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Categories for the Description of Works of Art


17. Context


DEFINITION

Political, social, economic, or religious events or movements associated with the work of art or architecture at its creation and over time, including competitions. This category is also used to record the placement of a work in a particular position within an architectural context and any information about the discovery or excavation of the work.

SUBCATEGORIES



GENERAL DISCUSSION

This category provides information specific events (e.g., a coronation or a competition) or situations (e.g., the AIDS epidemic) that influenced the creation or later history of a work. It also records the historical relationship of the object to architectural environments, to an archaeological site, or to another historical location. CONTEXT positions the work in its historical framework, establishing the conditions that governed its creation or influenced the creator's interpretation of his or her subject matter. Context contains the historical data that helps to define the work. The American Association for State and Local History defines "Historical Data" as "Data that provides a broad historical context for objects, relating them to people, organizations, places, events, and concepts." [1]

Event-related context
Context is critical for works of art or architecture created for a particular event (e.g., the World's Columbian Exhibition at Chicago in 1893) or a special competition. Historical events may have influenced creation in many ways; for example, Trajan's Column was created to celebrate the Emperor's successes against the Dacians; and General Idea's work was profoundly influenced by the AIDS epidemic.[2]

Architectural context
Perception of a work of art is often colored by the physical context within which it is seen. The spatial relationship between the viewer and the work of art may have influenced its creation. For example, a work may have been conceived to fit within a particular decorative scheme, such as Robert Adam's work at Syon Park, or within a particular interior, such as Masaccio's Trinity at Santa Maria Novella in Florence. The relative position of a work within a particular space, or on a building, may also have influenced its interpretation and assessment. For example, Bernini's Fountain of the Four Rivers was given a prominent position in front of Borromini's façade of Sant'Agnese in Agone, which has been interpreted as a polemical attitude of one architect toward the other.

Archaeological context
Documenting the discovery or archaeological excavation of a work provides important information about its origins, history, and past use. It can assist in dating the work and may provide clues to its creation.Archaeological context (e.g., the disposition of artifacts in the Sutton Hoo ship-burial hoard) becomes especially important when little else is known about the work or its creation.

Historical location
There may be locations associated with the work in various historical contexts. There are several areas of an Object/Work record where historical locations or "place" may be recorded as specifically related to other subcategories (e.g., OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY). The subcategories in CONTEXT allow for the recording of additional miscellaneous historical locations that fall outside the scope of any other subcategory in the Object/Work record.

Over time, a work can be associated with different contexts; each should be described in a separate occurrence of the sets of subcategories of CONTEXT. The interpretation of context may be open to dispute, so multiple opinions should be accommodated.

Contextual information can be derived from inscriptions, literary descriptions, archival documents, eyewitness accounts, biographies, reviews, other works of art, letters, labels, inventories, artists' statements or later interpretations of a work or subject matter.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Record the culture that created the work in CREATION - CULTURE. Information in CONTEXT may be repeated to some extent in DESCRIPTIVE NOTE. Information in CONTEXT may be repeated or expanded upon in PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION, FACTURE, ORIENTATION/ARRANGEMENT, STYLES/PERIODS/GROUPS/MOVEMENTS, and CRITICAL RESPONSES, as necessary.

Other works that share a similar context may be indicated in RELATED WORKS. The provenance or history of ownership of a work is recorded in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY. If a work's purpose has changed over time, its present function, the original object type, and all subsequent object types should be indicated in OBJECT/WORK - TYPE. The place where a work was produced should be specified in CREATION - PLACE. Historical events and people depicted in a work should be indicated in SUBJECT MATTER. Competitions may be recorded in CONTEXT - EVENTS, but the history of a work's inclusion in exhibitions in art galleries, museums, and other public spaces is recorded in EXHIBITION/LOAN HISTORY. If a particular context has altered a work's appearance, this fact should be noted in CONDITION/EXAMINATION HISTORY. Technical studies that establish details about a context should be described in CONSERVATION/TREATMENT HISTORY.

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17.1. Historical/Cultural Events

DEFINITION

A description of the political, social, economic, or religious events or circumstances associated with the work over time.

EXAMPLES


[for a drawing by S.W. Milburn and Partners]
Design was made for the International Architectural Competition for the Opera House in Sydney, Australia.

