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Cultural Objects Name Authority Online
3. Editorial Rules, continued
 

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.6.2

 

Physical Characteristics, Culture, Provenance

   Included in this chapter

 

3.6.2.1

   

Display Materials (required)

     

3.6.2.1.1

   

Definition
An indication of the substances or materials used in the creation of a work, as well as any implements, production or manufacturing techniques, processes, or methods incorporated in its fabrication, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance.

    • Examples

    • oil on canvas
      gelatin silverprint
      tempera and gilding on panel
      marble
     

3.6.2.1.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

This field is a note field intended to express ambiguity and nuance. However, it may be concatenated from fielded data, if necessary.

       

3.6.2.1.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative and scholarly sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.1.4

 

 

Discussion
This field supplies a description of the technique, materials, media, and support used in the creation or alteration of the work. Ambiguity and nuance may be recorded.

For example, for a drawing described as pen and brown ink and black chalk on paper, pen is the instrument, ink and black chalk are the media, and paper is the support.

  • Technique encompasses the instruments and methods used in the application of materials.

  • Materials are the substances of which the work is composed. In many forms of art, a distinction is made between materials used as the media, and materials used as the support.

  • Medium is the material applied to the support.

  • Support is the surface upon which media have been applied.
       

3.6.2.1.5

 

 

RULES for Display Material

       

3.6.2.1.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required: Record the materials, matter, or substances used to create a work, and the processes, techniques, and implements used to apply or form the materials, as appropriate.

  • When necessary, clarify the relationship between the materials and the techniques used to apply them.

  • If this field is concatenated from fielded data rather than being written by catalogers, arrange it in a manner that is easy for end users to read.
     

3.6.2.1.5.2

   

Form and syntax

  • In most cases, express terms for materials and techniques in the singular form. Where appropriate, use the plural form of the term instead of the singular.

  • Use terminology that reflects the characteristics of the work being cataloged. For example, if several feathers have been applied as a material, use the plural term feathers (e.g., beaded leather band with three eagle feathers).

  • Do not use abbreviations. For example, avoid b&w, but prefer black and white.

  • Use lower case except when a material is distinguished by a proper noun (e.g., Carrara marble) or is known by its brand name (e.g., Formica™).

    Do not use brand names unless the material is known exclusively or primarily by that term.

  • Use natural word order.

  • List medium or media first, followed by the support (if pertinent). If there is no support, as with sculpture, list only the medium.

    Include techniques if they are unusual or important.

    If more than one technique or medium was used, list them in the sequence of their application, if known (e.g., graphite, pen and black ink, with gray wash) or the order of their importance or prominence (e.g., in the following example, the media of the image are more important than the squaring, which was applied first.

    • Examples

    • graphite on paper

    • soft paste porcelain

    • oil paint applied with palette knife, on linen canvas

    • red and black chalk and brown and reddish wash, squared in black chalk

    • tempera colors, gold leaf, and ink on parchment bound between original wood boards covered with brown leather

    • letterpress on pale yellow paper

    • egg-tempera paint with tooled gold-leaf halos on panel

    • iron, artificially oxidized

    • Carrara marble on granite base

    • limestone with sandstone flying buttresses

    • bearing masonry; marble, stone, wood, brick; cruciform in shape, with an elongated nave in the Latin cross form

    • steel frame with steel and glass panels
  • Nuance and uncertainty
    Express ambiguity, nuance, and uncertainty in display materials. As a second step, index all probable materials and techniques in Material Term; in the example below, you would index both oil paint and tempera paint, even though the repository states in display materials that it is not certain that tempera is used.
    • Example

    • oil (or oil and tempera) on panel

    If different materials are used in different areas, parts, or components of the work, clarify this in display materials.
    • Examples

    • soft paste porcelain with gilt mounts
    • folios: tempera on parchment; binding: leather over wood boards
  • Installation pieces
    For installation pieces, list the items used for the work in display materials. However, for indexing the component objects, link them as whole/part relationships to the record for the installation, rather than indexing them as materials. In this case, it is possible to have a display materials and no corresponding indexing materials terms. In the records for the children, it is possible to index the materials of which the component item is made.
    • Example

    • Volkswagen bus with mannequin and picnic basket

  • Groups
    For archival groups, sets of works, and other groupings, include the most important or most prominant materials. If items are catalogued separately and linked through hierarchical relationships to the group, the record for the broader context record could include a general materials statement, e.g., various materials.
    • Examples

    • albumen silver prints and negatives
    • silverplate, porcelain, and various other materials
    • various materials
     

3.6.2.1.5.3

   

Level of specificity

  • Known vs. unknown
    Express Display Materials only to the level of specificity known with certainty, as provided by the repository or another authoritative source. If the repository has contributed information, prefer the repository's materials statement over other sources. Do not include expressions of display materials based on the cataloger's observations.

  • Unavailable information
    If the materials are not provided by an authoritative source, enter the value unavailable in this field.

  • Index with Material Terms
    The Display Materials must be indexed with Material Terms, with few exceptions, such as when unavailable is the display materials or with installation pieces.

    There may be more or less information indexed than expressed in Display Materials.
       

 

3.6.2.2

   

Material Term (required)

       

3.6.2.2.1

   

Definition
For materials, the names of the material, matter, or substance used to create the work of art or architecture. For techniques/implements, the names of the means, method, process, or technique by which a material was used in the creation of a work, or the name of any implement or tool used to create the work using the process or technique.

  • Examples

    oil paint
    linen
    bronze
    brick
    fingerpainting
    palette knife
     

3.6.2.2.2

   

Values
Controlled by the AAT. Terms are derived primarily, but not exclusively, from the following facets and hierarchies in the AAT: Objects Facet: Tools and Equipment, Materials Facet, Activities Facet: Processes and Techniques.

       

3.6.2.2.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative and scholarly sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.2.4

 

 

Discussion

It is important to record the materials, matter, or substances utilized in creating the work of art or architecture.

Also, it is useful to record the techniques and methods by which materials are utilized in creating the work, particularly when the process or technique is not apparent from the materials used. For example, if paint was applied by a technique other than painting, such as sprinkling or fingerpainting, it may be important to record the technique.

If the implement is not apparent from the materials used, record the implement. For example, if oil paint was applied with a palette knife rather than the more typical paint brush, it would be especially important to record palette knife.

Also included may be other physical characteristics that cannot be indexed elsewhere, for example, floor plan types for architecture (e.g., Latin cross plan [building plan attributes]).

Work Type: If possible, avoid repeating the CONA Work Type, derived from the AAT Objects Facet: Visual Works, as a material, given that it is already recorded in another field. However, this may be necessary when work type terms are supplied by the contributor as materials. Materials are often implied in the work type; however, it is preferable to link to the material rather than simply implying it indirectly when possible.

 

     

Specificity and Exhaustivity
The Display Materials must be indexed with Material Terms. If more precise information is known than expressed in the display materials, it may be indexed here. Likewise, if information expressed in display materials cannot or should not be indexed, it may be omitted here.

Specificity refers to the degree of precision or granularity used (e.g., campanile rather tower). However, use terms only as specific as warranted by authoritative sources. As with all indexing, it is better to be accurate and broad rather than incorrect and specific.

Exhaustivity refers to the degree of depth and breadth that the cataloger uses, often expressed by using a larger number of indexing terms or a more detailed description. However, is it useful to index every material used in the creation of the work? If not, where do you draw the limit? Index the most important or most prevalent materials and techniques.

       

3.6.2.2.5

 

 

RULES for Material Term

       

3.6.2.2.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required: It is required to index the materials or techniques referred to in the Display Materials. Record terms indexing the materials and technique used to create the work or implements used to carry out the technique and apply media.

  • Examples

  • For materials

    wood
    glass
    marble
    poplar
    charcoal
    vernis Martin
    laid paper

    iron-gall ink
    bronze
    gouache
    canvas
    red chalk
    burlap sacking
    bone


  • For techniques/implements

    drawing
    painting
    sculpting
    lost wax
    stumping
    pricking

    stencil
    duplicating
    impasto
    assemblage
    pen
    pencil


       

3.6.2.2.5.2

   

Terms with associated flags

  • It is recommended, but not required, with each material term to use the associated fields and flags to explain and disambiguate the indexing terms when appropriate. Included are Material Role (e.g., medium, support), Material Flag (e.g., material or technique/implement), Material Extent (e.g., image, binding).

    These fields are discussed separately later in this chapter. An example appears below.

    • Example

    • Display Materials: tempera colors, gold leaf, and ink on parchment bound between pasteboard covered with modern red velvet

    • Material term: tempera [AAT 300015062]
          Role: medium
          Flag: material
          Extent: folio / leaf [31311]
      Material term: ink [AAT 300015012]
          Role: medium
          Flag: material
          Extent: folio / leaf [31311]
      Material term: gold leaf [AAT 300264831]
          Role: medium
          Flag: material
          Extent: folio / leaf [31311]
      Material term: parchment (animal material) [AAT 300011851]
          Role: support
          Flag: material
          Extent: folio / leaf [31311]
      Material term: pasteboard (paper) [AAT 300162474]
          Role: medium
          Flag: material
          Extent: binding [30352]
      Material term: velvet (fabric weave) [AAT 300133711]
          Role: medium
          Flag: material
          Extent: binding [30352]
       

3.6.2.2.5.3

   

Level of specificity

  • Use the most specific term indicated and known with certainty.

  • It is better to be broad and correct than specific and incorrect. Do not choose material terms based on your own observations. For example, if the repository or other authoritative source states that the material is wood but it looks to you like mahogany, do not index the material as mahogany. Use the more general term, wood (plant material).

  • The display materials need not correspond exactly to the indexed material terms. If additional information is available from the repository or another authoritative source, it could be indexed here. On the other hand, not all information in the display materials needs to be indexed.
       

3.6.2.2.5.4

   

Choosing the correct terms

  • Which AAT facets to use
    Choose terms for indexing materials, techniques, and implements from the following facets and hierarchies in the AAT if possible.

      Materials Facet
      Activities Facet: Processes and Techniques.
      Objects Facet: Tools and Equipment


    In certain exceptions, other facets may supply terms for indexing materials and techniques. For example, Physical Attributes Facet: <form attributes for architecture> may be used for types of architectural structures (e.g., Latin cross plan).
  • When the indexing terms match display materials
    If the display materials include terms that match the AAT well, index using these terms as closely as possible.

    Homographs: If there are homographs in the AAT, take care to choose the correct term. In the example below, the material would be bronze (metal), not the homograph bronze (visual work).
    • Examples

    • Display Materials: bronze
      Material term:
      bronze (metal)

    • Display Materials: marble with polychromy
      Material term:
      marble (rock)
      Material term: polychromy

    • Display Materials: stone, cast iron columns
      Material term:
      stone (worked rock)
      Material term: cast iron (iron alloy)

    • Display Materials: silk, velvet and satin
      Material term:
      silk (textile)
      Material term: velvet (fabric weave)
      Material term: satin (fabric weave)

  • Used For terms: Note that the display materials may include a Used For term instead of the Descriptor for the AAT concept. The material term for indexing will be the descriptor. All terms in the AAT record will presumably be used in retrieval.
    • Examples

      [in the display materials, the repository prefers to use a Used For term "raupō" from the AAT record; in the material term, you see the descriptor, "bulrush"]
    • Display Materials: wood and raupō
      Material term:
      wood (plant material)
      Material term: bulrush (material)

      [the display materials uses a UF for the AAT concept]
    • Display Materials: red sandstone
      Material term:
      ferruginous sandstone

  • When interpretation is required
    In many cases, some amount of interpretation will be required to index the Display Materials.

