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Authority
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Categories for the Description of Works of Art


31. Subject Authority


DEFINITION

Information about a named iconographical, literary, mythological, or religious character, animal, theme, or story, or a named historical or fictional event. It may also contain information about a named structure, particularly if the structure is not cataloged separately as an work in its own right.

SUBCATEGORIES


31.1. Subject Authority Record Type
31.2. Subject Name
      31.2.1. Preference
      31.2.2. Name Type
      31.2.3. Name Qualifier
      31.2.4. Name Language
      31.2.5. Historical Flag
      31.2.6. Display Name Flag
      31.2.7. Other Name Flags
      31.2.8. Name Source
           31.2.8.1. Page
      31.2.9. Name Date
           31.2.9.1. Earliest Date
           31.2.9.2. Latest Date
31.3. Subject Date
      31.3.1. Earliest Date
      31.3.2. Latest Date
31.4. Subject Roles/Attributes
      31.4.1. Preference
      31.4.2. Role Date
           31.4.2.1. Earliest Date
           31.4.2.2. Latest Date
31.5. Related Subject
      31.5.1. Subject Relationship Type
      31.5.2. Subject Relationship Date
           31.5.2.1. Earliest Date
           31.5.2.2. Latest Date
31.6. Subject Broader Context
      31.6.1. Broader Context Date
           31.6.1.1. Earliest Date
           31.6.1.2. Latest Date
31.7. Related Place/Location
      31.7.1. Place Relationship Type
31.8. Related Person/Corporate Body
      31.8.1 Person Relationship Type
31.9. Related Generic Concept
      31.9.1. Concept Relationship Type
31.10. Subject Label/Identification
31.11. Subject Descriptive Note
      31.11.1. Note Source
           31.11.1.1. Page
31.12. Remarks
31.13. Citations
     31.13.1. Page
31.14. Subject Authority Record ID

Examples


GENERAL DISCUSSION

Included in this authority are iconographical subjects and other named subject matter of works of art (sometimes referred to as content), which is the narrative, iconic, or non-objective meaning conveyed by an abstract or a figurative composition. It is what is depicted in and by a work of art or architecture. This authority is used for the SUBJECT MATTER category of the work record. This authority also contains records for events and structures that may be used in the SUBJECT MATTER category as well as in the CONTEXT category. Structures may also be cataloged separately as works in their own right, with all the subcategories available in an work record.

Note that the SUBJECT MATTER category of the work record will be linked not only to the SUBJECT AUTHORITY, but also to other authorities; subjects described with the names of places or people should be taken from the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY and the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY (e.g., Rome, Italy). Subjects described by generic terms that are not proper nouns should be taken from the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY (e.g., cathedral, still life, landscape). If a term or name is recorded in one of these other authorities, it does not need to be repeated here.

Iconography
The SUBJECT AUTHORITY may be used to record iconography, which is the narrative content of a figurative work depicted in terms of characters, situations, and images that are related to a specific religious, social, or historical context. Themes from religion (e.g., Ganesha or Life of Jesus Christ) and mythology (e.g., Herakles or Quetzalcóatl (Feathered Serpent)) are within the scope of this authority. Themes from literature (e.g., Jane Eyre or Lohengrin) are also included.

Events
This authority may include records for historical events (e.g., Coronation of Charlemagne or US Westward Expansion).

Built works
This authority may include the proper names of buildings. Note, however, that if buildings are the main subjects of a given set of works, they should be recorded separately as works in their own right.[1]

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Prefer the most authoritative, up-to-date sources available, which may include the following, arranged according to preference:


Standard general reference sources
- major authoritative dictionaries and encyclopedia
- LC Subject Headings

Other authoritative sources
- other authoritative subject thesauri and controlled vocabularies (e.g., ICONCLASS)
- textbooks on art history, history, or other relevant topics

Other material on pertinent topics
- books, journal articles, and newspaper articles
- archives, historical documents, and other original sources (for historical terms only)

Other sources
- databases of contributors
- articles or databases on museum or university Web sites


Standard general sources include the following, arranged in order of preference:


Iconographic Themes
- Garnier, François. Thesaurus iconographique : système descriptif des représentations. Paris: Léopard d'or, 1984.
- ICONCLASS (most useful for Western religious and mythological subjects) http://www.iconclass.nl/.
- Narkiss, Bezalel, et al. Index of Jewish Art: Iconographical Index of Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts. Jerusalem and Paris: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities: Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes, 1976-1988.
- Roberts, Helene E. ed. Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998
- Stutley, Margaret. Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.


Fictional Characters
- Magill, Frank N. Cyclopedia of Literary Characters. Revised Ed. Edited by A.J. Sobczak. Pasadena, California: Salem Press, 1990-1998.
- Seymour-Smith, Martin. Dent Dictionary of Fictional Characters. London: Orion Publishing Co., 1991.

Events
- Grun, Bernard. Timetables of History: Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. 3rd ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.
- Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary. 2nd ed. Thompson, Sue Ellen and Helene Henderson, compilers. Detroit, Michigan: Omnigraphics, 1997.
- Kohn, George Childs. Dictionary of Wars. Revised ed. New York: Facts on File, 2000.
- Library of Congress Subject Headings. Library of Congress Authorities. [online] Washington, DC: Library of Congress. http://authorities.loc.gov/.
- Mellersh, H.E. L. and Neville Williams. Chronology of World History. 4 vols. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 1999.


Names of Buildings
- America Preserved: Checklist of Historic Buildings, Structures, and Sites. 60th ed. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 1995.
- Avery Library. Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals at Columbia University. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co.; Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 1994-
- Dictionary of Art. 34 vols. Jane Turner, ed. New York: Grove, 1996, or by subscription at http://www.groveart.com/.
- Fletcher, Sir Banister. History of Architecture. 18th ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975.
- Library of Congress Subject Headings. Library of Congress Authorities. [online] Washington, DC: Library of Congress. http://authorities.loc.gov/.
- Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects. Adolf K. Placzek, ed. New York: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1982.


RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

This authority may be used to control terminology in SUBJECT MATTER and other categories of the work record. The names for the entities and other information in this authority are used for retrieval of the work records. Names should be accessible by keywords and Boolean operators.[2]

Hierarchical relationships
If possible, this authority should be compliant with ISO and NISO standards for thesauri; it should be structured as a hierarchical, relational database.[3] It should be polyhierarchical, because the entities in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY often must have multiple "parents" or broader contexts.

Associative relationships
Subjects may have "associative relationships," meaning they are related non-hierarchically to other subjects.

Other relationships
Entities in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY may be linked to records in the other three authorities, linking to the people, places, and generic concepts associated with a particular subject.

For an explanation and discussion of thesauri, hierarchical relationships, associative relationships, preferred terms, "descriptors," and other issues regarding terminology, see Introduction to Vocabularies.

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31.1. Subject Authority Record Type 

DEFINITION

A term indicating the general type of subject represented in the authority record.

EXAMPLES


event
religion/mythology
literature
character/person
named animal
fictional place
built work


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: It is optional, but highly recommended, to classify the subject record according to general types.

Form and syntax
Record the term in lower case. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required.

The following general types of subjects are appropriate:


- religion/mythology (e.g., a theme Adoration of the Magi)
- literature
(e.g., Wuthering Heights)
- character/person
(a character, e.g., Zeus)
- named animal (a character, e.g., Peter Rabbit)
- event (whether real or fictional, e.g., Vietnam War, Judgment of Paris)
- fictional place (legendary/imaginary/religious, e.g., Garden of Eden)
- built work (e.g., Cathedral of Notre-Dame (Chartres, France))




TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with the terms suggested above, and others as necessary.

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31.2. Subject Name

DEFINITION

The names used to refer to the subject, including the preferred form of the name, which is the form most commonly found in published sources. It also includes synonyms and variant names for the subject.

EXAMPLES


Epiphany
Adoration of the Magi

Adorazione dei Magi
Hercules

Herakles
Ganesha

World War I
WWI
Coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte
American Civil War
Hercules
Olouaipipilele
Virgin Hodegetria
Death and the Miser
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: It is required to record at least one name - the preferred name, which is the name or term used most often in scholarly literature to refer to the subject. Record one or more terms, names, appellations, or other identifying phrases for the subject.

Form and syntax
Record proper names in upper case. For the names of events or narrative subjects, use title case. Avoid abbreviations for the preferred name (e.g., Saint John the Apostle Cathedral). Include common abbreviations in alternate names to provide additional access points (e.g., St. John the Apostle Cathedral). For the preferred name, use a name or term in the language of the catalog record (e.g., Adoration of the Magi in an English record, rather than the Italian Adorazione dei Magi). Note that, in some cases, the name most often used for a subject is in a foreign language rather than the vernacular language; if there is no English equivalent for a subject, use a name in the appropriate language (e.g., Ecce Homo). Use diacritics as appropriate. Express the name in natural order, not inverted order. Avoid initial articles (e.g., Argonaut Series rather than The Argonaut series).

Preferred name
The preferred name should be the name used most often to refer to the subject in standard general reference works in the language of the cataloging institution. The preferred names should be the form that would be best used to index the subject in alphabetical lists. To select a preferred name, consult the sources listed in TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT. If the name does not appear in authoritative and/or scholarly literature, choose the name used most often in the literature of art history or other professional literature in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States) (e.g., Hercules or Coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte). For names that are not found in standard sources, construct a preferred name.

Variant names
Include all synonyms for the subject, including variations in spelling and names in other languages. Record all variant names that appear in published sources and represent significant differences in form or spelling, including variant names, names in multiple languages, variants that differ in diacritics and punctuation, name inversions, and other variations. The following list contains names that all refer to the same concept: Magi, Three Kings, Wise Men, Tre Re Magi.

Guide term and facet names
If you use guide terms, create a descriptive phrase. Use lower case, unless the phrase contains a proper name. For facet names, capitalize the name for the sake of clarity in the hierarchical display.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: Populate names in this authority using published controlled vocabularies and authoritative encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other sources where possible, including the sources listed under General Discussion above.

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31.2.1. Preference

DEFINITION

An indication of whether the name is preferred or a variant name for the subject.

EXAMPLES
    preferred
    variant



DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record an indication of which name is preferred for this subject. Use lower case.

Flag the preferred name as preferred. Flag other names as variant. For example, if the name Battle of Little Big Horn is the preferred name, the synonym Custer's Last Stand should be flagged as a variant name.



TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Use the terms preferred, variant, and others as necessary.

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31.2.2. Name Type

DEFINITION

An indication of the type of name, to be used if the authority is intended to be compliant with standards for thesaurus construction, or to distinguish nouns from adjectival forms of names.

EXAMPLES


descriptor
alternate descriptor
used for term
noun
adjectival form


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a term indicating the type of name. Use lower case.

This subcategory is intended for use by those who wish the authority to be compliant with national and international standards for thesaurus construction (designating the term descriptor, alternate descriptor, etc.). For a discussion of the meanings of these terms, see the GENERAL CONCEPT AUTHORITY.

It may also be used to distinguish the noun form of names (e.g., Virgin Mary) from the adjectival forms (e.g., Marian), if any.


TERMINOLOGY/ACCESS

Controlled list: Use the terms in the Examples above, and others as described in the GENERAL CONCEPT AUTHORITY.

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31.2.3. Name Qualifier

DEFINITION

Word or phrase used as necessary to provide clarification or disambiguation.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: It may be necessary to add a qualifier to distinguish between homographs. For example, Antigone (daughter of Laomedon) and Antigone (daughter of Oedipus). The qualifier is generally displayed with the preferred name in parentheses.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This subcategory is free text. Be consistent where possible.