[for the painting The Oath of the Horatii]
The official artist of the French Revolution was Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), who was eventually entrusted with the commemorative portraits of martyred revolutionary leaders, the design of public pageants, celebrations, state funerals, and even the designs for the costumes to be worn by the citizens and citizenesses of the republic...The Oath of the Horatii shows the three Horatii brothers, chosen to defend Rome in combat against the Curiatii...The incident was recorded by Roman historians, and although it took place under the kingdom, [it] was believed by the French to have been an example of republican patriotism.[3] Ironically, David's painting was commissioned in 1785 by Louis XVI, even though it ultimately inspired the nascent revolutionary sentiments that led to his beheading in 1793.


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Describe the relationship between the work and historical or cultural events associated with it. If this information is discussed in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE, it need not be repeated here, but it should be indexed in EVENT IDENTIFICATION below.

It is particularly important to record events or circumstances having to do with the purpose of the work. Context can include named events (e.g., Marriage of Maria de'Medici, World's Columbian Exposition, or Vietnam War) as well as circumstances that do not have a proper name (e.g., a generic funeral or marriage). Since the association of the work with the event may be a matter of opinion, explain any uncertainty or nuance.

Form and syntax
Use natural word order. You may use phrases or complete sentences, but always begin the note with a capital letter and end it with a period. Use sentence case (not all capitals or title case). Capitalize proper names. Avoid abbreviations. Write the note in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States). Names and other words in foreign languages may be used within the note when there is no commonly used English equivalent. Use diacritics as appropriate.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field, however the use of consistent terminology is recommended for clarity. Index the event in EVENT IDENTIFICATION.

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17.1.1. Event Type

DEFINITION

Generic term characterizing the type of event associated with the work, excluding creation and other events and activities recorded in other subcategories.

EXAMPLES


- coronation
- war

- inauguration

- competition

- exhibition
- funeral


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a generic term referring to the type of event associated with the work. The term may be used alone, or with a named event in EVENT IDENTIFICATION subcategory.

Occasionally, it will be necessary to record an event in this subcategory for which a proper name is inappropriate (e.g., if the work refers to a generic funeral, not a particular one) or for other reasons will not be identified in EVENT IDENTIFICATION, discussed below.

Reference to the context or purpose of the work may be recorded as OBJECT/WORK TYPE or in SUBJECT MATTER, and need not be repeated here. Record creation in the CREATION subcategories. Record other events or activities in other specifically designated subcategories when possible.

Form and syntax
Record the term in lower case. Use the singular form of terms. Use terms in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States).

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with a controlled list, using the terms in the Examples above, and others as necessary. Sources of vocabulary may include the AAT (particularly the Events and Associated Concepts hierarchies).

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17.1.2. Event Identification

DEFINITION

An identification of the event or situation involving the work of art or architecture.

EXAMPLES


- French Revolution (France, 1787-1799)
- World's Columbian Exposition
(Chicago, Illinois, USA, 1893)
- International Architectural Competition for the Sydney Opera House (Sydney, Australia
, 1957)
- European expansion in the "New World"
(North and South America, 16th-17th century)
- Marriage of Peter the Great and Catherine Alekseyevna (Russia, 1712)
- Coronation of Itzcoatl (Mexico, 1427)
- Independence of Mexico (from Spain, 16 September 1810 )
- Bombing of Guernica (during Spanish Civil War, 26 April 1937)
- Battle of Marathon (Marathon plain, northeastern Attica, September 490 BCE)
- Vietnam War (Vietnam, 1954-1975)
- AIDS Epidemic (worldwide, first reported in 1981)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the particular event or situation with which the work is associated.

Form and syntax
For the proper names of events, record the names in title case, not sentence case. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax in event names across the database where possible. Capitalize all personal, corporate, and geographic proper names in the event name. For constructed event names in English, capitalize the first word and all nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and subordinate conjunctions; use lower case for articles, coordinate conjunctions, and prepositions, unless they are the first word of the name of the event. For event names in other languages, follow capitalization rules of that language. For further rules, see the SUBJECT AUTHORITY.

Devise a name for events, when appropriate and as advised in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY. For example, a name should be constructed for the marriage between two famous people, such as Marriage of King Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette, even if the cataloger cannot find the proper name in a source.

Note that generic terms to describe named events will be recorded in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY and do not need to be repeated here (e.g., if you record the event Vietnam War (Vietnam, 1954-1975) in this subcategory, the event will be indexed as a war in the authority). However, you may also record the generic event term in EVENT TYPE if necessary, although that subcategory is generally used for generic event terms for which no named event will be recorded.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority or controlled list: Control the named events in this subcategory with the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY, which contains records for events and can be populated with terminology from the controlled vocabularies named below. Named events should be recorded in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY, together with their variant names, a term indicating the type of event, location of the event, dates of the event, people involved in the event, and other information. Display the event names with the SUBJECT AUTHORITY - QUALIFIER (generally comprising a geographic place and date). Sources of vocabulary include Canadiana_Authorities, LC Name Authorities, LCSH, and others as recommended in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY.