    Known conventions: Certain conventions in the expression of materials do not match directly to AAT terms. If provided from authoritative sources, index the materials and support intended, even though it is not literally referenced.
    • Example
      [in the display " oil on canvas," the word "oil" means "oil paint," not "oil (organic material)"]
    • Display Materials: oil on canvas
      Material term:
      oil paint (paint)
      Material term: canvas
  • Material or technique rather than work type
    If warranted by authoritative sources, index the material or technique rather than simply repeating the work type, when possible.
    • Example
      [the display materials repeats the Work Type for this record, and as a term is not a material or a technique; the material term was chosen to refer to the implied process]
    • Display Materials: albumen silver print
      Material term:
      albumen process
  • Material rather than technique
    In many cases, it is more useful to index the material rather than the technique. If the technique is common and presumed for the material, index the material rather than the technique, if warranted by authoritative sources. [The material and the technique are likely linked in AAT, and can ideally be utilized together in retrieval.]
    • Examples

      [the indexing term refers to the material "gilding," which is more useful in this case than the process "gilded," which only indirectly refers to the material]
    • Display Materials: gilded silver
      Material term:
      silver (metal)
      Material term: gilding (material)

    • Display Materials: tin-glazed earthenware
      Material term:
      earthenware
      Material term: tin glaze

  • Index the item at hand
    If the display materials refer to a separate work in the creation process (e.g., a negative), avoid indexing that separate work, if possible.
    • Example
      [the indexing term "calotype (positive print)" refers to the work being cataloged rather than to the separate work, the negative referenced in the display materials]
    • Display Materials: salted paper print from a calotype negative
      Material term:
      salted paper (photographic paper)
      Material term: salted paper process
      Material term: calotype (postive print)

  • Indexing the support
    Medium is any material of which the work is made; the support is the material to which media are applied. Index the support, if known.
    • Examples

      [watercolor paintings are typically on paper, so this support may not be included in the display materials; however, it may be indexed if authoritative sources indicate the support is paper]
    • Display Materials: watercolor
      Material term:
      watercolor (paint)
      Material term: paper (fiber product)

    • [index both primary and secondary supports; It may optionally also be flagged with the Role field and Extent field]
    • Display Materials: pastel and gouache on paper mounted on canvas
      Material term:
      pastels (crayons) [drawing maerial]
          Role: material
      Material term: gouache (paint)
          Role: material
      Material term: paper (fiber product)
          Role: support
      Material term: canvas
          Role: support
          Extent: 31901/secondary support

  • Indexing the materials for architecture
    For architecture, index materials and technique as specifically as is known. Include the technique, type of floor plan, and other pertinent information.
    • Examples

    • Display Materials: bearing masonry construction, limestone
      Material term:
      limestone
      Material term: bearing walls

    • Display Materials: wrought iron, exposed iron construction
      Material term:
      wrought iron (iron alloy)
      Material term: structural iron (metal products)
      Material term: exposed frame construction

    • Display Materials: centralized plan, stone construction
      Material term:
      stone (worked rock)
      Material term: bearing walls
      Material term: central plan (building plan attributes)

  • Indexing the materials for groups
    For groups, sets of items, albums, and other records representing multiple items, index the most important or the most prevalent materials.
    • Examples

      [for a traveling tea set comprising several items]
    • Display Materials: silver, porcelain, and various other materials
      Material term:
      silver (metal)
      Material term: porcelain (material)

      [in display materials worktypes are repeated here, so the technique is indexed rather than materials, which are not known with certainty from the repository's record]
    • Display Materials: blueprints and photographs
      Material term:
      blueprint process
      Material term: photography

      [in this example, the repository includes information about the count in the display materials; index the count of items in the Dimensions fields; "portfolio" is already included as the catalog level, and need not be indexed here, as it is not a material; "etchings," "engravings," "aquatints" are Work Types for this group]
    • Display Materials: 1 portfolio (10 prints): etching, engraving, aquatint, colored and black and white
      Material term:
      etching (printing process)
      Material term: engraving (printing process)
      Material term:
      aquatint (printing process)
      Material term:
      colored (perceived attribute)
      Material term:
      black-and-white (colors)

  • When items in groups are indexed separately
    If the items belonging to the group are cataloged in separate records and indexed separately, then linked as whole/part, the display materials may indicate various materials, and indexing material terms may be omitted for the group.

  • Indexing color: Color as part of the material name
    Certain materials and techniques have references to color in the actual term for the material. Examples are black chalk (a natural chalk containing carbon), red chalk (natural red clay drawing material), lead white (a synthetically produced white pigment containing lead), red-figure vase painting (image-making) technique. These are not colors per se, but part of the term used to identify the material.
    • Examples

    • Display Materials: terracotta, red-figure
      Material term: terracotta
      Material term: red-figure vase painting (image-making)

      ["black chalk" and "red chalk" are material names, but "cream-colored" is simply a descriptive color phrase modifying the material "laid paper"]
    • Display Materials: black and red chalks on cream-colored laid paper
      Material term: black chalk
      Material term: red chalk
      Material term: laid paper

  • Indexing color: Color as an attribute of the material
    Traditionally, repositories do not index the color of works or the materials used to create works. However, color may be indexed in materials, if desired.

    Color may be indexed, but in CONA it is not linked to the material to which it applies. Therefore, if there are two different materials which are two different colors, they cannot be distinguished in retrieval.
    • Example
      [the color "blue" is indexed, but not linked directly to the term "prepared paper"]
    • Display Materials: silverpoint on blue prepared paper
      Material term:
      silverpoint
      Material term: prepared paper
      Material term: blue (color)

  • Indexing color: Color as the depicted subject
    If color is an attribute of the subject, for example in Matisse's Red Studio, index color in Depicted Subject rather than in materials.

  • Living organisms: Term for material includes reference to living organism
    Certain materials have references to the source animal or plant in the actual term for the material. Examples are Japanese maple (wood), calf (leather), and mammoth ivory. As more translations of the AAT are added, the number of such terms may increase, due to the idiosyncracies of usage in the various languages.
    • Example
      [the plant species, Diospyros ebenum / Ceylon ebony, is referenced in the name of the wood derived from it; the two separate records for the species and the wood as material are linked through associative relationships in the AAT]
    • Display Materials: Ceylon ebony with brass fittings
      Material term: Ceylon ebony (wood)
      Material term: brass (alloy)

    When the material name is a bound term or otherwise included or implied in the AAT, the genus or species of plant or animal from which it is derived is linked through Associative Relationships in the AAT. It is not necessary to also link to the species or genus here in the material term field of CONA.
  • Living organisms: Term for material and term for living organism are indexed separately
    If in the AAT a material term cannot be found in which the source animal or plant is referenced in the term, add the animal or plant genus or species as a separate indexing term in this field in CONA.

    • Example
      [given that there is no term called "Polynesian dog hair" in the AAT, this material is indexed by two terms, "hair (material)" and the breed of dog]
    • Display Materials: muka fibre and Polynesian dog hair
      Material term:
      muka (fiber)
      Material term: hair (material)
      Material term: Polynesian dog (extinct dog breed)

    Why is dog hair not an AAT term? For many materials, the name of the material and the living organism from which it is derived would be an unbound compound concept in the AAT. For example, the hair of hundreds or thousands of animals could be used as a material; it is not practical to bind all possible combinations of animal-plus-hair as compound terms in a thesaurus.

  • Ambiguity regarding materials
    If the repository or another authoritative source indicates that there is uncertainty or ambiguity regarding the materials or techniques, this should be expressed in the display materials. If there are multiple possibilities for a material, and this is so-stated by the repository or another reliable source, multiple materials may be indexed.
    • Example
    • Display Materials: iron-gall ink or carbon black ink on paper
      Material term:
      paper (fiber product)
      Material term: iron-gall ink
      Material term: carbon black ink

    Caveat: Do not suggest multiple possibilities for materials based on your own observations as a cataloger. Use only the repository's information or other authoritative sources.
     
   

Example of display materials and indexing fields

     

 

3.6.2.3

   

Material Role

     

3.6.2.3.1

   

Definition
The role indicating if the terms refer to to a medium or support for materials, or to a technique or implement for techniques/implements.

     

3.6.2.3.2

   

Values
Controlled list, possibly extensible over time.

    medium
    support
    technique
    implement
    other
    not applicable
       

3.6.2.3.3

 

 

Sources
Use authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.3.4

 

 

Discussion
It may be important to distinguish between medium and support, or between technique and implement in order to clarify the significance and usage of the materials. It is particularly desirable to make the distinction when describing works to which a medium material is applied to a support material, because this difference may not be apparent from the medium terms themselves.

If this information is provided by the repository or other authoritative source, it should be included here.

       

3.6.2.3.5

 

 

RULES for Material Role

       

3.6.2.3.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Include appropriate flags for the indexed terms for materials and techniques/implements.

       

3.6.2.3.5.2

   

For Materials

  • Materials are the substances, matter, or materials of which a work is made; they are usually derived from the Materials Facet of the AAT.

  • If the Material Flag (discussed in the section below) is material, you may indicate if the term refers to a medium or support.

  • It is particularly important to distinguish between medium and support when cataloging works that are primarily two-dimensional, where materials are applied to a surface to create an image.

  • For works without a support: For works made of a material for which support is not a factor, the material is assumed to be a medium.

  • Medium
    Medium is the material of which the visual work is made. If there is a support, medium is the material used to create the image, which is applied to a support.

    In other words, the materials applied over the support to create an image are the media (e.g., oil paint or chalk).

    For sculpture, architecture, and other three-dimensional works, any material of which the work is made is called medium rather than support.

  • Examples of medium include the following: ink, paint, pastels, watercolor, charcoal, vernis Martin, mother of pearl, egg tempera, oil paint, gold leaf, iron gall ink, bronze, gouache, Conté crayon™, bone, cinnabar, amethyst, graphite.

  • Support
    Support is the surface upon which media have been applied.
    The support is the material onto the surface of which an image resides, as in paintings, drawings, prints, or photographs (e.g., wood, canvas, or paper).

    There may be primary and secondary supports (as with a sheet of paper mounted to cardboard).

  • Examples of support include the following: canvas, oak panel, laid paper, wove paper, wood, copper, glass, marble, poplar, linen, burlap sacking, Foam-Cor™, fiberglass.
     

3.6.2.3.5.3

   

For techniques/implements

  • If the material flag is Technique/Implement (discussed below), record an indication of whether the terms refer to the technique (e.g., drawing, engraving ) or the implement (e.g., pen, burin).

  • Technique
    Technique refers actually to any technique but also process by which a work was created.

  • Examples of technique include the following: pasting, casting, molding, carving.

  • Implement
    The implement is rarely indicated. Include implement only if it is unusual or not expected based on the material or technique.

  • Examples of implement include the following: burin, brush, palette knife, pen, pencil.
     

3.6.2.3.5.4

   

Additional values

  • Other
    Use the value other for clarification in situations where other roles have been used for materials, techniqe/implement, but this linked Material term is not a medium, support, technique, or implement. An example would be if the term were a floor plan (e.g., Material term: Basilican plan, Role: other).

  • Not applicable (N/A)
    Do not use this value. It is reserved for problematic loads.
     

 

3.6.2.4

   

Material Flag

     

3.6.2.4.1

   

Definition
Flag for distinguishing materials from techniques.

     

3.6.2.4.2

   

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    material
    technique/implement

       

3.6.2.4.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.4.4

 

 

Discussion
For some fields of study, and for practical information in managing a collection, it may be useful to be able to search on the variable material or technique/implement. The broader context of the term in the AAT often, but not always, indicates how the material or tool was used.

       

3.6.2.4.5

 

 

RULES for Material Flag

       

3.6.2.4.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Use a flag to indicate if the indexing term refers to a material or to a technique/implement.

       

3.6.2.4.5.2

   

Using the material flag

  • As appropriate, flag the indexing term based on the following definitions.

  • Materials
    Materials are physical materials of which the work is composed, including both the media and any support to which the media are applied (e.g., ink and paper are materials).

  • Techniques/implements
    Techniques and implements include the activities or tools used in the creation process (e.g., engraving is a technique and burin is an implement).
       

 

3.6.2.5

   

Material Extent

     

3.6.2.5.1

   

Definition
An indication of the specific part of a work composed of a certain material manufactured or created using a particular technique.

  • Examples

  • overall
    surface
    binding
     

3.6.2.5.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list, subject to frequent addtions.

       

3.6.2.5.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.5.4

 

 

Discussion
Works of art can be made up of many different parts, each composed of different materials, and made using different techniques. Recording the extent of the use of a particular material or technique clarifies this relationship .

The list of material extent is the same as that used for dimensions extent.

The list is extensible and subject to frequent additions. In fact, the potential number of terms in this list is so vast that it is anticipated in future the list may be replaced by a link to the AAT.

       

3.6.2.5.5

 

 

RULES for Material Extent

       

3.6.2.5.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: As necessary, record the part of the work to which the media or technique was applied.

       

3.6.2.5.5.2

   

When to use Material Extent terms

  • Include Extent when necessary for clarity or to distinguish materials on different parts of a work or for a complex work.

  • Omit Extent if the material term is clear as is.
       

3.6.2.5.5.3

   

List of terms for Material Extent and Dimensions Extent

Choose the most appropriate term from the controlled list. As of this writing, the following terms are included:

       

 

 

30001

undetermined

Do not use this term. It is used only for problematic data loads.

30002

not applicable

Do not use. Reserved for facets and problematic loads.

30201

base

For materials or dimensions of the base of a work, which may refer to the bottom in reference to dimensions, or to a base that is separate from the body of the work in reference to materials. For example, a marble figurine may be mounted upon a base made of wood.

30302

top

For materials or dimensions relating to the upper part of the work.

30203

mouth

Usually used with dimensions rather than materials, in reference to the diameter of the mouth of a vessel.

30204

foot

Usually used with dimensions rather than materials, in reference to the diameter or circumference of the foot of a vessel.