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31.2.4. Name Language

DEFINITION

An indication of the language of the name, particularly when the name is in a language other than the language of the catalog record.

EXAMPLES
    English
    Italian

    Chinese (transliterated Pinyin)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the language of the name, if known from authoritative sources. Capitalize the names of languages.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with a controlled list. Values may be derived from a source such as Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 14th edition. Barbara F. Grimes, ed. Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 2000. The ISO-639 standard may be used for language codes; however, if ISO codes are used, values must be translated into legible form for end-users.

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31.2.5. Historical Flag

DEFINITION

Flag indicating the historical status of the name.

EXAMPLES


current
historical


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record an indication if the name is current or historical. Use lower case.

Note that this flag records the historical status of a particular name only, not of the subject represented in the record.

If the name is currently in use to refer to the subject, the flag should be set to current. Sources will generally indicate when a name is historical.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Use a controlled list with terms current, historical, and others if necessary.

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31.2.6. Display Name Flag

DEFINITION

Flag designating whether or not the name is to be used in natural order displays or in an alphabetical list.

EXAMPLES


index
display
not applicable


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Flag the name as display if it has been constructed in order to be used in horizontal displays, or if it is the natural order form of the preferred name in cases where the preferred name is inverted. If the name is the form that should appear in alphabetical lists and indexes, flag it as index. There may be only one display name and one index name per record.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Use a controlled list with terms index, display, not applicable, and others if necessary.

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31.2.7. Other Name Flags

DEFINITION

Flags designating an abbreviation, pseudonym, and other special name status.

EXAMPLES


fulll name
abbreviation
pseudonym
not applicable


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record an indication of the special status of the name, as necessary. Use lower case.

Use abbreviation for any code or significantly shortened form of a name (e.g., WW II). If there is an abbreviation in the record, flag the full name (e.g., World War II). Use pseudonym for any nickname or designation that is not the proper name of the subject (e.g., Auspicious One for the subject with preferred name Shiva).


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Use a controlled list with terms full name, abbreviation, pseudonym, not applicable, and others as necessary.

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31.2.8. Name Source

DEFINITION

A reference to a bibliographic source or unpublished document that provides the warrant for a particular name.

EXAMPLES


- ICONCLASS (1978-)
- Garnier, Thesaurus iconographique (1984)

- Magill, Cyclopedia of Literary Characters (1990-1998
)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: Record the source(s) used for the name. In order to be a source, the name should have been translated precisely, retaining the diacritics, capitalization, and punctuation of the source.

For a full set of rules, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS.

For subjects taken from published literary works, record a reference to the literary work in SUBJECT AUTHORITY - CITATIONS. It may be recorded here too, if the name was taken from that source.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Ideally, this information is controlled by citations in the citations authority; see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS


Sources may also be recorded for SUBJECT AUTHORITY - DESCRIPTIVE NOTE and for the authority record in general in SUBJECT - CITATIONS.

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31.2.8.1. Page

DEFINITION

Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the name was found.

EXAMPLES


54
23 ff.
7:128


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: For a full set of rules for PAGE, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS - PAGE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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31.2.9. Name Date

DEFINITION

A description of the date or range of dates when a particular name was in use for the subject.

EXAMPLES


- established 1777
- from late 1st century BCE
- ca. 1st century BCE until 15th century


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the dates or date range when a name was used. Precise date spans for subject names are rarely known; include references to uncertainty or ambiguity as necessary.

Note that this field records the date of a particular name only, not of the subject represented in the record.

Ideally, the NAME DATE should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date. However, it may be used to record unusual or important information about the name.

If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient) or words such as documented, ca., and probably). Note that the first year when a name was documented is not necessarily the year when the name was first used; therefore, you must create a sufficiently early EARLIEST DATE. Names used in very ancient times are often unknown, and more recent names are used.

Note that NAME DATES refer to the name itself, not the date of the subject (which would be recorded with SUBJECT DATE).

Form and syntax
In the free-text NAME DATE field, record a phrase referring to a year, a span of years, or period that describes the specific or approximate date in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Index this free-text date with EARLIEST and LATEST DATES delimiting the appropriate span. If the name is still in use to refer to this place, the end date should be "9999." The NAME DATE may contain a note that does not refer to a date per se, but it must still be indexed with EARLIEST and LATEST DATES.

Follow other rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.[4]

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31.2.9.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest date on which a particular name was used.

EXAMPLES


1877
1670
1950


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest year indicated by or implied in the display NAME DATE.

Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. Follow rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.2.9.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest date on which a particular name was used.

EXAMPLES


1901
1675
9999


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest year indicated by or implied in the display NAME DATE.

Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. Follow rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.

Note that this is they last year when the name was used, which is generally "9999."

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.




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31.3. Subject Date

DEFINITION

The date or range of dates during which the subject is relevant or was used.

EXAMPLES


first seen in the third century CE
June 25, 1876
Aztec


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the dates during which a subject was relevant. Include nuance and expressions of uncertainty as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow the applicable rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

While DATES may not be applicable to many subjects, this subcategory is useful for particular sets of subjects and may be important for retrieval. For example, dates are helpful for events (e.g., the Coronation of Charlemagne could be described as occurred in 800 CE). The DATE is indexed with EARLIEST and LATEST DATES. The DATE for the subject Feathered Serpent could be used by Maya, Toltec, and Aztec cultures, which could be indexed with dates appropriate for the flourishing of those civilizations, EARLIEST DATE 200 and LATEST DATE 1600.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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31.3.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest date when a subject was first established or was used.

EXAMPLES


1250
-1000
2000-11-30


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest date when the subject could have been known or illustrated.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. Follow the applicable rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.3.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest date when a subject was first established or was used.

EXAMPLES


1400
-900
2000-11-30


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest date when the subject could have been known or illustrated.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. Follow the applicable rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.