For generic events that do not have a proper name, control terminology for with the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY or devise a more concise controlled list for this subcategory. Sources of vocabulary may include the AAT(particularly the Events and Associated Concepts hierarchies).

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17.1.3. Event Date

DEFINITION

A description of the year or span of time during which the work was associated with the event or situation.

EXAMPLES


from 1492
1789-1799
312 BCE
30 May 1831
May 1770
1587
before 1952
17th century
by 1848-ca. 1880


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a year, precise day and month, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date when the work was associated with the event. Since dates may be approximate, indications of nuance and certainty should be expressed, as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

Use this subcategory when the date of the association of the work with the event does not directly correspond to the duration of the event (e.g., as when a work is associated with one particular year, but the event took place over a number of years). Note that the dates for the event itself will be recorded in the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY and should not be repeated here (e.g., the dates of the French Revolution are 1787-1799; these dates should be recorded in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY record for the French Revolution).

Form and syntax
If a specific date is known, record the year, or the day, month and year. If a span of dates is applicable, record the year beginning the span, dash, and the year ending the span. Use natural word order. Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names. Avoid abbreviations, except with ca. (for "circa"), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., record 1780-1795, NOT 1780-95).

Use ordinal numbers (e.g., 17th) and Arabic numbers (e.g., 1959), as appropriate. Express words and phrases in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States), except in rare cases where no English-language equivalent exists or where the foreign term is most commonly used (e.g., with the name of a period). Use diacritics as required.

Use the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Use BCE (Before Common Era) to indicate dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Use CE as necessary. For very ancient works, artifacts, and in certain other disciplines where BCE is not appropriate (e.g., in Pre-Columbian studies), use the phrases years ago or before present.

Follow other rules as explained in CREATION - DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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17.1.3.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest possible date when the work was associated with the event or situation.

EXAMPLES


1492
1789
-312

1831-05-30


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest year when the work was associated with the event.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.

Note that the dates for the event itself are recorded in the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY and do not need to be repeated here.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.1.3.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest possible date when the work was associated with the event or situation.

EXAMPLES


1510
1799
-312
1831-05-30


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest year when the work was associated with the event. If the event is still going on, record 9999.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record LATEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.

Note that the dates for the event itself are recorded in the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY and do not need to be repeated here.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.1.4. Event Place

DEFINITION

The geographic location where a work of art was associated with a particular event or situation.

EXAMPLES


- Rome (Lazio, Italy)
- Fotheringay Castle (Northamptonshire, England, United Kingdom)
- Washington (DC, USA)
- Karnak (Qin governorate, Upper Egypt region, Egypt)
- North and South America
- France
- Asia
- northern Africa


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the geographic place where the work was associated with the event or situation. Use this subcategory to record only those places that are relevant to the relationship between the work and the event, when this place differs from the location of the event overall (e.g., the AIDS epidemic is a worldwide event/situation; if the work is related only to the AIDS epidemic in the nation of Congo, Congo should be recorded here). Note that the location of the event as a whole will be recorded in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY and should not be repeated here.

Express nuance and uncertainty regarding the place in the free-text CONTEXT - EVENTS or the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

Form and syntax
Capitalize all proper names, including the names of villages, towns, cities, provinces, states, nations, empires, kingdoms, and physical features (e.g., Agroha (Haryana state, India)). If a name includes an article or preposition (e.g. de, des, la, l'), generally use lower case except when it is the first word in the name (e.g., Aire-sur-la-Lys (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France), but La Chapelle (Louisiana, USA)). Avoid abbreviations. For detailed guidelines regarding the format and syntax of place names, see the CURRENT LOCATION category and the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the following controlled vocabularies and others: TGN, NGA (NIMA) and USGS, Canadiana_Authorities, LC Name Authorities, and LCSH. Display the names with the broader contexts as described in the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

If a work was installed in a particular building or part of a building, this should be indicated in CONTEXT - ARCHITECTURAL - PART/PLACEMENT.



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17.1.5. Event Agent

DEFINITION

An individual or group associated with the work in a given context.

