names have a separate link to Sources, but here in this field, link any other sources that were used for information other than names.

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.5

 

 

RULES for Iconography Source

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Iconography Source

Required if applicable: If you have written a descriptive note, it is required to cite the sources here.

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.5.2

 

 

When to cite sources

It is required to list the sources used for the Iconography Authority Descriptive Note here. Link to other sources used for fields other than the nameNote that it is required to check for the subject in Iconclass and the Library of Congress Authorities. The unique code or controll number mapped for these sources should be recorded here in the Page field. If the source is already linked in names, it need not be repeated here.

 

 

 

3.6.3.48.5.3

 

 

Citing sources

    For detailed instructions for creating citations, see Appendix C: Sources.

    • Examples

    • Brief title: Iconclass 2100 Browser (2009-)
      Full title: Iconclass 2100 Browser. The Hague: Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, 2009-. http://www.iconclass.org/rkd/9/ (24 August 2010).
      Source ID: 2000052084

    • Brief title: Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-)
      Full title: Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/ (12 August 2003).
      Source ID: 2000052652

 

 

 

 

3.6.3.49

 

 

Page

 

 

 

3.6.3.49.1

 

 

Definition
Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the information was found.

 

 

 

3.6.3.49.2

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode values or numbers.

 

 

 

3.6.3.49.3

 

 

Sources
The same authoritative sources that are appropriate for the rest of the record may be used.

 

 

 

3.6.3.49.4

 

 

Discussion
It is important to note the page or other location in the source where the descriptive note or other information was found. Users should be able to refer to the source and verify the page or other context where you found the information.

Sources for names of subject are recorded separately, but they may be the same sources as recorded here.

 

 

 

3.6.3.49.5

 

 

RULES for Page

 

 

 

3.6.3.49.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Page

Optional: Optional but strongly recommended. Include the page number or other reference to where in the published work the term was found. If this is a unique identifier for the term, include it in the Code field as well.

   

 

 

  Examples of Iconography Authority records

   

 

   

   

   

   

       

1"Required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set, but should be changed by the cataloguer as necessary.


Last updated 6 April 2016
Document is subject to frequent revisions




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