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31.4. Subject Roles/Attributes

DEFINITION

Terms that characterize significant aspects of the subject.

EXAMPLES


elephant
good fortune
Hindu god
androgynous
dancer
mendicant
freedom


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a term or terms that characterize the most significant characteristics of the subject.

Form and syntax
Generally record the singular form of the term; record a plural term if appropriate. Use lower case for most terms, but capitalize terms for style, that refer to a proper name, or other terms that are normally capitalized in authoritative sources. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required.

Include all terms that refer to the following: physical characteristics (e.g., elephant), characteristic roles (e.g., savior, king ), major functions (e.g., castle), activities (e.g., farming), purpose (e.g., transport), political anatomy (e.g., duchy), symbolic significance (e.g., charity), or other major characteristics.

Record terms only if they refer to the most significant or major characteristics of the subject, or otherwise are deemed critical for retrieval. Do not try to describe the subject using these terms; use SUBJECT AUTHORITY - DESCRIPTIVE NOTE to describe the subject.

Record generic terms that characterize significant aspects of the subject in general. These are not characteristics of only one particular depiction of the subject (which is recorded in SUBJECT MATTER); instead, they should be general characteristics that will aid retrieval of all works that portray a given subject, no matter what the particular depiction in any single given work.

The goal of indexing these aspects of the subject is to allow access to the material by characteristics other than name. For example, the subject Ganesha could be indexed by terms indicating who Ganesha is and what he symbolizes: Hindu god, good fortune, elephant, good nature, strength, ritual circumambulation. The famous 19th-century nightclub, Chat Noir, which is the subject of a famous poster by Theophile Alexandre Steinlen, could be indexed by terms describing the activities of the club: cabaret, shadow theater, guignols.

If the subject is intimately related to a concept, person, or place, and if a link to the full authority record for that concept, person, or place is required, link it in the appropriate subcategory - RELATED SUBJECT, RELATED PERSON/CORPORATE BODY, RELATED PLACE/LOCATION, or RELATED GENERIC SUBJECT - rather than in SUBJECT ROLES/ATTRIBUTES.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list or authority: Control terminology with a controlled list. It is recommended to use a controlled list, populated by terms from the AAT and other sources. Many terms, but probably not all, could instead be controlled by linking to the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY.

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31.4.1. Preference

DEFINITION

An indication of whether the role or attribute is preferred or variant for the subject.

EXAMPLES


preferred
non preferred


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Flag one role or attribute in each record as "preferred." Use lower case.

As with preferred names, a preferred role/attribute is used as a default to create displays. Choose the role/attribute that represents the most important, most representative, or most inclusive role or attribute of the subject.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Use the terms preferred and non preferred. Others may be added if necessary.

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31.4.2. Role Date

DEFINITION

A description of the date or range of dates when the role or attribute was relevant.

EXAMPLES


- after 1638
- beginning ca. 1910
- ancient Egyptian


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the dates or date range when a role was relevant. Include references to uncertainty or ambiguity as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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31.4.2.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest date when the role or attribute was relevant.

EXAMPLES


1666
1353


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest year indicated by or implied in the display ROLE DATE.

Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. Follow rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIES DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.4.2.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest date when the role or attribute was relevant.

EXAMPLES


1723
1410


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest year indicated by or implied in the display ROLE DATE.

Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. Follow rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIES DATE.

When recording dates of activity, for LATEST ACTIVE DATE for living persons or extant corporate bodies, to allow successful retrieval, it is strongly recommended that you enter 9999 or another appropriate value rather than leaving the subcategory blank.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.5. Related Subject

DEFINITION

The identification of any places that have important ties or connections to the place being cataloged, excluding hierarchical whole/part relationships.

EXAMPLES


- First Shenandoah Valley Campaign (American Civil War, Historical Events)
- Joseph (New Testament, Christian Iconography)
- Hindu gods (Hindu Iconography)
- Labors of Hercules (Story of Hercules, Greek heroic legends, Classical Mythology)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Identify any subject related to the subject being cataloged where there is an important associative relationship. Associative relationships are to "see also" references, and exclude whole/part hierarchical relationships.

Form and syntax
Record proper names in upper case. For the names of events or narrative subjects, use title case. Capitalize place names. Use the label/identification of the related subject, described in SUBJECT AUTHORITY - LABEL/IDENTIFICATION.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

System generated: Ideally, this should be generated from various fields in the related SUBJECT AUTHORITY record.

Free-text: If this is a free-text field, index the information in the pertinent controlled subcategories elsewhere in the related record.

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31.5.1. Subject Relationship Type

DEFINITION

An indication of the type of relationship between the subject and another subject.

EXAMPLES


predecessor of
associated with
manifestation is
consort is
focus of
predecessor was


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a word or phrase that describes the relationship between the subject at hand and the linked subject. It is optional to record related places, but if they are recorded, it is highly recommended to use this subcategory to identify the type of relationship between them.

Form and syntax
Use lower case. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required

RELATIONSHIP TYPE describes relationships that go from the subject of the record to the related entity. Many reciprocal relationships between subjects are equal and the same on both sides of the relationship (e.g., mate of / mate of ). However, be careful to link to the correct side of the relationship when the term is not the same on both sides of the relationship (e.g., predecessor of / successor of , and vice versa)

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control these terms with a controlled list, including the terms above and others as needed.

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31.5.2. Subject Relationship Date  

DEFINITION

A description of the date or range of dates associated with the relationship between the subject and the related subject. 

EXAMPLES


from 1310
17th century
ancient


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a description of the dates or date range when the relationship was in place. Include references to uncertainty or ambiguity as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow the applicable rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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31.5.2.1. Earliest Date 

DEFINITION

The earliest date when the relationship could have been in effect.

EXAMPLES


1420
900


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: The earliest date when the hierarchical relationship could have been in place.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. Follow the applicable rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.5.2.2. Latest Date 

DEFINITION

The latest date when the relationship could have been in effect. 