EXAMPLES


- Robespierre, Maximilien de (French Jacobin leader, 1758-1794)
- Itzcatl (Aztec ruler, ruled 1428-1440)
- Khafre (Egyptian king, 2520-2494 BCE)
- Elizabeth II (British queen, born 1926)
- Pope Julius II (Pope, 1443-1513)
- Jesuits (Roman Catholic religious order, founded 1524)
- Works Progress Administration (United States government work program, created in 1935)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record people and corporate bodies associated with the work in the context of the named event or other historical context, excluding creators and owners. This category may be used for recording dedicatees or donors. For example, an eighteenth-century globe bears a dedication to the duchesse du Maine, wife of an illegitimate child of Louis XIV [Figure 10]; the generic event "dedication" may be recorded in CONTEXT - EVENTS - EVENT IDENTIFICATIONand the name of the dedicatee may be recorded here. Express nuance and uncertainty in the free-text CONTEXT - HISTORICAL/EVENTSor DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

Form and syntax
Capitalize all proper names. If a name includes an article or preposition (e.g. de, des, la, l'), generally use lower case except when it is the first word in the name. Avoid abbreviations. Display the name in natural order (rather than inverted order), if possible. For detailed guidelines regarding the format and syntax of names, see the CREATION - CREATOR subcategories and the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, which can be populated with published authorities, including the following: Canadiana_Authorities, LC Name Authorities, ULAN, and Yale British Artists. Display the names PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY - DISPLAY BIOGRAPHY (generally comprising the nationality, life roles, and life dates).

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Record the creators in CREATION - CREATOR. Record the owners in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY. Patrons and donors will generally be recorded in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY, given that they are typically the first owner of the work. Patrons and donors may be recorded in CREATION - CREATOR if they have contributed to the design of the work (e.g., with many ancient Roman emperors).

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17.1.5.1. Agent Role

DEFINITION

The role or activity performed by the person or corporate body in the context of the work in a particular event or situation.

EXAMPLES


dedicatee
donor
queen
pharaoh
revolutionary leader
evaluator
thief
smuggler
agent


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the role of the person or corporate body in the context of the particular event or other historical context. Note that this subcategory does not record the life roles of the person, which are recorded in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

Form and syntax
Record the singular form of the term when it refers to one person; record a plural term when appropriate. Record the term in lower case except where the term includes a proper noun or is otherwise capitalized in the source controlled vocabulary. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY. Use terms that have been populated from the AAT (especially Agents facet).

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17.1.6. Contextual Cost or Value

DEFINITION

The monetary value associated with a work in a specific historical or cultural context.

EXAMPLES


- restored for 26 scudi romani per day during 1770-1776
- appraised at £110,000 at Sotheby's in 1946


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the value of the work, when this is relevant to the event. Include the amount, the currency, the type of transaction, and the type of payment, if applicable. Since historical currencies are difficult to convert into modern ones, it is important to record the value as it is found in documentation; however, a conversion into modern equivalents may also be included. Evaluations or estimations may be expressed as a range (e.g., probably 50-55 gold florins).

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field. Even though this is a free-text field, the use of consistent format and controlled terminology is recommended for clarity. If it is required to retrieve records based on the cost or value, the cataloging institution should add subcategories with controlled format for the unit of currency and the amount of payment.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Record the cost of the work as it changed hands with various owners in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY - COST OR VALUE.

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17.2. Architectural Context

DEFINITION

A description of the relationship between a work and a particular built work, environment, or open space.

EXAMPLES


[for relief fragments in the Archaeological Museum, Corfu]
The Medusa once stood at the apex of the west pediment at the Temple of Artemis, Corfu. The two crouching lions were positioned to either side.


[for the Purification of the Virgin by Bartolo di Fredi, now in the Louvre, Paris]
The Purification of the Virgin probably once stood on the altar in the chapel of San Guglielmo, in the church of Sant'Agostino, San Gimignano. The walls of this chapel were also painted by Bartolo and his shop, depicting other scenes from the Life of the Virgin...Apparently the Purification was the central panel in a large polyptych, reported to have had the Massacre of the Innocents depicted above, scenes from the Life of Christ (presumably a predella), and other saints...[4]


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a description of where and how a work of art or architecture was incorporated in a particular space, whether it was a designed space, an interior, a public exterior space, such as a plaza, or a natural space, such as a mountain.Explain any uncertainty or nuance. If this information is discussed in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE, it need not be repeated here, but it should be indexed in BUILDING/SITE below.