30205

body

Usually used with dimensions rather than materials, in reference to the diameter or circumference of the body of a vessel. May also be used with materials, when the body of a work is of a different material than the base or another part.

30206

shoulder

Usually used with dimensions rather than materials, in reference to a width or circumference taken at the shoulder of a vessel.

30207

neck

Usually used with dimensions rather than materials, in reference to a width or circumference taken at the neck of a vessel.

30240

building

For materials or dimensions relating to a built work, particularly used when there are additional materials or dimensions for other parts of a site or complex.

30300

object

For materials or dimensions relating to an object when other parts, such as a base, are measured separately or have different materials. For dimensions or materials applying to the overall work, including the base in this example, prefer overall.

30301

component (object part)

For materials or dimensions relating to one or more components, particularly when the entire object or several components are measured separately or have different materials. For dimensions or materials applying to the overall work, including the base in this example, use overall.

30302

item

For materials or dimensions relating to the primary item being cataloged, particularly to distinguish the information for materials or dimensions related to secondary piece or thing, such as a container.

30303

part (substance)

For materials or dimensions, including time, of portions of a whole, including substances in the context of being combined with other substances, portions of temporal works, or portions of literary or dramatic works. For parts of visual works and other objects, prefer component (object part).

30304

items

Used with groups, for materials or dimensions of items taken as members of a larger group. For example, the group may be measured in terms of running feet, while the items within the group may have average height x width x depth.

30305

volume

For materials or dimensions relating to a volume, to distinguish them from materials or dimensions for the pages or folios.

30306

group

Used with groups, for materials or dimensions, including counts, referring to the group as a whole.

30307

subgroup

Used with groups, for materials or dimensions, including counts, referring to a subgroup as a whole.

30308

boxes

Used with groups, usually with counts referring to the number of boxes in the whole group.

30350

container

Used with counts in dimensions for groups, referring to the number of containers in the whole group. Also, for materials or dimensions of the container in which a primary object is placed, to distinguish them from materials and dimensions related to the primary object. For example, if a fan (costume accessory) is considered the primary item, the leather case in which it is placed could be a container, having separate dimensions and materials.

30351

vessel

For materials or dimensions of vessel, usually in which primary objects are placed, to distinguish them from materials and dimensions related to the primary objects.

30352

cover

For dimensions, and sometimes materials, of the cover of a work, particularly when other portions of the work are measured separately or made of different materials. For books, use binding.

30353

binding

For books and other volumes, for the materials and dimensions of the binding as distinguished from materials or dimensions for the folios or pages.

30401

dome

For architecture, for materials and dimensions having to do with the dome as distinguished from the built work overall or other components.

30402

spire / tower

For architecture, for height or other dimensions, and sometimes for materials, having to do with the spire or tower as distinguished from the built work overall or other components.

30403

nave

For architecture, for dimensions, and sometimes for materials, having to do with the nave as distinguished from the built work overall or other components.

30404

transept

For architecture, for dimensions, and sometimes for materials, having to do with the transept as distinguished from the built work overall or other components.

30405

choir

For architecture, for dimensions, and sometimes for materials, having to do with the choir as distinguished from the built work overall or other components.

30406

ceiling

For architecture, for dimensions or materials, having to do with the ceiling as distinguished from the built work overall or other components.

30409

roof

For architecture, for dimensions or materials, having to do with the roof as distinguished from the built work overall or other components.

30601

footprint

For architecture and other monumental works, for the area or other dimensions of the space occupied by the work on the surface of the earth or another surface.

30602

frame

For the dimensions or materials of the frame, usually of a painting, drawing, or other two-dimensional work, as distinguished from the dimensions or materials of the work that is framed.

30603

site

For architectural complexes and other sites, the dimensions, and sometimes the materials, of the site as distinguished from dimensions or materials of the built works. For regular portions of land, use lots.

30901

image

Usually for two-dimensional works, for the dimensions, and sometimes the materials, of the image as contrasted to the full support on which the image is made. For example, a photograph may be printed on a piece of paper that is larger than the image. For prints having a platemark, prefer platemark, if known.

30903

illumination

Usually for illuminated manuscripts or other illuminated works, for materials and sometimes dimensions of an illumination as distinguished from materials and dimensions of the folio, sheet, or page, or of the volume as a whole.

30904

justification

For manuscripts and printed works, for the dimensions of the text on the page, which may be significantly smaller than the page or other support.

30904

text block

For manuscripts and printed works, for the dimensions of the part consisting of the stack of leaves or gatherings, exclusive of the binding.

30915

sculpture

For dimensions or materials for a sculpture, to distinguish it from materials or dimensions of a secondary work or space, such as the niche or other space in which the sculpture resides.

31101

knots

For rugs and other textiles, for counts of knots in dimensions. Occasionally may refer to materials.

31201

lid

For decorative arts, usually used for dimensions rather than materials.

31203

rim

For decorative arts, particularly for vessels, usually used for dimensions rather than materials.

31204

handles

For decorative arts, particularly for vessels or other containers, usually used for dimensions rather than materials.

31205

bowl

For decorative arts, particularly for vessels, usually used for dimensions rather than materials.

31230

lot

For architecture, for the area or other dimensions of a regular parcel of land upon which the built work or complex is located. Alternatively, for more irregular areas, use site.

31301

mat

For two-dimensional works, usually for dimensions, used to distinguish between the size of the mat and the work it protects.

31302

mount

For movable works, usually for dimensions, used to distinguish between the size of the housing or mounting material and the work it protects.

31311

folio / leaf

For manuscripts and other volumes, for the dimensions or materials of the folio or leaf, particularly when different than that of the full volume or its binding.

31501

overall

General extent term for materials or dimensions, used to distinguish between materials or dimensions for the object as a whole from that of a part or detail. Omit Extent when it is unnecessary.

31601

panel

For works painted on or comprising a wooden panel, often used to distinguish dimensions or materials of the panel as a support from those of the visual work applied to the support.

31602

pattern / design

For decorative arts or costume, for materials or dimensions of the applied or integral pattern or design, distinguished from dimensions or materials for the work overall.

31603

platemark

For prints, for dimensions of the impression left by the printing plate, distinguished from the dimensions of the sheet or other support.

31611

page

For books or other volumes, for materials or dimensions of the page, distinguished from dimensions or materials for the image or media applied to the page. For dimensions or materials of the leaf or folio, use folio / leaf (a page is one side of a folio; the distinction in usage often hinges on the numbering system of the book or volume).

31612

plate (illustration)

For materials or dimensions, including counts, of plate illustrations, often in a book. Plates are printed separately and attached to the page. For dimensions of the support of a daguerreotype, use support.

31613

print

For materials or dimensions, including counts, of prints as part of a group or volume. Alternatively, for photographs, used to distinguish the dimensions of the print from the negative from which it was made.

31614

negative

For photographs, used to distinguish the dimensions of the negative from those of the print.

31615

portfolio

For groups, usually used for a count in dimensions. For a portfolio of items, used to distinguish the dimensions of the portfolio from the items within the portfolio.

31801

repeat

For textiles, wallpapers, and other patterned works, used in dimensions for a count of the times a pattern is repeated. Often used with a Qualifier such as per foot.

31830

rooms

For architecture, used for the dimensions, including counts, of discrete interior spaces in the built work.

31901

secondary support

Usually for two-dimensional works, for the dimensions, and sometimes materials, of a support upon which a primary support is attached. For the primary support, use support.

31902

sheet

For two-dimensional works on paper, to distinguish between dimensions or materials of the sheet that is the support from those of the image or platemark.

31903

stories

For architecture, usually for counts and other dimensions of stories in a built work, but occasionally for materials.

31904

surface

General term for materials, and occasionally dimensions, relevant to the surface of the work rather than another portion of it.

31905

interior

For architecture and sometimes movable works, for materials or dimensions relevant to the interior of the work as distinguished from its exterior.

31906

exterior

For architecture and sometimes movable works, for materials or dimensions relevant to the exterior of the work as distinguished from its interior.

31911

support

For two-dimensional works, for the dimensions or materials of a support upon which the media, image, or other art work is applied. Use only for primary supports; for supports upon which the primary support is mounted, use secondary support.

32001

tessera

For mosaics and similar works, usually for counts of tessera in dimensions, used with a Qualifier such as per foot; occasionally used for materials.

32101

chain lines

For works on paper, for a count of chain lines in dimensions; used with a Qualifier such as per inch.

32102

laid lines

For works on paper, for a count of laid lines in dimensions; used with a Qualifier such as per inch.

       

 

3.6.2.6

   

Display Dimensions (required)

     

3.6.2.6.1

   

Definition
Information about the dimensions, size, or scale of the work, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. It may include the scale of the work. It may also include the number of the parts of a complex work, series, or collection.

  • Examples

  • 46.5 x 38 cm (18 3/8 x 14 15/16 inches)

  • 89 cm (35 inches) (diameter)

  • 48.3 (height) x 28.1 (diameter of mouth) cm (19 x 11 inches), 27.2 cm (10 3/4 inches) (diameter of body)

  • 179 leaves; text block: 26.6 x 19.1 cm (10 1/2 x 7 7/16 inches), oak covers: 27.3 x 19.8 cm (10 3/4 x 7 7/8 inches)

  • 43.59 m (143 feet) (diameter of dome); 43.59 m (143 feet) (interior height of dome from floor)

  • 152 items; various dimensions
     

3.6.2.6.2

   

Values
Free-text field; Unicode characters and numbers.

       

3.6.2.6.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.6.4

 

 

Discussion
Dimensions are an important element of the physical characteristic of the work. It is important to maintain clear and consistent measuring and recording techniques.

The characteristics of various works may require different kinds of dimensions. For example, when measuring a coin, weight is as important as diameter. For a painting, however, height and width are often sufficient. For a video or film, running time or length is the most important measurement. "Structural dimensions," such as warp and weft, textile or wallpaper pattern repeats, the spacing of chain lines on a piece of paper, or the weight of a piece of sculpture are also important.

Approximate indications of size should be accommodated. Sight size -- which comprises the dimensions of an object that are visible to the eye, as distinct from the actual size of the object -- may be taken in situations in which a work cannot be accurately measured, such as a framed pastel or estimation from the floor of a ceiling fresco. When a set of dimensions is approximate, this should be indexed in dimensions Qualifier approximate or sight.

It is important to note the overall dimensions; however, a work may have several other relevant sets of dimensions that are also important to record. When measuring a manuscript, for example, the dimensions of the volume, the page, and the text block could be indicated, and the number of lines on the page could be counted. The dimensions of each could be indicated in separate occurrences of the set of dimensions fields.

       

3.6.2.6.5

 

 

RULES for Display Dimensions

       

3.6.2.6.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required: It is required to record a prose description of the dimensions, or construct a display by concatenating information from controlled fields.

       

3.6.2.6.5.2

   

How to record display dimensions

  • Scope of information included
    Record a prose description of the dimensions.

    Contributors: If your source data does not include a display dimensions field, you may construct a display by concatenating information from controlled fields.

    Include information about the dimensions, size, or scale of the work, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. As appropriate, include the scale of the work or the number of the parts of a complex work, series, or collection.

  • Form and syntax
    Include dimensions in metric units. Optionally, also include dimensions in US Customary Units (inches, feet), if possible. Separate measurements may be made, but typically the metric dimensions will be converted.

    Record dimensions height by width by depth (if appropriate) (e.g., 198 x 233 x 82 cm (78 x 91 3/4 x 32 1/4 inches)).

    Orientation: The orientation is implied in the description of the dimensions: for example, dimensions of a painting of vertical orientation is implied in 92 x 72 cm (36 1/2 x 28 3/8 inches); it is wider than it is high. The orientation may be reiterated in the Format field, with landscape format and portrait format.

    Codes for units: Use standard codes for metric units (e.g., cm for centimeters). Spell out inches and feet. Consult the examples below for syntax.

  • Nuance and ambiguity: In addition to the values and units of measurements, include explanatory text as necessary to clarify what the dimensions mean. For example, to express the dimensions of a Greek vase, the diameter of various parts may be indicated (e.g., 48.3 cm (height) x 28.1 cm (diameter of mouth), 27.2 cm (diameter of body)).

    Historical units of measurement, such as braccia, may be included in the description; however they should be translated into modern equivalents for indexing.

  • Index the display field
    With rare exceptions, it is required to index this display with Value, Unit, and Dimensions Type. For indexing, use metric units if possible.
       

3.6.2.1.5.3

   

Recording dimensions for various types of works

  • Default when dimensions are unavailable
    In the rare occasion that dimensions are unknown by the cataloger or not included in the contributor data, record the value unavailable in the display dimensions field. In this case, you should omit indexing information Value, Unit, and Dimensions Type.