EXAMPLES


1623
1521
9999


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest year indicated by the display RELATIONSHIP DATE.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record LATEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. Follow the applicable rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.6. Subject Broader Context

DEFINITION

An identification of the broader contexts for the subject. Ideally this is a hierarchical link.  

EXAMPLES


    - Marriage of the Virgin (Life of the Virgin Mary, New Testament, Christian iconography)
    - Creation story (Norse mythology)
    - American Civil War (Historical Events)
    - British literarature (Literary Themes)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: This subcategory is required, when applicable. There may be multiple hierarchical relationships (polyhierarchical). Identify the larger context (parent) required to construct the hierarchical (whole/part) relationships between a subject and another place. Position the subject under the most specific parent possible.

Form and syntax
Ideally this is a hierarchical link. For display, follow the example above, using the preferred SUBJECT NAME, hierarchical parents for the subject, and SUBJECT ROLES/ATTRIBUTES, as described in PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY - LABEL/IDENTIFICATION.

In addition to the label as displayed in the Examples above, the broader contexts may be derived from the hierarchical links and displayed in indented format:.


Magi
......Journey of the Magi
......Magi Follow the Star
......Magi before Herod
......Adoration of the Magi
............Presentation of the Gifts
......Magi Warned by Angel


Hierarchical relationships in this authority are those links in a thesaurus that describe genus/species or whole/part relationships.[1] Each record in the authority is linked to its immediate parent (broader context); hierarchy is constructed through these links. The authority is polyhierarchical, meaning that subjects can belong to more than one parent place. Hierarchical relationships are referred to by genealogical terms: child, children, siblings, parent, grandparent, ancestors, descendents, etc.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

System generated: Ideally, this broader context display should be generated from the hierarchical relationships of the authority record linked as BROADER CONTEXT.[1]

Ideally, this relationship should be managed by the computer system. The method by which the broader context is noted or linked will be specific to the cataloging, collection management, or editorial system being used. Linking the authority record to its broader context allows hierarchies to be constructed. In the examples above, the hierarchical relationships are represented by indentation, illustrating a display that will be intelligible to most end users.

Free-text: If generating a display by algorithm is not possible, or if the cataloging institution wants to express nuance that is not possible from an automatically generated string, a free-text field may be used instead.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Generally, the hierarchical relationship will be a special relationship that is managed separately from associative relationships. However, for some institutions, the whole/part relationships will be recorded only by using "part of" and "broader context for" in SUBJECT AUTHORITY - RELATED SUBJECT - RELATIONSHIP TYPE.

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31.6.1. Broader Context Date  

DEFINITION

A description of the date or range of dates associated with the hierarchical relationship between the subject being cataloged and the related subject. 

EXAMPLES


from 1791
18th century
11th century through 15th century


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a description of the dates or date range when a hierarchical relationship was relevant. Include references to uncertainty or ambiguity as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow the applicable rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.


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31.6.1.1. Earliest Date 

DEFINITION

The earliest date when the hierarchical relationship could have been in place.

EXAMPLES


1420
900


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: The earliest date when the hierarchical relationship could have been in place.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. Follow the applicable rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.6.1.2. Latest Date 

DEFINITION

The latest date when the hierarchical relationship could have been in place. 

EXAMPLES


1623
1521
9999


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest year indicated by the display RELATIONSHIP DATE.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. It is optional to record LATEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. Follow the applicable rules for dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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31.7. Related Place/Location 

DEFINITION

Information about a geographic place related to the subject at hand.

EXAMPLES


- Jerusalem (Yerushalayim district, Israel) (inhabited place)
- Oe-yama (Kyoto prefecture, Kinki, Japan) (mountain)
- Baetica (Roman Empire) (province)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Make links between records for the subject and geographic places. Link only places that have a direct and important relationship to the subject.

Form and syntax
Capitalize place names. Avoid abbreviations. Use the label/identification of the related place, described in PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY - LABEL/IDENTIFICATION.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

System generated: This should be generated from a link to the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY, if possible.

Free-text: If generating a display by algorithm is not possible, or if the cataloging institution wants to express nuance that is not possible from an automatically generated string, a free-text field may be used instead.

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31.7.1. Place Relationship Type

DEFINITION

An indication of the type of relationship between the subject and the place.

EXAMPLES


located in
born in
ruler of


Optional: Record a word or phrase that describes the relationship between the subject at hand and the place.

Form and syntax
Use lower case. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control these terms with a controlled list, including the terms above and others as needed.

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31.8. Related Person/Corporate Body

DEFINITION

Information about a person or corporate body related to the subject at hand.

EXAMPLES


- Charles III, King of Spain (Spanish ruler, 1716-1788)
- Qin Shi Huangdi (Chinese emperor, united China 221 BCE)
- Beauregard, P. G. T., General (American Confederate general, 1818-1893)
- Alighieri, Dante (Italian poet and author, 1265-1321)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Make links between records for the subject and related people or corporate bodies. Link only to people or corporate that have a direct and important relationship to the subject.

Form and syntax
Record proper names in upper case. Avoid abbreviations. Use consistent syntax and punctuation for the label identifying the related person or corporate body. For display, follow the example above, using the preferred NAME and DISPLAY BIOGRAPHY in parentheses, as described in PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY - LABEL/IDENTIFICATION.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

System generated: This should be generated from a link to the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, if possible.

Free-text: If generating a display by algorithm is not possible, or if the cataloging institution wants to express nuance that is not possible from an automatically generated string, a free-text field may be used instead.

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31.8.1. Person Relationship Type

DEFINITION

An indication of the type of relationship between the subject and the related person or corporate body.

EXAMPLES


protagonist was
actor was
ruler was
participant was


Optional: Record a word or phrase that describes the relationship between the subject and a person or corporate body.

Form and syntax
Use lower case. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control these terms with a controlled list, including the terms above and others as needed.