Form and syntax
Use natural word order. You may use phrases or complete sentences, but always begin the note with a capital letter and end it with a period. Use sentence case (not all capitals or title case). Capitalize proper names. Avoid abbreviations. Write the note in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States). Names and other words in foreign languages may be used within the note when there is no commonly used English equivalent. Use diacritics as appropriate.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field, however the use of consistent terminology is recommended for clarity. Index the built work or place in BUILDING/SITE.

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17.2.1. Building/Site Context

DEFINITION

The specific built work or site within which the work of art or architecture was incorporated or displayed.

EXAMPLES



Temple of Artemis (Ephesus, now in Turkey, destroyed 3rd century CE)
Great Stupa of Dharmakaya (Shambhala Mountain Center, Red Feather Lakes, Colorado, USA; consecrated in 2001)
Tornabuoni Chapel (Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, 1470)
Place de la Concorde (Paris, France, designed in 18th century)
Ana Kai Tangata (cave) (Rapa Nui island, South Pacific)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the proper name of the building or other architectural context within which a particular work was originally or formerly seen. This name will typically represent a built work controlled by the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY; however, city squares may be controlled by the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY. Occasionally, a relationship between the work and a physical feature may be recorded (e.g., regarding the placement of the work inside a cave or on a mountain) and controlled by the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY..

Occasionally, the architectural work or place may not have a proper name; in such cases, use the constructed preferred "name" that has been constructed in the authority.

Explain any uncertainty or nuance regarding the architectural/site context in the free-text CONTEXT - ARCHITECTURAL subcategory or in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

Note: Do not use this subcategory to record the current or former locations of a work; use it only for an architectural or natural context that requires a description of placement and cannot be captured in a location or "place" subcategory elsewhere in the Object/Work record.

Specificity
Record the most specific reference that is warranted. For example, if an altarpiece was located in a particular chapel, record the name of the chapel (e.g., Tornabuoni Chapel (Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, 1470)).

Form and syntax
Capitalize all proper names, including the names of buildings, city squares, and physical features. If a name includes an article or preposition (e.g. de, des, la, l'), generally use lower case except when it is the first word in the name. For additional guidelines regarding the syntax and format of the names of built works, see the SUBJECT AUTHORITY. For additional guidelines regarding the syntax and format of place names, see the CURRENT LOCATION category and the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: For the names of built works, control terminology with the SUBJECT AUTHORITY. Display the names of the buildings with the SUBJECT AUTHORITY - QUALIFIER (generally comprising the geographic location and a date of construction). See the SUBJECT AUTHORITY for recommendations regarding which published vocabularies may be used to populate the authority.

For the proper names of geographic places, control terminology with the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY. Display the names of the places with broader contexts as described in PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY - QUALIFIER. See the authority for recommendations regarding which published vocabularies may be used to populate the authority.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Record the discovery location of the work in CONTEXT - ARCHAEOLOGICAL - DISCOVERY/EXCAVATION PLACE. If the placement of the work is not an issue and if the geographic location may not be captured in any other subcategory, record miscellaneous former locations in CONTEXT - HISTORICAL LOCATION. Record the current or last known location of the work in CURRENT LOCATION. Record locations associated with owners of the work in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY - PLACE. Record the locations of exhibitions in EXHIBITION/LOAN HISTORY - VENUE.Some institutions may wish to catalog the built work as a separate Object/Work in its own right, in addition to including a brief record for it in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY; the records for the two Object/Works may then be linked as RELATED WORKS, if appropriate.

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17.2.2. Part/Placement Context

DEFINITION

A term referring to the particularlocation of a work of art or architectural element within a particular building or site, including its relative position in relation to the viewer and to other elements of the building or site.It may also refer to the part of a building or site in which a work figured or its placement on the work.

EXAMPLES



west pediment
chapel
high altar
nave
railing medallion
eye level
above eye level
left of doorway
pediment
main façade
center of rose window
first landing of main stairway
facing east
tilted at a five-degree angle


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a generic term or phrase referring to a specific location within a building, building complex, or site where a work of art existed. If the part of the building has a specific names, such as the Chigi Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, record it in the SUBJECT AUTHORITY and link it through the CONTEXT - BUILDING/SITE subcategory discussed above. Note: If you are cataloging built works as works in their own right, generally do not make references to whole/part relationships in CONTEXT. Instead, create a separate catalog record for the part and link it to the whole in RELATED WORKS (e.g., between the dome of St. Peter's and the basilica of St. Peter's in Rome).