  • For regular dimensions, simple height by width by depth
    For two-dimensional rectangular works and three-dimensional sculptures, record measurements in this order: height x width x depth (if applicable).

    • Examples

    • 46.5 x 38 cm (18 3/8 x 14 15/16 inches)

    • 198 x 233 x 82 cm (78 x 91 3/4 x 32 1/4 inches)

    • 436.9 x 718 x 777 cm (14 feet 4 inches x 23 feet 6 1/2inches x 25 feet 6 inches)

  • For unusual shapes, scale, irregular dimensions
    Include explanatory words or phrases to clarify the meaning of dimensions if not clear. Include the part measured, the shape, scale, or other pertinent clarification. If measurements are any other than h x w x d, explanation is stongly recommended.

    • Examples

    • 89 cm (35 inches) (diameter)

    • 29.8 x 20.3 cm (11 3/4 x 8 inches) (oval)

    • 161.5 cm (63 5/8 inches) (circumference, sphere)

    • 39 cm (54 3/4 inches) (greatest circumference of the body)

    • 61.6 x 97.2 cm (24 1/4 x 38 1/4 inches); scale: 1 inch = 10 feet

    • 19.1 x 23.5 x 13.9 cm (irregular, largest dimensions)

  • For multiple parts and complex shapes
    If the work is made of multiple parts or if measurements are taken at multiple places on the work, clarify the part measured in the display dimensions.

    • Examples

    • 48.3 (height) x 28.1 (diameter of mouth) cm (19 x 11 inches), 27.2 cm (10 3/4 inches) (diameter of body)

    • 12 x 20.3 cm (4 3/4 x 8 inches); secondary support: 30.5 x 40 cm (12 x 15 3/4 inches)

    • 17.6 x 26.4 cm (6 15/16 x 10 3/8 inches) (plate mark), 24.5 x 30.7 cm (9 5/8 x 12 inches) (folio)

    • composed of 4 panels, 23 x 45 cm each (9 x 17 3/4 inches)

    • 183 x 187 cm (72 x 73 5/8 inches) (overall); 105 cm (41 3/8 inches) (width of central panel); 39 cm (15 3/8 inches) (width of each side panel)

    • daguerreotype 1/4 plate; image: 9.7 x 7.4 cm (3 13/16 x 2 15/16 inches); in case: 15.1 x 12.5 cm (5 15/16 x 4 15/16 inches)

    • unframed: 80 x 80cm (31 1/2 x 31 1/2 inches); framed: 90.17 x 91.6 x 3.81cm (35 1/2 x 36 1/16 x 1 1/2 inches)

  • For works on paper, manuscripts, books
    For works on paper, note when the image or platemark is smaller than the sheet. The characteristics of the paper may be indicated, including the count of chain and laid lines per inch. For volumes, include collation statements for manuscripts and extent statements for archival groups; these statements are often also indicated in the Descriptive Note. If the cover is a different dimension than the folios, note this.

    • Examples

    • 179 leaves; text block: 26.6 x 19.1 cm (10 1/2 x 7 7/16 inches), oak covers: 27.3 x 19.8 cm (10 3/4 x 7 7/8 inches)

    • 3 volumes, 274 pages; textblock: 47 x 32.2 cm (18 1/2 x 12 11/16 inches)

    • 13.3 x 20.6 cm (5 1/4 x 8 1/8 inches) (sheet); 25 mm apart (15/16 inch) (chain lines); 21 per inch (laid lines)

  • For approximate dimensions, sight measurements, historical measurements
    For approximate dimensions and other qualifying information, express this in the display dimensions. If the measurements are known from historical records only, clarify this.

    • Examples
    • approximately 22.4 x 17.3 mm (7/8 x 5/8 inches) (in setting)

    • 86 x 93.35 cm (34 1/4 x 36 3/4 inches) (sight measurements, window of mat)

    • circumference at base was measured as 5 braccia during the 17th century (approximately 340 cm)

  • For weight, format, running time, size, new media
    Express weights, formats, running times, standard sizes, and measurements for new media in the display field.

    • Examples

    • 31 mm (1 1/8 inch) (diameter), 7.32 g (.2354 troy ounce)

    • 32 x 254.5 cm (12 5/8 x 100 1/4 inches) (scroll)

    • approximately 8.25 x 5.72 cm (3 1/4 x 2 1/4 inches) (image, carte-de-visite format); 10.16 x 6.35 cm (4 x 2 1/2 inches) (sheet)

    • 2 hours 32 minutes 40 seconds (VHS)

    • 239 feet, 35 mm; 153 minutes, 24 frames per second (running time)

    • 17488 kb (jpeg)

    • 2100 x 1557 pixels

    • U.S. women's size 8; 50 inches (127 cm) (length at center back)

  • For architecture, area
    For architecture, list what is known, including total height; dimensions of a part, such as diameter of a dome, number of stories, interior space, or area of the footprint. For sites, area may be listed.

    • Examples

    • 300 m (height) (984 feet)

    • 43.59 m (143 feet) (diameter of dome); 43.59 m (143 feet) (interior height of dome from floor)

    • 418 square m (4500 square feet) (interior area)

    • approximately 5.18 square km (2 square miles) (area)

    • 1 story, 1320 square feet, 4 rooms and 2 baths, on a 110 x 160 foot lot

  • For a group or collection of works
    For an archival group or other collection of items, list the number of items and a range of sizes. The phrase various dimensions may be used.

    • Examples

    • 21 items; sheets range in size from 28.3 x 41.2 cm to 35.9 x 66.4 cm (11 1/8 x 16 1/4 inches to 14 1/8 x 26 1/8 inches)

    • 152 items; various dimensions
     

3.6.2.1.5.3

   

How to measure a work

  • Place a two-dimensional rectangular work on a horizontal surface; measure height at the left side and width across the bottom. If depth is an issue, record it at the bottom center.

  • Use metric measuring devices if possible. Measuring in metric units is more accurate than measuring in inches. When measurements that are taken inches are converted to metric units, it may give an inaccurate indication of the size of the work.

  • For irregularly-shaped works, measure the largest height by width by depth.

  • For three-dimensional movable works, using appropriate instrumentation, measure a projected or estimated rectangular cuboid large enough to tightly contain the object. Alternatively, measure accessible parts as indicated in the examples above; note the parts measured as necessary.

  • For architecture and monumental works, measure using appropriate instrumentation. The height of the work or size of footprint is usually available from the architect or documenter.

  • Note the examples above for additional guidance. Consult published works on the topic, such as Documenting Your Collections (Simard, Desmarais, Harnois (2002)).
     
   

Example of display dimensions and indexing fields

     

 

3.6.2.7

   

Value (required)

     

3.6.2.7.1

   

Definition
The numerical value of a particular dimension taken of a work.

  • Examples

  • 60
    238
    91.6
    17.25
     

3.6.2.7.2

   

Values
Controlled format, numbers.

       

3.6.2.7.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.7.4

 

 

Discussion
Separating the actual dimension from its qualifiers allows mathematical processing on numerical values. This value may be an exact number or an approximation. Dimensions may be measured to varying levels of accuracy.

       

3.6.2.7.5

 

 

RULES for Dimensions Value

       

3.6.2.7.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required: Record the numerical value for dimensions.

     

3.6.2.7.5.2

   

How to record value

  • For the dimensions indicated in the display dimensions, record the value of one height, width, or other dimension.

  • Record whole numbers or decimal fractions only.

  • Index numbers using metric units, if possible. Alternatively, if local practice uses inches or feet, record the value here.
     

 

3.6.2.8

   

Unit (required)

     

3.6.2.8.1

   

Definition
The unit of measurement used.

  • Examples

  • centimeters
    kilograms
    minutes
    inches

     

3.6.2.8.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list.

       

3.6.2.8.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.8.4

 

 

Discussion
Including the Unit of measurement is important. In order for a numerical measurement to have meaning and to allow manual or automated calculations, the unit of measurement must be specified.

To allow objects to be retrieved efficiently, historical measurements should be indexed according to modern equivalents.

       

3.6.2.8.5

 

 

RULES for Dimensions Unit

       

3.6.2.8.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required: Enter a term describing the unit of measurement.

     

3.6.2.8.5.2

   

List of dimensions units

  • Choose the unit of measurment corresponding to the value entered. As of this writing, the list below contains the units of measurements.

  • Do not use undetermined or not applicable, which are reserved for problematic data loads.

  • If the unit does not apply, as with counts, leave the field blank.

    30001 undetermined
    30002 not applicable
    30005 centimeters
    30006 inches
    30301 carats
    30302 cubic centimeters
    30601 feet
    30701 grams
    31101 kilograms
    31102 kilometers
    31201 liters
    31205 linear feet
    30301 meters
    31302 miles
    30303 millimeters


    31304 minutes
    31310 metric tons
    31505 ounces
    31506 pounds
    31601 pixels
    31801 hectares
    31802 acres
    31901 square feet
    31902 square yards
    31903 stories
    31904 square meters
    31905 square miles
    32001 tons
    32501 yards
    32601 frames (motion pictures)


     

 

3.6.2.9

   

Dimension Type (required)

     

3.6.2.9.1

   

Definition
The kind of dimension taken of a particular area or part of an object or work.

  • Examples

  • height
    width
    depth
    length
    circumference
     

3.6.2.9.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list.

       

3.6.2.9.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.9.4

 

 

Discussion
It is critical to record Dimension Type. Knowing what was measured is critical to understanding the dimensions of an object. Recording the dimension type identifies the orientation or nature of the measurement being recorded.

       

3.6.2.9.5

 

 

RULES for Dimension Type

       

3.6.2.9.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required: Choose a value that describes the type of dimensions.

       

3.6.2.9.5.2

   

List of Dimension Types

  • The list is extensible and subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following are the dimension types.

 

 

30001

undetermined

Do not use this term. It is used only for problematic data loads.

30002

not applicable

Do not use. Reserved for facets and problematic loads.

30005

height

The vertical dimension of the work, used for movable works and built works.

30006

width

The horizontal dimension of the work. For architecture, ships, and other works that are basically horizontal in form, generally prefer length.

30007

depth

The third dimension of a three-dimensional work, usually from front to back.

30008

thickness

Used primarily with thin supports such as paper, the measurement between opposite surfaces.

30101

area

The measurement of two-dimensional space that is contained within given limits, usually used with reference to measurement on a horizontal plane, such as a site.

30201

base

Used for numeric scale, for the number on the left side of the equation, such as 1 inch = 1 foot. Use with target, for the right side of the equation and record Scale numeric.

30301

circumference

The length of a line that bounds a circular plane surface; typically used for measurements of vessels and other objects comprising round forms, where the measuring tape is placed around the object.

30302

count

Used for groups, collections, volumes, and other records comprising multiple items or folios. Also used for counts of patterns, laid lines, and other characteristics of a work or its support. For counts, include the number in Value, omit Unit, Type is count, and record in Extent the things counted, such as items, folio / leaf, laid lines. For counts of characteristics such as laid lines, also record Qualfier, such as per inch.

30401

diameter

The length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle or sphere. Used when measuring round works or parts of round works, such as the distance across the round foot of a vessel.

31201

length

The dimension of a straight horizontal line extending from the left side to the right side of a horizontal form. Used rather than width for architecture, ships, and other basically large, horizontal works.

31801

running time

The measurement of the duration of a performance, film, musical performance, song, or similar activity. Used with Value and Unit minutes.

31851

size

Indication of established classes of magnitude or dimensions, typically numbered, into which articles are divided. Examples are clothing, vessel sizes, paper sizes, etc. To record numeric sizes, use Value to record the number with Dimensions Type size.

32001

target

Used for numeric scale, for the number on the right side of the equation, such as 1 inch = 1 foot. Use with base, for the left side of the equation and record Scale numeric.

32201

volume (quantity or mass)

The quantity or mass of an object or material that occupies space. Used primarily for vessels and other containers to note the volume they hold.

32301

weight

Measurement of the relative heaviness of an object or other body. Used with units such as grams, ounces, carats.

32401

distance between

Used with repeating characteristcs, such as pattern repeats. Use with Value, Unit such as centimeter, Type distance between, and Extent, such as pattern / design.

     

 

3.6.2.10

   

Dimensions Extent

     

3.6.2.10.1

   

Definition
An explanation of the part of the work being measured, included when necessary for clarity.

  • Examples

  • image
    overall
    diameter
    platemark
    sheet
     

3.6.2.10.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list.

       

3.6.2.10.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.10.4

 

 

Discussion
If dimensions are not simple and straightforward, the part of the work measured should be included.

The list of dimensions extent is the same as that used for materials extent.

The list is extensible and subject to frequent additions. In fact, the potential number of terms in this list is so vast that it is anticipated in future the list may be replaced by a link to the AAT.