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31.9. Related Generic Concept

DEFINITION

Information about a generic concept related to the subject at hand.

EXAMPLES


- domestic cat (common name) (Felis domesticus)
- Christmas (Christian holidays)
- rose (common name) (Rosa)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Make links between records for the subject and generic concepts. Link only to generic concepts that have a direct and important relationship to the subject. Record other terms in SUBJECT ROLE/ATTRIBUTE.

Form and syntax
Record terms in lower case; if any term contains a proper name, record the name in upper case. Avoid abbreviations. Use the label/identification of the related generic concept, described in GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY - LABEL/IDENTIFICATION.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

System generated: This should be generated from a link to the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY, if possible.

Free-text: If generating a display by algorithm is not possible, or if the cataloging institution wants to express nuance that is not possible from an automatically generated string, a free-text field may be used instead.

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31.9.1. Related Concept Relationship Type

DEFINITION

An indication of the type of relationship between the subject and the related generic concept.

EXAMPLES


attribute is
personification is
symbolic counterpart is


Optional: Record a word or phrase that describes the relationship between the subject and the generic concept.

Form and syntax
Use lower case. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control these terms with a controlled list, including the terms above and others as needed.




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31.10. Subject Label/Identification

DEFINITION

A label or heading to identify the subject in displays.

EXAMPLES


- Coronation of Charlemagne (Life of Charlemagne)
- Buddha (Buddhist iconography)
- Annunciation (Life of the Virgin cycle)
- Battle of Little Big Horn (Indian Wars)
- Battle of Krishna and Naraka (Bhagavata Purana, Hindu literature)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a label or heading identifying the name, roles/attributes, or broader contexts.

Form and syntax
Use consistent syntax and punctuation for the label identifying the subject.

The label may be formed from the preferred SUBJECT NAME and preferred SUBJECT ROLE/ATTRIBUTE (e.g., Quetzalcóatl (Maya god)).

Alternatively, the label may be formed from the preferred SUBJECT NAME and names of some of its parents (e.g., Feast of Sada (episode of Shahnama, Persian Epic)).

In some cases, the preferred SUBJECT NAME is descriptive enough that no other information is required in the label (e.g., Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II ).

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

System generated: Ideally, this should be generated from various fields in the subject record and its parents' records.

Free-text: If this is a free-text field, index the information in the pertinent controlled subcategories elsewhere in the related record.

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31.11. Subject A Descriptive Note

DEFINITION

Additional information about the place, including a discussion of its history, particularly noting any controversies or issues, presented in a form to be displayed to end users.

EXAMPLES


[for the Virgin Hodegetria (type of Virgin Mary)]
Meaning "Showing the Way Virgin," the iconography typically shows the Virgin Mary, half- or full-length, holding the Christ Child in one arm (generally her left) and pointing to him with her other hand. The Christ Child typically has one hand raised in blessing. It is most common in Eastern Christian art.


[for the Feast of Sada (episode of Shahnama, Persian Epic)]
It is a feast that was held in celebration of mankind's discovery of how to strike sparks by hitting two stones together. Hushang tried to throw a stone at a dragon lurking behind some rocks; he missed the dragon, but sparks were created when his stone missile hit the rocks. He built a large fire and held a feast to celebrate his discovery.


[for the Adoration of the Magi (Life of Christ )]
Magi venerate the Christ Child, typically in the cave or stable where he was born. They often offer gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, representing Christ's kingship, divinity, and future death. In early representations, they comprise three or four bearded men, who are astrologers with pointed Phrygian caps. By the Renaissance, they were generally three men portrayed as kings with crowns. They may be of three different races and represent the three ages of man (youthful, middle-aged, and elderly). They typically stand or kneel before the Holy Family, offering their gifts.


[for the American Revolution]
Refers to an insurrection of 13 of Great Britain's North American colonies, from 1775 to 1783, which resulted in political independence and the formation of the United States of America. Following victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, the British government imposed taxes and other revenue-raising measures to force the North American colonies pay more of the cost of government and defense. Colonial discontent regarding these taxes, trade policies, and lack of representation in the British Parliament resulted in war breaking out between the British and Americans in 1775, and the declaration of independence by the American colonies in 1776. The American forces comprised state militia and a relatively small Continental Army. The well-trained British professional army was aided by German mercenaries. America was aided by France in 1778, Spain in 1779, and the Netherlands in 1780. Satirical images of the American grievances against Britain appeared in the years before war broke out. Depictions of themes and battles of the war itself first appear in the late 1770s, during the period when the war was still taking place. Romanticized depictions of the American victories and of theme of independence were popular through the 19th century, and often include George Washington and other major American protagonists.

[for Quetzalcóatl (Feathered Serpent)]
The Feathered Serpent is one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. Representations of a feathered snake occur as early as the Teotihuacán civilization (3rd - 8th centuries CE) on the central plateau, where Quetzalcóatl seems to have been conceived as an earth (vegetation) and water deity associated with the rain god Tlaloc. When Nahua-speaking (Toltec) tribes from the north arrived in the area, Quetzalcóatl's cult underwent significant changes, including an emphasis on blood sacrifice. The later Toltec culture (9th - 12th centuries), centered at the city of Tula, emphasized war and human sacrifice linked with the worship of heavenly bodies. In Aztec times (14th - 16th centuries) Quetzalcóatl was honored as the patron of priests, goldsmiths, craftsmen, and the calendar and books. He was also identified with the planet Venus, and was the god of the morning and evening star; thus he was the symbol of death and resurrection. In addition to being represented as a plumed serpent, Quetzalcóatl was often depicted as a man with a beard. He may be represented with his companion Xolotl, a dog-headed god. He may appear as Ehécatl, the wind god, when he is shown wearing a mask with two protruding tubes (through which the wind blew) and a conical hat typical of the Huastec tribe of northeastern Mexico. His representations may be associated with circular temples, which were believed to please Ehécatl because they offered no sharp obstacles to the wind.