Form and syntax
Generally record the singular form of the term; record a plural term when appropriate. Record the term in lower case except where the term includes a proper noun or is otherwise capitalized in the source controlled vocabulary. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with an extensible controlled list. Use terms derived from the AAT (Object Groupings and Systems, Components, Settlements and Landscapes, Built Complexes and Districts, Single Built Works, Open Spaces and Site Elements, Furnishings, and Attributes and Properties hierarchy) and other published controlled vocabularies where possible.

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17.2.3. Architectural Context Date

DEFINITION

The date or range of dates when a work figured in a particular architectural context.

EXAMPLES



ca. 600-580 BCE
from ca. 1320
before 1952
11th century
Christmas 1682


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a year, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date when the work was associated with the architectural context. Since dates may be approximate, indications of nuance and certainty should be expressed, as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow rules for display date in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

Use this subcategory when the date of the association of the work with the architectural context does not directly correspond to the creation date of the architectural work (e.g., as when a work is associated with the architectural work during a time after the creation of the architectural work). Note that the creation dates for the architectural work itself will be recorded in the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY and/or in a separate Object/Work record for the architectural work.

Follow rules for syntax and form as stated in CONTEXT - EVENTS - DATES above.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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17.2.3.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest possible date during which the work figured in a particular architectural context.

EXAMPLES


-650
1900
1682-12-25


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest year when the work was associated with the architectural context. A precise day, month, and year may be recorded, if appropriate. Note that the dates for the creation of the architectural work itself are recorded in the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY and/or in a separate Object/Work record for the architectural work, and do not need to be repeated here.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.2.3.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest possible date during which the work figured in a particular architectural context.

EXAMPLES


-580
1952
1682-12-25


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest year when the work was associated with the architectural context. You may record a specific day, month, and year, if appropriate. If the architectural placement is still relevant, record 9999. Note that the dates for the creation of the architectural work itself are recorded in the so-called SUBJECT AUTHORITY and/or in a separate Object/Work record for the architectural work, and do not need to be repeated here.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record LATEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.3. Archaeological Context

DEFINITION

A description of the circumstances in which a work of art or architecture was excavated or discovered.

EXAMPLES


[for a Roman statue]
Found at Tivoli in 1790 or 1791 in the ruins of the villa of the emperor Hadrian. [Figure 5]

[for a mosaic]
Found in Gaul.
[Figure 26]

[for a mask]
Probably found in North Africa.




[for an Iron Age scabbard and sheath found in Flag Fen, near Lake Northey, Essex, England]
...For centuries Flag Fen's inhabitants cast offerings of metal weapons and tools, and even human bones, into the fen's dark waters, perhaps to insure fertility or appease ancestors who protected their lands. The offerings were deliberately broken, ceremonially "killed," before being cast into the water, a well-known Celtic practice...Within the trench are four walkways dating from 1300 to 900 BCE. These narrow pathways are delineated by the remains of substantial posts, and are covered with a thin layer of gravel. Between two of these posts Pryor found the well-preserved fragments of an Iron Age scabbard made of copper alloy. The sheath, which dates to between fifth and second centuries BC, has a front plate incised with spiral-like circles--perhaps a schematic rendering of a Celtic dragon, a motif found on a Hungarian dagger dated to ca. 300 BCE...[5]


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a description of where and how a work of art or architecture was discovered or excavated. If this information is discussed in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE, it need not be repeated here, but it should be indexed in DISCOVERY/EXCAVATION PLACE and other subcategories below.

Express nuance and uncertainty as necessary. Note that information about the excavation of a work may be very detailed and scientific, as is the case with modern excavation reports, or it may be general and uncertain, as is the case with works excavated in the Renaissance.

Form and syntax
Use natural word order. You may use phrases or complete sentences, but always begin the note with a capital letter and end it with a period. Use sentence case (not all capitals or title case). Capitalize proper names. Avoid abbreviations. Write the note in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States). Names and other words in foreign languages may be used within the note when there is no commonly used English equivalent. Use diacritics as appropriate.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field, however the use of consistent terminology is recommended for clarity. Index the place in DISCOVERY/EXCAVATION PLACE, discussed below.

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17.3.1. Discovery/Excavation Place

DEFINITION

The geographic location where the work was excavated or discovered, including an identification of the site or plot, if known.