       

3.6.2.10.5

 

 

RULES for Dimensions Extent

       

3.6.2.10.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record a term or terms indicating the part of the work being measured.

       

3.6.2.10.5.2

   

When to use dimensions extent

  • When it is necessary for clarity, include the Extent.

  • For simple dimensions that do not require clarification, omit extent.

  • If separate dimensions are taken for different parts of a work, use Extent to index the part referred to by each set of dimensions.

    For example, overall or outside dimensions (including any secondary support, such as a mount, frame, border, or pedestal) must be differentiated from exact dimensions of the object's primary support or image (i.e., the area covered by the medium without the support).
       

3.6.2.10.5.3

   

List of dimensions extent terms

       

 

3.6.2.11

   

Dimensions Qualifier

     

3.6.2.11.1

   

Definition
A word or phrase that elaborates on the nature of the measurements of the work when necessary, as when the measurements are approximate.

  • Examples

    sight
    maximum
    largest
    approximate
    assembled
    variable
     

3.6.2.11.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list; subject to frequent additions.

       

3.6.2.11.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.11.4

 

 

Discussion
When it is necessary for clarity, a Qualifier term should be included. Indexing the qualifier that is used in Display Dimensions is useful for researchers and others in retrieval.

Measurements are assumed to have been taken normally for work overall, height x width x depth, unless otherwise indicated by Qualifier.

       

3.6.2.11.5

 

 

RULES for Dimensions Qualifier

       

3.6.2.11.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Include a term indicating how the dimensions of a work were taken, when necessary. Index terms used in the Display Dimensions.

     
3.6.2.11.5.2    

List of Dimension Qualifier terms

  • The list is subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following are dimension qualifier terms.

30001 undetermined
30002 not applicable
30005 approximate
30101 assembled
30102 after restoration
30105 open
30106 closed
30107 rolled
30108 unrolled
30111 folded
30112 unfolded
30201 before restoration
30202 original
30203 preserved
30301 corners rounded
30601 framed
30602 unframed
30901 sight
30902 estimated
30912 left
30913 right
30914 central
30915 lower
30916 upper
30918 at middle
30912 top
30922 bottom
31291 largest
31292 smallest

31301 maximum
31302 minimum
32201 variable
32301 with base
32302 with lid
32304 with handles
32305 at knees
35101 per inch
35102 per square inch
35103 per foot
35104 per square foot
36101 from the interior
36102 from the exterior
37101 per second
37102 per minute
37103 per hour
37104 per day
37105 per month
37106 per year
38110 first
38111 second
38112 third
38113 fourth
38114 fifth
38115 sixth
38116 seventh
38117 eighth
38118 ninth
38119 tenth

     

 

3.6.2.12

   

Scale Type

     

3.6.2.12.1

   

Definition
A term describing the scale, which is an expression of the ratio between the size of the representation of something and that thing (e.g., the size of the drawn structure and the actual built work). Used for studies, record drawings, models, and other representations drawn or constructed to scale.

  • Examples

    numeric
    full-size

    life-size
    monumental
     

3.6.2.12.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list.

       

3.6.2.12.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.12.4

 

 

Discussion
Scale is used in dimensions to indicate the relationship between the size of a representation and that of the work it depicts, or the size of one work to another. Scale is often expressed as a numeric ratio of the scale of the object to the scale of the represented work. It may be characterized by a phrase, such as full size. Scale may also be indicated by words such as monumental or colossal.

Indicate when a scale has been derived by comparison or by conversion. A scale may be inscribed on the object, as with maps or pattern drawings, where it may be indicated as a numerical ratio such as 1 inch = 1 foot, or as a bar with ruled divisions labeled with units. It is also possible to determine the scale of an image or model by comparing its dimensions to the dimensions of the work depicted. For example, if a model depicts a clock of the same size, then the scale is 1-to-1, or full size.

For some artists, such as Claes Oldenburg whose works are often seemingly oversize (e.g., Giant Three-way Plug, Scale A, 1/3), scale also carries a particular meaning, forming part of the aesthetics of the work. A sense of the scale of a work makes it possible to assess its visual impact. When considering studies, maquettes, maps, or models, the comparative size of the object and the work depicted are important clues to the level of detail in the image.

       

3.6.2.12.5

 

 

RULES for Scale Type

       

3.6.2.12.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record the type of scale used, if any, particularly numeric scales.

       

3.6.2.12.5.2

   

How to record Scale Type

  • Describe the scale in Dimensions Display (e.g., 1:10; 1/4 inch. = 1 foot; 1-to-1).

  • For numeric scales, combine Scale numeric term with Value, Unit, and Type base for the left side of the equation and Type target for the right side of the equation.

    • Example
    • Display Dimensions: 46.5 x 38 cm; scale: 3/4 inch = 1 foot
      Value: 46.5   Unit: centimeters   Type: height
      Value: 38     Unit: centimeters   Type: width
      Value: .75    Unit: inches     Type: base   Scale: numeric
      Value: 1      Unit: feet        Type: target   Scale: numeric

  • Scale types other than numeric, such as full-size, life-size, and monumental, may be indicated without value, unit, and type.

  • If scale is part of an inscription, accurately transcribe it in the Inscriptions field (e.g., scale upper left: ONE-HALF SCALE; bar scale lower center: 10 feet (10 ft. = 2 in.); scale lower right:Trenta Palmi Romani (30 palmi romani = 114 mm)).
       

3.6.2.12.5.3

   

Scale Type list

  • As of this writing, the following is the list of Scale types. Do not use undetermined or not applicable.

    30001 undetermined
    30002 not applicable
    30601 full-size
    31201 life-size
    30301 monumental
    31401 numeric
       

 

3.6.2.13

   

Format

     

3.6.2.1.1

   

Definition
The configuration of a work, including technical formats, or the conventional designation for the dimensions or proportion of a work; includes format and size.

  • Examples

    longline
    Beta
    quarto
    elephant folio
     

3.6.2.13.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list.

       

3.6.2.13.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.13.4

 

 

Discussion
Designations of format and of size often overlap.

Format refers to the configuration of the work. It may also refer to standard technical formats, particularly in photography, film, video, printing, and computing.

Sizes are relative designations of magnitude. Works of the same "size" may vary in actual dimensions, but share a common set of proportions. Industry sizes are not always accurate or consistent, and vary within certain tolerances. Some sizes, such as those for standard containers or bottles, are strictly regulated. Others, such as clothing sizes, are inconsistent. Sizes often vary by nationality. A women's size 12 in Great Britain differs from women's size 12 in Canada or in the United States; it would be analogous to a size 40 in continental Europe. Sizes may also vary over time.

       

3.6.2.13.5

 

 

RULES of Format

       

3.6.2.13.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Include a designation of the format or conventional size designation if pertinent.

       

3.6.2.13.5.2

   

How to record Formats

  • Choose an appropriate format from the list below.

  • Formats typically have no Value, Unit, Type, Extent, or Qualifier. The Format is the only value in the row.

  • For numeric sizes: To record numeric sizes, do not use Format. Use Value to record the number and indicate the controlled term size in Dimensions Type.
       
3.6.2.13.5.2    

List of Formats

  • The list is subject to frequent additions. As of this writing, the following are dimension format and size terms.

30001 undetermined
30002 not applicable
30201 Beta
30301 cabinet photograph
30302 carte-de-visite
30303 columns
30401 DOS
30500 folio (book format)
30501 elephant folio
30701 grid
30801 half plate
30802 quarter plate
30803 sixth jplate
30804 whole plate
30805 double whole plate
30806 ninth plate
30807 mammoth plate
30808 three-quarter plate

30901 IMAX
31201 large
31202 longline
30201 medium
31601 pint
31701 quarto
31901 small
31902 stations format
32001 tabloid
32201 VHS
32202 portrait format
32203 landscape format
33101 8mm
33102 16mm
33103 35mm
33104 65mm
33105 70mm
33106 Super 8
33107 Super 16mm

       

 

3.6.2.14

   

Shape

     

3.6.2.14.1

   

Definition
The outline, form, or characteristic configuration of a work or part of a work, including its contours; used for unusual shapes.

  • Examples

    square
    rectangular
    round
    oval
    triangular
    cylindrical
    hexagonal
    irregular
     

3.6.2.14.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list.

       

3.6.2.14.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.14.4

 

 

Discussion
Recording the shape of a work provides context for its measurements and physical appearance. Objects may change shape over time, as when a rectangular panel painting has been cut down to an oval shape. Various shapes may be associated with multiple occurrences of the indexing fields, as when a round drawing is mounted on a square secondary support. Each shape could have corresponding dimensions and dates.

Shape is important to some lines of inquiry. For example, a scholar may wish to examine the composition of round paintings of the Northern Baroque period.

       

3.6.2.14.5

 

 

RULES for Shape

       

3.6.2.14.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record a term describing the shape of the work if it is an unusual or distinguishing characteristic (e.g., if a panel painting is oval rather than rectangular).

       

3.6.2.14.5.2

   

List of Shapes

  • The following list comprises shape values as of this writing.

  • Omit shape if it is a typical or expected shape for the work.

  • Do not use undetermined or not applicable, which are reserved for problematic loads.

    30001 undetermined
    30002 not applicable
    30005 irregular
    30301 concave
    30302 conical
    30303 convex
    30304 cubical
    30305 cylindrical
    30801 hexagonal
    31501 oval
    31601 plane
    31602 polygon
    31801 rectangular
    31802 round
    31901 spherical
    31902 square
    32001 triangular
       

 

3.6.2.15

   

Culture Term

     

3.6.2.15.1

   

Definition
The name of the culture, people, or nationality from which the work originated.

  • Examples

    Celtic
    Chinese
    Italian
    Hispanic
    Burgundian
    Khoikhoi

    Sienese
    Pre-Columbian
    Buddhist
    Ottoman
    Asian
    ancient Egyptian
     

3.6.2.15.2

   

Values
Controlled by an extensible list that is part of the ULAN data, which in turn is derived from AAT terms (but as of this writing, not linked to the AAT).

       

3.6.2.15.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.15.4

 

 

Discussion
A primary purpose of the Culture field is to contain the nationality and culture designations that many repositories record for each work.

It is useful to record the culture that created the work, particularly when the culture is different from the nationality or culture of the artist, or when the artist is unknown.

If local practice dictates, record the culture of unknown artists here, for example Thai in the Culture field. However, do not leave the Creator fields blank. If the creator is unknown and the identity of his or her hand is not established, in the Creator fields use a generic identification such as unknown Thai.

Also included in this field may be references to religions or religious orders, such as Buddhist or Franciscan.

The Culture field is controlled by the ULAN Nationality/Culture list. These values are in turn taken from -- but as of this writing not linked to -- the AAT. [It is anticipated that in the future, Culture will be linked directly to the AAT.]

       

3.6.2.15.5

 

 

RULES for Culture

       

3.6.2.15.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record the name of the tribe, band, ethnic group, linguistic group, cultural group, civilization, religious group, nation, country, city-state, continent, or general region from which the work originated, as indicated in authoritative sources.

     

3.6.2.15.5.2

   

How to choose the culture designation

  • List of culture designations
    For the culture affiliation of the work, choose an appropriate value from the extensible ULAN nationality/culture table, which as of this writing includes values in Appendix F: Nationalities and Places.

  • Reflecting local practice
    Use the Culture field if required by local practice of the repository.

    For many repositories and art databases, culture or nationality for the work is used to group works by nationalities, rather than by using Location with Type creation, or indirectly through the Nationality of the linked artist.

    Creator is required: Certain contributors will use the Culture field when the artist is unknown. If this is your practice, do not leave the Creator field blank. Index the Creator using the appropriate corresponding value from the ULAN facet Unknown People by Culture.

  • Culture of the work differs from nationality of the artist
    Use the Culture field when the culture in which the work was produced is different from the nationality or culture of the artist. For example, if an Italian artist travels to Byzantium and creates a work reflecting the Byzantine culture.

  • Culture of the work compared to Style
    Although Culture terms may overlap with Style terms, CONA allows culture to be recorded separately in order to to contain the nationality and culture designations that many repositories record for each work.

    Use the Culture field to clarify or make a comparison with Style (discussed below). For example, if the Style is International Gothic, clarify that the Culture for the work is Flemish.

  • For Groups
    For a group of items, include all the cultures represented in the group. If there are too many to list them all, include the most important or the most typical cultures evident in the group.

  • Uncertainty
    When in doubt about which specific culture or nationality produced a work, choose a broader concept of which you are certain. For example, use the broader Western Sudanese if it is uncertain if the culture is Dogon or Bamana.
     

 

3.6.2.16

   

Sequence Number

     

3.6.2.16.1

   

Definition
Number indicating the sort order of Culture terms.

     

3.6.2.16.2

   

Values
Values are controlled, integers 1 through n.

