The GettyResearch Institute
Research Home Tools Art & Architecture Thesaurus Full Record Display
Art & Architecture Thesaurus Full Record Display
New Search Previous Page Help

Click the icon to view the hierarchy.

Semantic View (JSONRDFN3/TurtleN-Triples)

ID: 300021723
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300021723

 

Record Type: concept
Kirman (Iranian Islamic styles after the Mongols, <Iranian Islamic styles and periods after the Mongols>, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Style, particularly of carpets, from the area around the city, Kermān, in southern Iran. Sophisticated carpets with elaborate, organized designs have been woven in Kermān since the 16th century. The best known Kirman carpets include a wide variety of 16th- and 17th-century vase carpets, rugs with rows of shrubs, arabesque carpets, fine garden carpets, and a group of medallion carpets with animals. All have asymmetrical knotting on cotton warps, with stiff, heavy woollen wefts pulled straight, and silk or cotton wefts between left relatively slack. The result is a double-warped carpet, the warps of one level lying almost directly behind adjacent warps. The color schemes of older carpets are among the richest and most varied found in Persian carpets. Vase carpets apparently continued to be made in the 18th century; a revival of carpet weaving came about in the late 19th century, with a variety of successive styles and fashions, including copies of French carpet styles, French paintings, architectural scenes with mosques and minarets, and symbolic and personage rugs similar to those made at Kashan and Tabriz. Cream shades are often used for the ground in modern carpets; the foundation is now all cotton, but the knotting is still asymmetrical.
 
Terms:
Kirman (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,A)
Kirman (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
Kirman (Spanish-P,D,U,U)
Kerman (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
Kermān (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
Karman (Iranian Islamic style) (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
Kermanshah (C,U,English,UF,U,U)  ............ name under which Kerman rugs were marketed in the West
Kirmanshah (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
克爾曼 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
kè ěr màn (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
ke er man (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
k'o erh man (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  F.FL

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Styles and Periods Facet
Styles and Periods Facet
Hierarchy of Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)
.... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <styles, periods, and cultures by region>
........ <styles, periods, and cultures by region> (G)
Hierarchy of Islamic World, The
............ Islamic World, The (G)
Hierarchy of <Islamic World dynastic styles and periods>
................ <Islamic World dynastic styles and periods> (G)
Hierarchy of <Iranian Islamic styles and periods after the Mongols>
.................... <Iranian Islamic styles and periods after the Mongols> (G)
Hierarchy of Iranian Islamic styles after the Mongols
........................ Iranian Islamic styles after the Mongols (G)
Hierarchy of Kirman
............................ Kirman (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 一種源自克爾曼地區的風格,尤指地毯。克爾曼(Kermān)是位於伊朗南部的城市。克爾曼地區自西元十六世紀起便開始生產精美的地毯;地毯上方具有精心製作的規律圖樣。著名的克爾曼地毯種類包括西元十六、十七世紀期間的各式花瓶地毯、有著多排灌木圖案的地毯、精緻的花園地毯,以及一些有著動物圖樣的獎章地毯。這些地毯在棉經紗上都有著不對稱的結;由於又硬又重的羊毛緯紗被拉得筆直,羊毛緯紗之間的絲或棉緯紗相較之下則顯得鬆散。這種編織方式所製作而成的就是雙經地毯,即一層經紗幾乎是直接貼在相鄰經紗之後。在波斯地毯中,年代較為古老的地毯擁有的色彩組合最為豐富,變化也最豐富。西元十八世紀時顯然仍有製作花瓶地毯;而在西元十九世紀晚期,地毯編織再度風行,興起了各種不同的後繼風格以及流行式樣,包括依照法國地毯風格所製作的仿製品、法國繪畫作品、清真寺與宣禮塔的建築景觀,以及具有符號圖樣與人物像的地毯。這些符號圖樣與人物像的地毯與卡尚(Kashan)與大不里士(Tabriz)所製作的地毯類似。奶油色經常被用來作為現代地毯的底色;地毯的底布目前都改以,但邊結依然採不對稱結構。 

Sources and Contributors:
克爾曼............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  大英百科全書線上繁體中文版 July 10, 2012
Karman (Iranian Islamic style)............  [VP]
.....................................................  Oxford English Dictionary (1989)
ke er man............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
....................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
kè ěr màn............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
....................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Kerman............  [VP]
.................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
.................  Erdmann, 700 Years of Oriental Carpets (1970) 70
.................  McMullan and Reichert, Islamic Rugs (1971) 1-3
.................  Oxford English Dictionary (1989)
.................  Personal Communication Julia Bailey, Sackler Art Museum, 01/93.
.................  Schlosser, Book of Rugs (1963) 42
.................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961)
Kermān............  [VP]
.................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
Kermanshah............  [VP]
.......................  Personal Communication Julia Bailey, Sackler Art Museum, 01/93.
.......................  Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1987)
.......................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961)
Kirman............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
.................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
.................  Fleming y Honour, Diccionario de Artes Decorativas (1987) 634
.................  Grove Art Online (2008-)
.................  Miller, Como Reconocer las Antigüedades (1991) 156
.................  Miller, Enciclopedia de Antigüedades (1999) 149
.................  Oxford English Dictionary (1989)
.................  Personal Communication Julia Bailey, Sackler Art Museum, 01/93; applies to shawls, rugs.
.................  Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1987)
.................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961)
.................  Winkler Prins Atlas (1987)
Kirmanshah............  [VP]
.......................  Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1987)
.......................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961)
k'o erh man............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  Chattopadhyaya, Carpets and Floor Coverings of India (1969) 11; Kirman carpets
............  Denny, Oriental Rugs (1979) Kerman carpets
............  Dimand, Handbook of Muhammadan Art (1944) x; Kerman ware
............  Ellis, Early Caucasian Rugs (1975) 13; Kirman rugs
............  Erdmann, Oriental Carpets (1962) 37; Kirman carpets
............  Fehervari, Islamic Pottery (1973) 189; Kirman ware
............  Getty Vocabulary Program rules carpets, Kerman; rugs, Kirman
............  Kühnel, Minor Arts of Islam (1970) viii; Kirman ware
............  Lane, Later Islamic Pottery (1971) 132; Kirman ware
............  New Encyclopaedia Britannica (1984) illustration, needs diacritics; Kerman carpets; Kirman carpets
............  Personal Communication Carol Bier, Curator, Textile Museum, WADC, 10/92; needs diacritics.; Kermans; Carol Bier, Curator, Textile Museum, WADC, 10/92.; Kirman carpets
............  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961) Kirmans
............  Winkler Prins Atlas (1987)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)

 

New Search

Back to Top

Printer Friendly Version

The J. Paul Getty Trust
The J. Paul Getty Trust