EXAMPLES



- Flag Fen (Essex, England)
-
Villa of the Mysteries(Pompeii, Napoli province, Campania, Italy)
- Teotihuacán (México state, México)
- Great Zimbabwe Ruins National Park (Victoria, Zimbabwe)
- Heliopolis (Cairo governorate, Egypt)
- Cyprus (Asia)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the geographic place where the work was discovered or excavated. Express nuance and uncertainty regarding the place in the free-text CONTEXT - ARCHAEOLOGICAL or the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

Specificity
Record the most specific site known or applicable. Generally, the city or a more specific part of the site should be recorded. Any site or part of a site that has a proper name should be recorded and linked through the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY (e.g., Villa of the Mysteries(Pompeii, Napoli province, Campania, Italy)). For sectors, plots, and other divisions that are typically identified by numeric or alpha-numeric codes (e.g., A-456-01 or hill 78-098), they may be recorded in one of two possible ways: 1) the numeric and alphanumeric codes may be recorded in the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY as hierarchically "part of" the site; 2) the numeric and alphanumeric codes may be recorded with the object/work in EXCAVATION SITE SECTOR, discussed below. Either method is acceptable, provided it is applied consistently within the cataloging institution.

Form and syntax
Capitalize all proper names, including the names of villages, towns, cities, provinces, states, nations, empires, kingdoms, and physical features (e.g., Agroha (Haryana state, India)). If a name includes an article or preposition (e.g. de, des, la, l'), generally use lower case except when it is the first word in the name (e.g., Aire-sur-la-Lys (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France), but La Chapelle (Louisiana, USA)). Avoid abbreviations. For detailed guidelines regarding the format and syntax of place names, see the CURRENT LOCATION category and the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the following controlled vocabularies and others as necessary: TGN, NGA (NIMA) and USGS, Canadiana Authorities, LC Name Authorities and LCSH. Display the name with broader contexts, as described in the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

If a work was installed in a particular building or part of a building, record it in CONTEXT - ARCHITECTURAL - PART/PLACEMENT. Record the place of creation in CREATION - PLACE. Note that the place where a work was found does not necessarily indicate where it was made.

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17.3.2. Excavation Site Sector

DEFINITION

The name, number, or other identifier assigned to the site where the work was excavated, and the square or other subdivision of the site where a work was excavated.

EXAMPLES



# 125
B2-3456
, HOB sector
hill 78-098
trench A-66


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Identify the code, number, or name of the specific site, square, or other sector where the work was found. In general, use lower case except when the code contains abbreviations expressed as capital letters.

Form and syntax
For sectors, plots, and other divisions that are typically identified by numeric or alpha-numeric codes (e.g., A-456-01 or hill 78-098), they may be recorded in one of two possible ways: 1) the numeric and alphanumeric codes may be recorded in the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY as hierarchically "part of" the site; 2) the numeric and alphanumeric codes may be recorded with the object/work here in this subcategory. Either method is acceptable, provided it is applied consistently within the cataloging institution.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Institutions that require retrieval on this information should control it by linking to the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY (i.e., make the site name and sector name or number hierarchically a part of the broader geographic place).

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17.3.3. Excavator

DEFINITION

The name of the person or corporate body that excavated the work.

EXAMPLES


- Hawass, Zahi (Egyptian archaeologist, born 1947)
- George Edward Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon (English aristocrat and archaeologist, 1866-1923)
- Anthropology Department, Indiana University (Bloomington, Indiana, USA)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the name and institutional affiliation of the person or corporate body who excavated the site. While a full name should be available for modern excavators, the names of historical excavators may not be known.

Form and syntax
Capitalize all proper names. If a name includes an article or preposition (e.g. de, des, la, l'), generally use lower case except when it is the first word in the name. Avoid abbreviations. Display the name in natural order (rather than inverted order), if possible. For detailed guidelines regarding the format and syntax of names, see the CREATION - CREATOR subcategories and the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY. Populate the authority with Canadiana Authorities, LC Name Authorities, and other sources as appropriate. Display the name with the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY - DISPLAY BIOGRAPHY (typically the person's nationality, life roles, and life dates).

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17.3.4. Discovery/Excavation Date

DEFINITION

The date or range of dates when the work was discovered or excavated.

EXAMPLES


1993
12 December 1991
May 1970
before 1952
between 1700 and 1798
19th century


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a year, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date when the work was excavated. Include indications of nuance and certainty should be expressed, as necessary. See CREATION - DATE for additional rules.

Form and syntax
Follow rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE..

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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17.3.4.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest possible date when the work was discovered or excavated.

EXAMPLES


1492
1789
-312

1831-05-30


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest year when the work was discovered or excavated.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.3.4.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest possible date when the work was discovered or excavated.