       

3.6.2.16.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.16.4

 

 

Discussion
If there are multiple cultures or nationalites associated with the work, it is helpful to sort them in a logical order.

       

3.6.2.16.5

   

RULES for Sequence Number

       

3.6.2.16.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: If there is a Culture term, Sequence Number is required. If there is only culture term type, the default value is 1. If there are multiple culture terms, sort them in an appropriate sequence.

     

3.6.2.16.5.2

   

How to sequence Culture terms

  • Number the culture terms in continuous sequence. Do not skip numbers.

  • The culture term in sequence number 1 should be the most important or prominent.

  • Order of importance
    In general, sequence the culture terms in order of importance.

    Alternatively, list cultures in chronological order.

    For any given set of records, be consistent in the numbering of culture terms.

  • Coordinate with the Style term
    Coordinate the culture term with style, as appropriate.
     

 

3.6.2.17

   

Preferred Flag for Culture term

     

3.6.2.17.1

   

Definition
An indication of whether the culture term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.

     

3.6.2.17.2

   

Values
Values are controlled list.

    preferred
    non-preferred
       

3.6.2.17.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.17.4

 

 

Discussion
The preferred culture is the most important culture associated with the work. However, all cultures are available in retrieval.

       

3.6.2.17.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Flag

       

3.6.2.17.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: If there is one or more culture terms, an indication of preferred is required. Indicate if the culture term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.

       

3.6.2.17.5.1

   

Choosing the preferred flag

  • For the preferred culture term, choose the term representing the most important culture, or use chronological order to inform the decision.

    Within a given collection, be consistent in choosing preferred culture.
       

 

3.6.2.18

   

Style Term

     

3.6.2.18.1

   

Definition
Indication of style, period, group or movement, as a description of a work of art that associates it with a defined style, historical period, group, school, or movement whose characteristics are represented in the work.

  • Examples

    Ancient
    Op-art
    Fauve
    Medieval
    Neo-Romanticist
    Pre-Raphaelite
    Hellenistic
    Feminist
    Classicist
    Impressionist


    Old Kingdom
    Ming
    Renaissance
    Surrealist
    Louis XVI
    Mannerist
    Ch'ien-lung
    Postmodern
    Nayarit
    Huari

     

3.6.2.18.2

   

Values
Controlled by the AAT, primarily the Styles and Periods facet.

       

3.6.2.18.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.18.4

 

 

Discussion
The Style of the work may be important for researchers. For many styles, style does not necessarily correspond to the dates of the work. A work may be painted in Impressionist style, even though it was not painted in the period of the major Impressionist painters.

Note that terms sometimes referred to as styles or periods that are used to separate the work of a particular artist into distinct groups, such as Picasso's Rose Period or Blue Period, are outside the scope of discussion in this field. Such terms are so specific that they have little relevance beyond the study of one artist's oeuvre; therefore, it is not recommended to record such terms in this field.

The Style field should be used in coordination with the Culture field (see above), as necessary. For example, a work may be in the International Gothic style, but produced by culture Flemish.

       

3.6.2.18.5

 

 

RULES for Style Term

       

3.6.2.18.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record a style, historical period, group, movement, or school whose characteristics are represented in the work being cataloged.

     

3.6.2.18.5.2

   

How to choose style term

  • Specificity
    Use the most specific term applicable; linking to the AAT will provide access to the record via broader terms for the Style. For example, use the specific terms Comnenian or Palaeologan rather than Byzantine, if supported by authoritative sources.

  • Multiple styles
    There may be multiple styles, periods, groups, or movements represented in a single art work.

  • Expertise required
    Derive this information from scholarly or other authoritative sources, with preference given to the contributing institution for movable works. The cataloger should not guess or assign style based on his or her own estimation. An exception is when the cataloger is a also a subject expert.

  • Uncertainty
    When in doubt regarding the specific style, period, group, or movement to which a work belongs, choose a broader term about which you are certain (e.g., use the broader term Roman if it is uncertain whether the period is Monarchic or Early Imperial).

  • For groups
    For a group of items, include all the styles represented in the group. If there are too many to list them all, include the most important within the context of the group or the most typical styles evident in the group.

  • Style and Culture
    There is not always a sharp line between terms for style and culture. Use the Culture field to clarify or make a comparison with Style (discussed below). For example, if the Style is International Gothic (which occurred in multiple nations), clarify that the Culture for the work is Flemish.
     

 

3.6.2.19

   

Sequence Number

     

3.6.2.19.1

   

Definition
An indication of the sort order of the style terms.

     

3.6.2.19.2

   

Values
Values are controlled, integers 1 through n.

       

3.6.2.19.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.19.4

 

 

Discussion
If there are multiple styles or periods associated with the work, it is helpful to sort them in a logical order

       

3.6.2.19.5

 

 

RULES for Sequence Number

       

3.6.2.19.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: If there is a Style term, Sequence Number is required. If there is only one style term, the default value is 1. If there are multiple style terms, sort them in an appropriate sequence.

     

3.6.2.19.5.2

   

How to sequence Style terms

  • Number the style terms in continuous sequence. Do not skip numbers.

  • The style term in sequence number 1 should be the one that is most significant or prominent.

  • Order of importance
    In general, sequence the style terms in order of importance.

    Alternatively, list styles in chronological order.

    For any given set of records, be consistent in the numbering of style terms.

  • Coordinate with the Culture term
    Coordinate the culture term with style, as appropriate.
     

 

3.6.2.20

   

Preferred Flag

     

3.6.2.20.1

   

Definition
An indication whether the style term is preferred or non-preferred for the record.

     

3.6.2.20.2

   

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    preferred
    non-preferred
       

3.6.2.20.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.20.4

 

 

Discussion
When there are multiple style terms, the preferred style term is the default value that will sort at the top. All style terms are available in retrieval.

       

3.6.2.20.5

 

 

RULES for Preferred Flag

       

3.6.2.20.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: If there is more than one style term, indicate which style term is preferred for the record. The preferred style term should be the one that is most significant or prevalent for the work.

The default value when there is only one style term is preferred.

     

 

3.6.2.21

   

Style Type

     

3.6.2.21.1

   

Definition
A term identifying the type represented in the indexing terms.

     

3.6.2.21.2

   

Values
Values are controlled by a list.

    not applicable
    style
    period
    group
    movement
    dynasty
       

3.6.2.21.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.21.4

 

 

Discussion
In the AAT, all terms for styles/ periods/ groups/ ethnicity/ nationality are included in the one Styles and Periods Facet. In the AAT, no distinction is made for "type" because concepts in this facet often have meaning and usage that crosses over between multiple "types."

While some terms, such as Impressionist refer cleanly to a style, other terms such as Baroque or Renaissance, can refer to both a style and a period. Yet other terms could refer to a style and a culture or nationality. Given that distinguishing between terms for the "types" styles, periods, groups, and movements is often problematic and not a critical distinction, the concepts are not flagged with "type" in the AAT.

However, for some institutions and cataloging projects, it is desirable to designate the type of term indexed here. Thus in keeping with CDWA and CCO rules, the CONA the Style Type field is included in the work record to allow contributors to indicate the context of the term as it relates to the work being cataloged.

       

3.6.2.21.5

 

 

RULES for Style Type

       

3.6.2.21.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record a term that characterizes the type of style term recorded.

     

3.6.2.21.5.2

   

How to designate a Style Type

  • Flag a Style Type if pertinent, based on the following definitions.

    If you do not know, if the designation of a flag is ambiguous, or if the cataloging institution does not flag style type terms, leave the field blank.

  • not applicable: Do not use this flag; it is reserved for problematic loads. If no flag applies, leave the field blank.

  • style: Use this flag for links to AAT terms where the concept refers primarily to a distinct configuration of artistic elements that together constitute a named manner of expression peculiar to a certain epoch, people, or to a visual appearance, technique, or visual language adopted by particular adherents of that language (e.g., Impressionist (style) [AAT 300021503]). The meaning of style and movement overlap.

  • period: Use this flag for links to AAT terms where the concept refers primarily to a distinct named historical or cultural portion or division of time during which something runs its course, characterized by some prevalent or distinguishing condition, circumstance, or occurrence, or by the rule of a particular government (e.g., Amarna period [AAT 300020375]). The meanings of period and dynsasty overlap.

  • group: Use this flag for links to AAT terms where the concept refers primarily to a cultural group, which includes societies or groups of people characterized by common ideas, customs, social behavior, products, or way of life within a particular nation, people, or period (e.g., Ancestral Puebloan [AAT 300016954]). The meanings of cultural group and nationality overlap.

  • movement: Use this flag for links to AAT terms where the concept refers primarily to the state or process in which events or conditions transpire, a tendency, or a trend evident at a particular time or in a particular sphere, particularly a course or series of actions and endeavours on the part of a group of people working towards a shared goal or to advance a shared political, social, or artistic objective (e.g., Abstract Expressionist [AAT 300022099]). The meanings of movement and style overlap.

  • dynasty: Use this flag for links to AAT terms where the concept refers primarily to a succession of rulers from the same family, line, stock, or group during a particular period of time (e.g., Eighteenth Dynasty (Egyptian) [AAT 300020355]). The meanings of dynasty and period overlap.

  • For nationality: For the nationality that produced a work, use the Culture field, described above.
     

 

3.6.2.22

   

Creation Number

     

3.6.2.22.1

   

Definition
Any numbers assigned to a work of art in the context of its creation.

  • Examples
    model: Centura Deluxe
    serial number: 1249
    Ruspan Originals No. 527
    DAR
    no. 1227Y
     

3.6.2.22.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.22.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.22.4

 

 

Discussion
For numbers assigned by the creator or maker, record them here. This excludes edition numbers for multiples, which are noted elsewhere.

Numbers take their meaning from the context within which they were assigned, so noting a number's type is important. Frequently, numbering systems reflect other organizational patterns; for example, they may be assigned consecutively by date or they may indicate a particular object (e.g., serial number), or a general kind of work (e.g., model number). Where numbers are known to carry these additional meanings, those facts should be recorded. Works of art are numbered to make it easier to identify them.

Numbers assigned during creation may refer to a particular style or design, or they may help identify the work in historical documents. For example, Gemini G.E.L., a publisher of prints and other art works from 1966, assigned various types of creation numbers to the works it produced. These are different from Edition numbers, which are recorded in the Edition field.

Numbers may have prefixes or suffixes that are vital to their meaning.

Numbers may be used as a "shorthand" to ensure that a work is clearly referenced. Alvar Aalto's Tea Trolley 900 is slightly different from his Tea Trolley 98. The distinction is evident in the title, but should be repeated here.

       

3.6.2.22.5

 

 

RULES for Creation Number

       

3.6.2.22.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record object identifications used during creation, including numeric, alphabetical, or alphanumeric designations.

     

3.6.2.22.5.2

   

When to record creation numbers

  • If an identifying number or name is inscribed on the work at the time of creation, and if it is not a state number or edition number, record it here.

    Record identifiers from numbering systems that reflect organizational patterns or otherwise identify a particular work or the class into which the work fits.

  • Serial numbers and model numbers: Uses this field to record serial numbers and model numbers or model names.

    For editions: For edition numbers for books, prints, and other multiples, use the Edition field.

    For repository numbers: For numbers assigned by the repository for identification, use the Repository Numbers field.
     

 

3.6.2.23

   

Copyright

     

3.6.2.23.1

   

Definition
A formal statement of the copyright of a work, and/or any restrictions placed on it.

  • Examples

  • Copyright © 1981 The Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust

  • © 2010 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved
     

3.6.2.23.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.23.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.23.4

 

 

Discussion
This field records a formal statement of the copyright of a work, and/or any restrictions placed on it, generally provided by the individual or group that holds the rights to use, exhibit, or reproduce a work, along with an indication of any existing restrictions on its reproduction, exhibition, or use. This field has to do with copyright of the work of art or architecture; copyright held by a photographer or publisher of images of the work is not recorded here.

This field refers to the copyright of the work. Copyright is a broad concept that includes both "moral rights assigned to the author and his successors to prevent the distortion of his work and to assure that he is identified as the author of the work," and " 'a bundle of rights,' including the right to copy, the right to distribute, the right to display or perform, and the right to create derivative works."These rights may be held by a work's creator, its owner, a repository, or by a third party to whom the creator or owner assigned the rights.

Note: This field refers to copyright of the work itself, not to the copyright for photographs or other images of the work, which is a separate issue regarding the rights of the owner or creator of the photograph.

Copyright and other restrictions for a work can be complex, and can relate to all aspects of the work's display and reproduction. Copyright arises automatically once an original effort has been started and some aspect of it has been fixed in a tangible medium (including media on a computer); a work is copyrighted whether or not it is actually registered with the Copyright Office or displayed with a copyright statement. Copyright is affected by various issues, including Fair Use, which has to do with the partial or limited reproduction of another's work that is permitted under the fair use doctrine; this doctrine may allow use that advances public interests such as education or scholarship.