GENERAL DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a single coherent statement covering some or all of the salient characteristics and historical significance of the subject. Include a brief description of the salient facts, actions, and events about the subject. Note how the subject is generally depicted in art, if pertien, but generally avoid including the names of specific works of art or architecture. You may mention a few specific works as necessary to make a point.

Form and syntax
Use natural word order. You may use phrases or complete sentences, but always begin the note with capital letter and end it with a period. Use sentence case (not all capitals or title case). Capitalize proper names. Avoid abbreviations. Write the note in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States). Names and other words in foreign languages may be used within the note when there is no commonly used English equivalent. Use diacritics as appropriate.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent format and syntax when possible. Any significant information in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE should be recorded in the appropriate controlled fields.




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31.11.1. Note Source

DEFINITION

A reference to a bibliographic source or unpublished document that supplied information in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

EXAMPLES


- New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967-1979)
- Gardner's Art Through the Ages (1996)
- Grove Art Online (2003-)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: It is optional but strongly recommended to record the source used for the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE. For a full set of rules for CITATIONS, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Ideally, this information is controlled by citations in the citations authority; see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES.

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31.11.1.1. Page

DEFINITION

Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the information was found.

EXAMPLES


54
23 ff.
7:128


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: For a full set of rules for PAGE, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS - PAGE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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31.12. Remarks

DEFINITION

Notes or comments about the subject.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a note containing additional information or comments on this category. Use consistent syntax and format. For rules regarding writing notes, see DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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31.13. Citations

DEFINITION

A reference to a bibliographic source, unpublished document, or individual opinion that provides the basis for the information recorded in this category.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the source used for information in this category. For a full set of rules for CITATIONS, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Ideally, this information is controlled by citations in the citations authority; see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES.

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S31.13.1. Page

DEFINITION

Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the information was found.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: For a full set of rules for PAGE, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS - PAGE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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31.14. Subject Authority Record ID

DEFINITION

A number used to uniquely identify the Subject Authority record to the computer system.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: It is optional but highly recommended to use persistent unique numeric identifiers for the Subject Authority record in the computer system. Typically, such numeric schemes are composed of a consistent, defined range of integers (e.g., 12 number sequences, such as 100000000123). Alternatively, numbers may be applied sequentially beginning with number one.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: This subcategory is automatically generated and controlled.



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EXAMPLES


Record Type: religion/mythology | character/person
Subject Name: Hercules Preference: preferred
    Name Source:
ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Herakles Preference: variant
    Name Source:
ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Heracles Preference: variant
    Name Source:
ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Ercole Preference: variant
    Language:
Italian Name Source: ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Hercule Preference: variant
    Language:
French Name Source: ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Hércules Preference: variant
    Name Source:
ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Roles/Attributes: Greek hero | king | strength | fortitude | perseverance
Broader Context: Story of Hercules (Greek heroic legends, Classical Mythology)
    Classical Mythology
    ......Greek heroic legends
    ......... Story of Hercules
.    .............Hercules
Citation: ICONCLASS. http://www.iconclass.nl/.
Citation: Grant and Hazel. Gods and Mortals in Classical Mythology (1973) Page: 212 ff.

Record Type: religion/mythology | character/person
Subject Name: Shiva Preference: preferred
    Name Source:
Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Siva Preference: variant
    Name Source:
Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Siwa Preference: variant
    Name Source:
Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Sambhu Preference: variant
    Name Source:
Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Sankara Preference: variant
    Name Source:
Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Pasupati Preference: variant
    Name Source:
Besset, Divine Shiva (1997)
Subject Name: Mahesa Preference: variant
    Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Mahadeva Preference: variant
    Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Auspicious One Preference: variant
    Name Source:
Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Roles/Attributes: Hindu deity | androgynous | destroyer | dancer | restorer | mendicant | ascetic | yogin | sensuality | herdsman | avenger
Broader Context: Hindu gods (Hindu Iconography)
    Hindu Iconography
    ....... Hindu gods
    ............ Shiva
Relationship Type:
focus of
    Related Generic Concept: Saivism
Relationship Type: manifestation is
    Related Generic Concept: lingus
Relationship Type: manifestation is
    Related Subject: Ardhanarisvara (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: manifestation is
    Related Subject: Nataraja (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: consort is
    Related Subject: Parvat (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: consort is
    Related Subject: Uma (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: consort is
    Related Subject: Sati (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: consort is
    Related Subject: Durga (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: consort is
    Related Subject: Kali (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: consort is
    Related Subject: Sakti (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: parent of
    Related Subject: Ganesha (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: parent of
    Related Subject: Skanda (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: animal image is
    Related Subject: Nandi the Bull (Hindu Iconography)
Relationship Type: developed in
    Related Place/Location: India (Asia)
Descriptive Note: One of the primary deities of Hinduism. He is the paramount lord of the Shaivite sects of India. Shiva means “Auspicious One” in Sanskrit. He is one of the most complex gods of India, embodying contradictory qualities: both the destroyer and the restorer, the great ascetic and the symbol of sensuality, the benevolent herdsman of souls and the wrathful avenger. He is usually depicted as a graceful male. In painting, he is typically white or ash-colored with a blue neck, hair represented as coil of matted locks, adorned with the crescent moon and the Ganges. He may have three eyes and a garland of skulls. He may have two or four arms and carry skulls, a serpent, a deerskin, trident, a small drum, or a club with a skull on it. He is depicted in art in various manifestations, often with one of his consorts.
    Note source: Toffy, Gods and Myths: Hinduism (1976)
Citation: Besset, Divine Shiva (1997)
Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-) Page: "Siva." accessed 4 February 2004