EXAMPLES


1510
1799
-312
1831-05-30


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest year when the work was associated with the architectural context. If the event is still going on, record 9999.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record LATEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.4. Historical Location Context

DEFINITION

A description of an historical context for the work that is not recorded in another Place or Location subcategory in the record.

EXAMPLES


[for a missal]
Based on contemporary contract documents, was probably copied while in Flanders in 1412.


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a description of activities or circumstances surrounding the object while it was in a given place, when this place is not recorded elsewhere in the record. If this information is discussed in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE, it need not be repeated here, but should be indexed with the subcategories listed below.

Express nuance and uncertainty as necessary.

Form and syntax
Use natural word order. You may use phrases or complete sentences, but always begin the note with a capital letter and end it with a period. Use sentence case (not all capitals or title case). Capitalize proper names. Avoid abbreviations. Write the note in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States). Names and other words in foreign languages may be used within the note when there is no commonly used English equivalent. Use diacritics as appropriate.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field, however the use of consistent terminology is recommended.

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17.4.1. Historical Location Place

DEFINITION

A location that provides historical context for the work but is not recorded in another Place or Location subcategory in the record.

EXAMPLES


Alfdanga (Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Moscow (Russia)
Flanders


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the name of the geographic place that provided historical context for the work. Use historical names when appropriate. Use this subcategory to record only those places that provide historical context that cannot be recorded in any other Location or Place subcategory in the Object/Work record.

Express nuance and uncertainty regarding the place in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

Form and syntax
Capitalize all proper names, including the names of villages, towns, cities, provinces, states, nations, empires, kingdoms, and physical features (e.g., Agroha (Haryana state, India)). If a name includes an article or preposition (e.g. de, des, la, l'), generally use lower case except when it is the first word in the name (e.g., Aire-sur-la-Lys (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France), but La Chapelle (Louisiana, USA)). Avoid abbreviations. For detailed guidelines regarding the format and syntax of place names, see the CURRENT LOCATION category and the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the following published sources, and others as necessary: TGN, NGA (NIMA) and USGS, Canadiana Authorities, LC Name Authorities and LCSH.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Record the place of creation in CREATION - PLACE. Record the current location in CURRENT LOCATION. Record places where the work was under previous ownership in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY - PLACE. Record places of exhibition, conservation, or examination in EXHIBITION/LOAN HISTORY - VENUE NAME, CONDITION/EXAMINATION HISTORY - PLACE, or CONSERVATION/TREATMENT HISTORY - PLACE. Record places that are the subject of the work in SUBJECT MATTER.

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17.4.2. Historical Location Date

DEFINITION

The date or range of dates when the work was associated with the historical location.

EXAMPLES


2001
23 October 1876
June 1943
before 1780
between 1632 and 1634
8th century BCE


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a year, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date when the work was associated with the location.. Express nuance and certainty, as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow rules for display date in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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17.4.2.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest possible date when the work was associated with the historical location.

EXAMPLES


1632
-899
1876-10-23


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest year when the work was associated with the historical location.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.4.2.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest possible date when the work was associated with the historical location.

EXAMPLES


1510
1799
-312
1831-05-30


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest year when the work was associated with the geographic context. If the place is still pertinent, record 9999.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. You may record the precise day and month, if pertinent. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record LATEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. For other rules, see CREATION - CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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17.5. Remarks

DEFINITION

Additional notes or comments pertinent to information in this category.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a note containing additional information or comments on this category. Use consistent syntax and format. For rules regarding writing notes, see DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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17.6. Citations

DEFINITION

A reference to a bibliographic source, unpublished document, or individual opinion that provides the basis for the information recorded in this category.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the source used for information in this category. For a full set of rules for CITATIONS, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Ideally, this information is controlled by citations in the citations authority; see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES.

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17.6.1. Page

DEFINITION

Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the information was found.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: For a full set of rules for PAGE, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS - PAGE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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EXAMPLES


[competition "event" for a design drawing]
Event Identification: Vietnam Veterans Memorial Competition
Date: 1980
Agent: Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (VVMF)

[original architectural placement for a sculpture]
Building/Site: Rajarani Temple (Bhuvanesvara, Orissa, India)
Part/Placement: exterior wall

[for excavated pottery]
Discovery/Excavation Place: Northeast Building (Upper Agora, Ephesus, Turkey)
Discovery/Excavation Date: 1996-2001
Excavator: Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project (Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium)


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NOTE: The outline numbers are subject to change; they are intended only to organize this document.

Revised 9 April 2014