Another important issue is that expressions, not ideas, are protected by copyright; however, the idea may be protected by trade secret or patent laws. Although copyright laws vary from country to country, generally the duration of copyright for the work itself is 70-75 years after the death of the artist. Note that copyright term extensions may be in place. Copyright is a personal property right, in the United States subject to the various state laws and regulations that govern the ownership, inheritance, or transfer of personal property, in addition to terms that govern contracts.

The copyright of a work of art or architecture may be held by a third party, who is neither the creator nor the owner of the work itself. This is particularly true with contemporary works of art, where the copyright may have been sold to an agency. There are also artists' collectives, such as CAR (Canadian Artists' Representation/Front des artistes canadiens), that administer copyright and broker permissions to reproduce works of art. When a work is created as part of the artist's employment, the employer probably owns the copyright.

Note that repositories and other owners of works who are not the creators may have rights governing the reproduction or other uses of the work under various laws, including copyright, trademark, contract, or privacy and publicity law.

Researchers are interested in copyright and restrictions information because they often need to know if a work is in the public domain or who must be solicited for permission before a work may be reproduced.

       

3.6.2.23.5

 

 

RULES for Copyright

       

3.6.2.23.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Optional, but required if known. Record the copyright statement or restrictions information for the work in an accessible, concise, and easily understandable form.

     

3.6.2.23.5.2

   

How to record Copyright

  • Transcribe the statement verbatim as expressed by the copyright holder, using syntax, capitalization, and punctuation as indicated in the original statement.

  • Alternatively, if you represent a repositorycomposing a new statement, the following syntax is recommended:

    The word "copyright" (optional) followed by the copyright symbol (a "c" in a circle, ©), the first year when the work was covered by copyright, and the name of the copyright holder (e.g., © 2003 Marcus M. Moroniani. All rights reserved). If the year of first copyright is not known, it may be omitted from the statement (e.g., Copyright © Chuck Close).
     

 

3.6.2.24

   

Provenance

     

3.6.2.24.1

   

Definition
The prose description of the provenance or history of the owners or others in possession of a work of art or architecture, or a group.

  • Example

  • before 1835, Sant'Agostino (San Gimignano, Italy);
    before 1846, Cardinal Fesch [1763-1839] collection (Rome, Italy).
    then to Campana collection;
    1863-present, Musée du Louvre (Paris, France)
     

3.6.2.24.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.24.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.24.4

 

 

Discussion
Provenance is the ownship and collecting history of a work of art, architecture, or group from its creation to the present. This includes the means by which a work passed from one owner to the next, an identification of any public sales involving the work or the names of any agents who aided the transfer of ownership, and the names of any dealers who handled the work or included it in their inventories.

Information may be extrapolated from other evidence, rather than specifically derived from source documents. This is often the case with works that have been lost, stolen, or destroyed. A clear indication of the degree of certainty of the information and the basis for it is essential.

If a work has been lost, stolen, or destroyed, or has otherwise vanished from public view, this fact should also be indicated here. Dates of destruction are recorded in the Events field.

If the repository records and separately indexes the various elements of Provenance in their local system, concatenate the fielded data into a note for this field in CONA.

For suggestions regarding separate fields for indexing Provenance in a local system, see CDWA: Ownership/Collecting History.

       

3.6.2.24.5

 

 

RULES for Provenance

       

3.6.2.24.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record a statement of the Provenance of the work here.

     

3.6.2.24.5.2

   

How to record Provanance

  • Record the work's successive owners (or those who had possession of the work), from the first owner to the present, if known.

    The names of ancillary individuals or firms (agents, dealers, auction houses, consignees) which, while not technically owners, played a role in the transfer of the object from one owner to another, may also be included.

    Indicate if information about the provenance or ownership of a work is speculative or uncertain.

  • Form and syntax
    List the owners in chronological order, from the earliest known owner until the present. Below is a suggested order for listing information, if known, for each Owner/Agent:

    • the dates of their ownership
    • the names of the owners
    • the location where the object was located
    • the means by which the work passed from one owner to another

      Include the life dates of the owners, if known, in brackets. Enclose the names of dealers, auction houses, or agents in parentheses to distinguish them from private owners.

  • Note lacunae in the provenance

  • Use a semicolon to indicate that the work passed directly between two owners (including dealers, auction houses, or agents).

    Use a period to separate two owners (including dealers auction houses or agents) if a direct transfer did not occur or is not known to have occurred.

  • Uncertainty
    Indicate uncertain information with possibly, probably, or a question mark. Indicate methods of transfer with sold, by descent, by inheritance, given, and other terms as necessary.
     

 

3.6.2.25

   

Watermarks

     

3.6.2.25.1

   

Definition
A description of marks inherent in or applied to the material before it was fashioned into the work, including watermarks and stationers' stamps or marks.

     

3.6.2.25.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.25.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.25.4

 

 

Discussion
This field may be used for works on paper, as well as for other works, if appropriate. Watermarks are a characteristic of the material, generally a paper support; they are typically not a part of the artistic creation. The watermark is applied to the material before the artwork is made of or on the paper or other material.

For marks applied to the material by a creator or maker in order to make an image or other art work, or after the making of the art work, use the Marks field.

Why are watermarks important? Watermarks, particularly hand-made historical watermarks, are delicate and very distinctive to each batch of paper produced. Knowing that a paper support came from a particular batch of paper can assist as evidence in verifying the location of creation of a print or drawing, and even the identity of the creator, who may be known to have had a particular batch of paper in his or her studio at a given time.

The Watermarks field in CONA is free text. It may be concatenated from fielded data in the repository's local system. For suggestions regarding fields to use in indexing watermarks locally, see CDWA: Watermarks.

       

3.6.2.25.5

 

 

RULES for Watermarks

       

3.6.2.25.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Describe the watermarks, stationers' stamps, and other marks inherent in or applied to the material before it was fashioned into the work of art, if known.

     

3.6.2.25.5.2

   

How to record Watermarks

  • Use lower case. Capitalize proper names.

  • If the mark corresponds to published sources (e.g., dictionaries of watermarks), this should be indicated.

    • Examples

    • foolscap
    • letters EAL in orb with cross
    • fleur de lys above a banded shield; countermark: STACE
    • Florentine lily in double circle with F below and CAC above
    • crescents in a circle (possibly arms of Piccolomini)
    • indistinct (probably walking man)
    • star in circle with cross (like Briquet 6088)
    • watermark: none visible through lining
     

 

3.6.2.26

   

Inscriptions

     

3.6.2.26.1

   

Definition
The transcription or description of the content of the inscription, mark, or text, which includes the material or medium in which the inscription, mark, or text was executed; its support if it is on a separate piece affixed to the object; the method by which the inscription, mark, or text was produced; and a brief description of the content or appearance of the inscription or mark.

     

3.6.2.26.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.26.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.26.4

 

 

Discussion
Record a description of distinguishing or identifying physical markings, lettering, annotations, texts, or labels that are a part of a work or are affixed, applied, stamped, written, inscribed, or attached to the work, excluding any mark or text inherent in materials (record watermarks in the Watermarks field).

This field may include all words, numbers, symbols, stamps, and marks applied to the object during or after creation, whether by the artist or architect, his agent, or an owner or other later hand. It includes inscribed signatures, dates of execution, scale, explanatory texts, and other remarks.

It also includes texts that are considered part of the art work, such as calligraphy in a Chinese painting, text on a medieval manuscript page, or text written on a statue, as on the scroll held in the hand of a Romanesque sculpted prophet.

A precise transcription or a prose description of the inscription is important to provide clarity and explain unusual features of the inscription. The information in this transcription should then be indexed in other subcategories as appropriate (e.g., inscribed date should be recorded in creation Date); this makes it possible to formulate queries about types of inscriptions and their authors, as well as their locations, dates, and scripts.

Inscriptions and marks may be transcribed during a detailed examination of the object. They may also have been transcribed and published elsewhere. Indicate whether secondary or primary research sources have been consulted to identify the purpose and origin of certain types of inscriptions, such as an inscribed lot number from a sale.

All explanatory text that accompanies the inscription (e.g., the location or medium) should be clearly distinguished from the transcription. For example, editorial text could be separated from the transcription by using a colon, as in the following text: signed lower right, below the image: A. Kertész; inscribed by the artist lower right: Paris.

When an inscription or mark is documented, the following characteristics are important: Who made it; the way in which it was made (materials and technique); its location on the object; and an indication of what the inscription says or what the mark looks like. This may include a transcription, transliteration (if it is not in the Roman alphabet), description, or translation. Remarks about the significance of an inscription or mark, and citations to any sources used to identify or describe an inscription or mark, can also be recorded. This field is also used to record the content of works that are primarily textual.

Note that the information found in an inscription is not always accurate. Often "signatures" were added later. Inscribed dates may not reflect the actual date of a print. The colophon in a manuscript may be copied in later editions without regard for its accuracy. Inscriptions may have been added to works at sales or by dealers, such as stock numbers or coded prices.

       

3.6.2.26.5

   

RULES for Inscriptions

       

3.6.2.26.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record an exact transcription or accurate transliteration of an inscription, or a description of texts or marks found on a work.

     

3.6.2.26.5.2

   

How to record Inscriptions

  • For the primary work
    As a top priority, record signatures, dates, and inscribed titles. Inscribed titles should first be recorded in the Title field, but may be repeated or recorded in fuller form in Inscription.

    Optionally, record all additional marks or written words added to the object at the time of production or in its subsequent history, including dedications, texts, and colophons.

  • For the support
    Inscriptions, marks, or annotations found on any secondary support, mat, mount, frame, or plaque adjacent to the work or on paper or other types of labels attached to the work may also be described here.

  • Form and Syntax
    Record the inscription as follows:

  • Record an indication of the nature and position of the inscription (e.g., lower center, recto, or verso) if known, followed by a colon.

  • Record the accurate transcription of the inscribed text.

  • Record the transcription so that it accurately reflects case and abbreviations of the inscription on the work.

  • Use forward slashes to indicate line breaks.

  • Indicate missing or illegible text with ellipses, question marks, or other conventional notation.

  • Fill in abbreviated text if necessary for clarity, but place all editorial additions in square brackets to distinguish them from the actual transcription.

  • Add additional explanatory information or a translation, as necessary, using square brackets for any editorial comment that appears after the colon in the body of the transcription.

  • Use a semi-colon to separate descriptions of multiple inscriptions.

  • For descriptive text (e.g., signed and dated), avoid abbreviations and use lower case.

  • Signatures and dates should be clearly distinguished from other inscriptions.

    • Examples

    • signed lower left below the image: A Kertész; inscribed by the artist lower right: Paris

    • signed and dated lower left: 1505 / AD [monogram]

    • inscribed by the artist, right to left across the top, in brown ink: jicipit liber. endaborum. assauasorda. judeo inebraicho coposit[us] et a platone / tiburtinj inlatin sermone translat[us] anno. arabu. dx. mse sap h ar / capi tulu pimu ingeometrice arihmetice (p) vnyversalia proposita: franco. o dif. [referring to a geometry book by Abraham bar Hiyya Savasorda in library of San Marco, Florence]; bottom left corner, collection mark of Sir Thomas Lawrence: L.2445

  • Examples of terminology for this editorial comment include the following:

    • For type of inscription: signed, dated, titled, maker's mark, colophon, collector's mark, impressed, graffito, not inscribed.

    • For the location on the work: lower right; upper center verso; below the left handle; within printing plate.

  • Note unusual or important features, such as when the medium is unusual or different from that of the image, when an artist's name is not a signature, when the signature is in the plate rather than on the sheet of a print, when a date is incorrect, etc.

    • Examples

    • inscribed in frame: ECCE ANCILLA DOMINI FIAT MIHI SECUNDUM VERBUM TUU[M]; words projecting from angel's mouth: AVE GRATIA PLENA DOM[INUS TECUM]; text from Isaiah 7:14 is inscribed on book held by the Virgin.

    • stamped under the back seat rail: IAVISSE [for Jean Avisse]

    • Latin text in Carolingian minuscule, arranged in columns of 20 lines

  • Uncertainty
    Clearly indicate any uncertainty. Use words such as probably when scholarly opinion varies or the transcription is otherwise uncertain.

  • Translations
    If an expert or a source has translated the text from the original language (e.g., if the original text is in a non-Roman alphabet), clearly indicate the translation by placing it in brackets.

  • Description vs transcription
    If it is not possible to transcribe a lengthy inscription, describe or characterize it.

  • Groups
    For groups, volumes, and heavily inscribed items, inscriptions may be summarized. For example, a complex Chinese scroll may have many seals; rather than transcribe or describe each one, it may be preferable to indicate seals present and list the names of the collectors represented.