Record Type: religion/mythology | literature
Subject Name: Marriage of the Virgin Preference: preferred
    Name Source:
ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Sposalizio Type: variant Language: Italian
    Name Source: ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Betrothal of the Virgin Preference: variant
    Name Source: ICONCLASS (1979-)
Subject Name: Marriage of Mary and Joseph Preference: variant
    Name Source: ICONCLASS (1979-))
Hierarchical Position: Life of the Virgin Mary (New Testament, Christian Iconography)
    Christian Iconography
    ... New Testament
    ........... Life of the Virgin Mary
    ................. Marriage of the Virgin
Subject Roles/Attributes: betrothal | high priest | marriage | temple
Relationship Type: actor is
    Related Subject: Mary (Biblical characters, New Testament, Christian Iconography)
Relationship Type: actor is
    Related Subject: Joseph (Biblical characters, New Testament, Christian Iconography)
Descriptive Note: Mary and Joseph are married by the high priest (ICONCLASS). The story is not in the canonical Bible; it comes from the apocryphal Book of James (or Protoevangelium, Infancy Gospel 8-9) and the Golden Legend by Jacobus de Voragine. The “marriage” scene is technically a betrothal. It generally takes place in or outside the temple. Mary and Joseph typically stand to either side of the priest, who joins their hands in betrothal. Joseph may be seen as an older man. He has been chosen from a group of suitors, all of whom had been asked by the high priest to bring a rod (a branch or twig) to the altar; the rod of Joseph bloomed miraculously by intervention of the Holy Spirit, thus designating him as the man chosen by God to be the spouse of Mary.
    Note Source: Jacobus de Voragine, Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine (1969)
Citation:
ICONCLASS (1979-)Page: Notation: 73A42
Citation: Oxford Companion to Art (1996) Page: 1195 ff.
Citation: Testuz, Protoevangelium Jacobi: Apocryphal books (1958)

Record Type: fictional place
Subject Name: Niflheim Preference: preferred
    Name Source:
Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Niflheimr Preference: variant
    Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: House of Mists Preference: variant
    Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Broader Context: Creation story (Norse Mythology)
    Norse Mythology
    ...… Creation story
    ........... Niflheim
Subject Roles/Attributes: underworld | creation | death | mist | cold | dark
Relationship Type: ruled by
    Related Subject: Hel (Norse goddess)
Descriptive Note: In the Norse creation story, Niflheim was the misty region north of the void (Ginnungagap) in which the world was created. It was also the cold, dark, misty world of the dead, ruled by the goddess Hel. In some accounts it was the last of nine worlds, a place into which evil men passed after reaching the region of death (Hel). It was situated below one of the roots of the world tree (Yggdrasill). Niflheim contained a well (Hvergelmir) from which many rivers flowed.
Note Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-) Page: "Niflheim," accessed 13 June 2005

Record Type: event
Subject Name: First Battle of Bull Run Preference: preferred
    Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: First Battle of Manassas Preference: variant
    Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Date: 21 July 1861
    Earliest: 1861 Latest: 1861
Broader Context:
American Civil War (American History, Historical Events)
    Historical Events
    .....American History
    ....... American Civil War
    ....................First Battle of Bull Run
Subject Roles/Attributes: battle | invasion | casualties
    Relationship Type: predecessor was
Related Subject: First Shenandoah Valley Campaign
    Relationship Type: participant
Related Person/Corporate Body: General Irvin McDowell (American Union general, 1818-1885)
    Relationship Type: participant
Related Person/Corporate Body: General P.G.T. Beauregard (American Confederate general, 1818-1893)
Relationship Type: location
    Related Place/Location: Manassas (Virginia, United States)
Descriptive Note: One of two battles fought a few miles north of the crucial railroad junction of Manassas, Virginia. The First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas by the South) was fought on July 21, 1861, at a very early stage of the war. Both armies were ill-prepared, but political pressures forced the Northern General Irvin McDowell to advance to a small stream named Bull Run near Manassas in northern Virginia, southwest of Washington; this was a move against the Southern city of Richmond, Virginia.
    Note Source: Antietam National Battlefield [online] (2003) Page: accessed 5 February 2004
Citation: Kohn, Dictionary of Wars (2000)

Record Type: literature
Subject Name: Wuthering Heights Preference: preferred
    Name Source:
Bronte, Wuthering Heights, edited by Sale and Dunn (1990) Page: title
Broader Context: British Literature
    Literary Themes
    .....British Literature
Subject Roles/Attributes:
love | romance
    Relationship Type: author
Related Person/Corporate Body: Emily Brontë (English novelist, 1818-1848)
Relationship Type: character
    Related Subject: Catherine Earnshaw
Relationship Type: character
    Related Subject: Mr. Heathcliff
Relationship Type: location
    Related Place/Location: Yorkshire (England, United Kingdom)
Descriptive Note: An emotional story of heartbreak and mystery surrounding a doomed romance. The novel was written between October 1845 and June 1846; it first appeared in print in December 1847. The work did not receive critical recognition until after Emily's death from consumption in 1848.
Citation: Bronte, Wuthering Heights, edited by Sale and Dunn (1990)
Citation: Bronte, Wuthering Heights, prefaces by Emily and Anne and Charlotte Bronte and H.W. Garrod (1950)

[note that some institutions will wish to catalog built works as works in their own right]

Record Type: built work
Subject Name: Eiffel Tower Preference: preferred
    Language:
English Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Tour Eiffel Preference: alternate preferred
    Language:
French Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Subject Name: Three-Hundred-Metre Tower Preference: variant
    Historical Flag:
historical Name Source: Encyclopedia Britannica online (2002-)
Hierarchical Position: Built Works
    Built Works
    ....... Eiffel Tower
Subject Roles/Attributes: industrial exposition | tower
    Relationship Type:
location
Related Place/Location: Paris (France)
    Relationship Type: event
Related Subject: International Exposition (Paris, 1889)
Citation: Harriss, The tallest tower: Eiffel and the Belle Epoque (1975)

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NOTE: Outline numbers are subject to change and intended only to organize this document.

Revised 10 September 2008