  • Typeface
    For typeface or letterform, a reference may be included in the Inscription field, but repeated in the Typeface field.

  • Marks
    Marks applied during or after creation, such as the stamps of silversmiths, publishers, or printers, may be mentioned in Inscriptions, but should be recorded in the Marks field.

  • Watermarks
    Watermarks and other marks inherent in the materials should be recorded in the Watermarks field.

  • Edition or State
    If state or edition are included in the Inscription, repeat them in the dedicated State or Edition fields, discussed below.
     

 

3.6.2.27

   

Typeface

     

3.6.2.27.1

   

Definition
An indication of the typeface, letterform, or script used in an inscription or textual document.

     

3.6.2.27.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.27.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.27.4

 

 

Discussion
Knowing the type of typeface or letterform is useful in the authentication and attribution of inscriptions and makes it possible for the reader to create a mental picture of it. In works that are primarily textual, the typeface or letterform reflects aesthetic choices.

Typefaces and letter forms are identified by standard names or phrases.

       

3.6.2.27.5

 

 

RULES for Typeface

       

3.6.2.27.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: It is optional to record a term identifying the typeface or letter form used in the inscription or for a texual work.

     

3.6.2.27.5.2

   

How to record Typeface

Use lower case, but capitalize proper names and script names that are used as proper names in authoritative sources.

  • Record typeface for inscriptions and for works that are primarily textual.

  • Typefaces and letter forms are identified by standard names or phrases.

    • Examples

      Helvetica 9 pt bold
      Univers
      Gothic script
      open letters
      Carolingian minuscule

      rustic capitals
      dotted delta
      three-bar sigma

    To index the typeface or letterform by linking to the AAT, record it in the Specific Subject field.

  • If it is not possible to identify a typeface or letter form definitively, record it here but note note the uncertainty (e.g., typeface is close to Gill Sans).
     

 

3.6.2.28

   

Marks

     

3.6.2.28.1

   

Definition
An identification of the mark type or name, a mark being a mark, stamp, or similar device applied to the work in the course of, or after, creation. Marks are not part of the material, as distinct from watermarks.

     

3.6.2.28.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.28.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.28.4

 

 

Discussion
Marks, such as seals and porcelain marks, may be referenced in the Inscriptions field, and recorded separately here.

       

3.6.2.28.5

 

 

RULE for Marks

       

3.6.2.28.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Record a term or reference to a mark on the work.

     

3.6.2.28.5.2

   

How to record Marks

  • Named marks
    Use a name for the mark as found in a mark authority, if possible. Use lower case, but capitalize proper names.

    • Examples
      Sèvres double Louis
      Grindley Tunstall
      R.S. Prussia with star

    If a mark authority is cited, list the citation for the authority in the Subject Sources.

  • Generic terms for marks
    If the mark has no proper name, or if the proper name of the mark is unknown, use a generic term to refer to the mark. Use terms from the AAT marks (symbols) hierarchy.

    • Examples
      chop mark (coin mark)
      counter mark
      dealers' mark
      stamp (mark)
     

 

3.6.2.29

   

State

     

3.6.2.29.1

   

Definition
For a work that was created as multiples, an indication of the relationship of the state of the work to other stages of the multiples.

  • Examples

    2:8
    bon à tirer
    unnumbered variant of state I (Bartsch 171-II (129)
     

3.6.2.29.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.29.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.29.4

 

 

Discussion
State is applicable to works created in multiples, particularly prints such as etchings printed from plates that are altered repeatedly. It may also refer to any sequence of related stages that together build toward the creation of a work of art or architecture. Each variation in the plate or stage of production is identified as a particular state. Since works of art produced in multiples typically vary slightly, identifying the state of a specific work makes it possible to distinguish it from other quite similar works. Differences in the application of ink to the same state of the plate are not separated states. Printmakers may make proofs to test their work on the plate; proofs sometimes survive and are typically named (e.g., artist's proof).

While state is primarily associated with graphic works, some sculptures have terms associated with them that refer to their state, such as artist's proof. This field could also be used to refer to stages in the construction of a work of architecture.

State can be expressed as a ratio of the state of the object to the number of known states. This should be combined with the name of the person who identified the total number of states, and the date of the publication in which the schema of possible states was delineated. Different authors may enumerate a varying number of possible states of a work, and alternate sequences of these states.

Unnumbered states also exist; these usually date from the time before a print was in circulation or before a work was completed. These are identified by specialized terms such as printer's proof and bon à tiré proof.

Caveat: The identification of the state of a work may require the expertise of a connoisseur if a published catalogue raisonné does not exist. The enumeration of states is often speculative, as not all states of a work may be known or described. Much of the literature on printmaking has focused on the identification of the various states of an artist's graphic works. Unless an inscription exists on the object, identifying it may be difficult; secondary sources or other works may be consulted to identify a specific state. Prepublication states such as working proofs often have inscriptions that identify their purpose.

       

3.6.2.29.5

 

 

RULES for State

       

3.6.2.29.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: For prints and as appropriate for other works produced in multiples, record an indication of the relationship of the stage of this work to other stages of the same multiples, if known. Any stage in the development of a printing plate or mold at which impressions are taken is a State.

     

3.6.2.29.5.2

   

How to record State

  • If noted by the repository or another authoritative source, record the state represented by the impression or copy taken from the plate or mold in the production of multiples.

    If not known from an authoritative source, omit the state. Do not guess.

  • Numbered states
    Avoid abbreviations, except for abbreviations for numbers (e.g., use 2nd rather than second). Use Arabic cardinal numbers (e.g., 5) or ordinal numerals (e.g., 4th).

    Express the State as a ratio: the state to which this work belongs out of the number of known states (e.g., for 2nd of 5 states, 2:5).

    Alternatively, if dictated by local practice, express the state in natural language (e.g., 2nd of 5 states).

    If the total number of states is unknown or is unavailable to the cataloger, list only the numeric indication of the state (e.g., 3rd state).

  • Unnumbered states
    For unnumbered states, record the appropriate term. Use lower case. As appropriate, identify the state by a descriptive phrase, if found in authoritative sources (e.g., final state or print before letters).

    Record terminology in the language of the catalog record. If no English term exists and non-English terms must be used, include the appropriate diacritical marks (e.g., bon à tirer).

    In order to link to generic terms for the state using the AAT, also record it in Specific Subject with Subject Extent purpose.

  • Uncertainty
    If scholars or other authoritative sources disagree or are uncertain about the state, clearly indicate this (e.g., possibly 2nd of 4 states).

  • For multiple numbering systems
    Different numbering systems may actually refer to the same state. Include all known ratios, using a semi-colon to separate the information (e.g., 2:7; 2:8).

  • Citing the sources
    If the State is based on a given published source or sources, include the name of the author of the catalogue raisonné used to identify the state, and the date it was published. If multiple sources are cited, use a semi-colon to separate the information (e.g., Adhémar 54.X; Reed and Shapiro 52.XV-XVIH). Include a link to a full citation for the source in Subject Source.

  • Types of states
    Use the following terminology for various types of states and proofs. For additional types of proofs, see the AAT.

    • numerical states: For most indications of state, record numerical references as described above (e.g., for 1st of 3 states, 1:3).

    • artist's proof: Use artist's proof (or epreuve d'artiste) for impressions printed especially for the artist and excluded from the numbering of an edition. On the print, It may be abbreviated as AP or EA, and numbered with an edition number according to the number of artist's proofs pulled (e.g., AP 2/12).

    • bon à tirer: Use bon à tirer (or right to print) for the proof approved by the artist to establish the standard for all of the other prints in the edition.

    • hors-commerce: Use hors-commerce, meaning "outside the commercial edition," for proofs that were excluded from the numbering of an edition, were not originally intended for sale, are not artist's proofs, printer's proofs, or bon à tirer. It may be abbreviated HC on the print.

    • printer's proof: Use printer's proof for impressions printed as tests for the printer and excluded from the numbering of an edition. It may be abbreviated PP on the print.
     

 

3.6.2.30

   

Edition

     

3.6.2.30.1

   

Definition
An indication of the placement of a work in the context of prior or later issuances of multiples of the same work. Edition either identifies a specific work in the context of a group issued at the same time, or defines an issuance of a work in relation to previous and subsequent editions.

  • Examples

    46/500
    2nd edition
    Kennedy edition
    unlimited edition
    25 casts made
     

3.6.2.30.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers; diacritics in legacy data may be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

       

3.6.2.30.3

 

 

Sources
Authoritative sources, with preference given to data from the repository.

 

 

 

 

3.6.2.30.4

 

 

Discussion
Edition in this field includes its meaning in two senses.

In the first sense, it may identify a specific work in the context of a group issued at the same time. In this sense, it describes a limited number of works made at a given time, such as prints taken from a plate or bronzes made from a set of molds. In the case of prints or photographs, an inscription often identifies the number of the impression, and juxtaposes it with the total print run (e.g., 2/32).

In another sense, Editon defines an issuance of a work in relation to previous and subsequent editions. Historically, this concept of edition is more problematic, and applying the field to printed works is often possible only if they were published in book form or can be grouped as a result of detailed study.

The edition of a work is often difficult to identify. In the case of books and "book-like" materials, an inscription may be present, possibly on the title page (e.g., Third Edition). If an edition statement is found on the title page, it should be transcribed accurately. Such inscriptions, however, can be misleading, as they may not accurately reflect the number of the edition at hand.

Identifying an edition may require the expertise of a connoisseur, or comparison of the object with a published catalogue raisonné. It is often a small technical change, such as the use of a different paper, shown by a change in watermark, that identifies a different edition. In other cases, different publishers will have issued a work, each in their own editions.

This information is often speculative, and not always reliable; all editions of a work are not always known or described. It is also difficult to apply the concept of edition to earlier works, when printmaking plates were kept in the possession of the artist or publisher who ran off more impressions as needed until the plate wore out.

Multiple opinions should be accommodated.

Note that different versions based on a work, such as copies after a work, re-creations, replicas, or reproductions of it, are not considered states or editions. Versions include the following examples: 1/4-scale version, small version, version A. Record versions as Related Works.

Caveat: A printed work in book form may have a title page with an edition statement. Inscriptions may be found on single sheets or photographs. Information about the various editions of an artist's graphic works may also be found in secondary sources devoted to the history of printmaking or to the graphic work of an artist. Sometimes the date a work was created identifies it as a separate edition. For example, the sculptures of the nineteenth-century artist, Rodin, are still being cast today, but the twentieth-century bronzes are not considered part of the original edition. Edition statements may be found on the title page, colophon, or justification of "book-like" works, or in inscriptions on single-sheet works. Secondary sources, such as collection catalogs and catalogues raisonnés, may also help to identify the edition of a work, as will comparison to other known editions.

       

3.6.2.30.5

 

 

RULES for Edition

       

3.6.2.30.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: For prints, books, and other works produced in multiples, record a description of the Edition when applicable.

     

3.6.2.30.5.2

   

How to record Edition

  • If noted by the repository or another authoritative source, record the edition represented by the work.

    If not known from an authoritative source, omit the edition. Do not guess.

  • For prints or sculptures
    Record a notation that identifies a specific print or other work in the context of a limited number of identical or very similar works made or issued at the same time and from the same matrix (e.g., 4/75).

  • For books
    For books, record an indication of the position of the issuance of the work in relation to previous and subsequent editions (e.g., 3nd edition), if known. A new edition of a book is characterized by substantive revisions to the intellectual content of the work, including alterations of the text or illustrations.



  • Form and syntax
    Use Arabic cardinal numbers (e.g., 5) and ordinal numbers (e.g., 4th), as appropriate.

    Avoid abbreviations, except for ordinal numerals (e.g., use 3rd rather than third).

    Use lower case except when a term includes a proper name. Record terminology in the language of the catalog record.

  • Fractional numbers
    For prints or other works issued in multiples at the same time, record a fractional number. Record the impression number, forward slash, and the edition size (e.g., 51/250).

  • Number or name of edition
    For books and other works produced in the context of prior or later issuances, record the number or name of the edition followed by the word edition (e.g., 5th edition). If an edition is both numbered and named, record the name followed by the impression number and edition size (e.g., Sagot and Le Garrec edition, 98/150 ).

  • Uncertainty
    If the impression number or edition size is uncertain, clearly indicate this in the display (e.g., probably 34/50).

    If the edition size is known but the impression number is unknown, record the edition size (e.g., edition of 20).

  • Edition statement on the work
    If there is an edition statement on the work, accurately transcribe it in the original language (transliterated into the Roman alphabet when necessary); it may also be included in the Inscriptions field.
       

 

       
   

[1]In these guidelines, "required" fields are flagged; "required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set by the system.

       

Last updated 3 May 2016
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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