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ID: 300264384
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300264384

 

Record Type: concept
dharma (Buddhist doctrinal concepts, doctrinal concepts, ... Associated Concepts (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Refers to a key concept with multiple meanings in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. In Hinduism, dharma is the religious and moral law governing and enabling society and individual conduct. It is found in the early religious manuals called the dharmasutras and has been expanded into larger compilations of law called the dharmashastra. Dharma in Buddhism retains the Hindu sense of cosmic law and order but it also came to be applied to the teachings of the Buddha who is seen as a manifestation of the universal truth that is dharma. Thus, dharma is the practice of this truth in Buddhism. The triratna ("three jewels") is a fundamental aspect of Buddhism and consists of the Buddha, dharma, and the sangha (community of believers). In the context of Buddhist metaphysics, the term in the plural (dharmas) refers to the interrelated elements that make up the empirical world. In addition to being commonly understood as moral virtue in Jaina philosophy, dharma also refers to an eternal "substance" (dravya) that is the medium that allows living beings to move. It is a meaning unique to Jainism. The term may simply refer to the teachings of the Jinas. For the Jains, dharma has its opposite in adharma which is error and immorality as well as the ability to rest or pause.
 
Terms:
dharma (preferred,C,V,English-P,D,U,N)
dharma (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
dharma (Spanish-P,D,U,N)
dharmas (C,V,English,AD,U,N)
dhamma (C,V,English,UF,U,N)
達摩 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
dá mó (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
da mo (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
ta mo (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
datsuma (C,U,Japanese (transliterated),UF,U,N)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  B.BM

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Associated Concepts Facet
Associated Concepts Facet
Hierarchy of Associated Concepts (hierarchy name)
.... Associated Concepts (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <religions and religious concepts>
........ <religions and religious concepts> (G)
Hierarchy of religious concepts
............ religious concepts (G)
Hierarchy of doctrinal concepts
................ doctrinal concepts (G)
Hierarchy of Buddhist doctrinal concepts
.................... Buddhist doctrinal concepts (G)
Hierarchy of dharma
........................ dharma (G)

Additional Parents:

Hierarchy of Associated Concepts Facet
Associated Concepts Facet
Hierarchy of Associated Concepts (hierarchy name)
.... Associated Concepts (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <religions and religious concepts>
........ <religions and religious concepts> (G)
Hierarchy of religious concepts
............ religious concepts (G)
Hierarchy of doctrinal concepts
................ doctrinal concepts (G)
Hierarchy of Hindu doctrinal concepts
.................... Hindu doctrinal concepts (G)
Hierarchy of dharma
........................ dharma (G)
 
Hierarchy of Associated Concepts Facet
Associated Concepts Facet
Hierarchy of Associated Concepts (hierarchy name)
.... Associated Concepts (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <religions and religious concepts>
........ <religions and religious concepts> (G)
Hierarchy of religious concepts
............ religious concepts (G)
Hierarchy of doctrinal concepts
................ doctrinal concepts (G)
Hierarchy of Jain doctrinal concepts
.................... Jain doctrinal concepts (G)
Hierarchy of dharma
........................ dharma (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 為印度教、佛教和耆那教中具多重涵義的一個重要概念。印度教中,達摩意指管理及驅策社會與個人行為的宗教和道德法規。這些法規源自於稱作《法經》的早期宗教冊本,之後經編輯擴充成稱作《法論》的法律典籍。佛教中,達摩的涵義保留了印度教宇宙法則與秩序的觀念,但同時也意指佛陀的教誨,因為佛陀被視為宇宙真理,即達摩的顯示。因此,達摩意指佛教中真理的實踐。「三寶」為佛教的基準之一,包含佛、法(達摩)及僧(信眾)。在佛學上,「眾達摩」意指構成實證世界之互有關聯的元素。達摩在耆那教裡一般意指「德」,但同時也意指一種永恆的「物質」(實體),其為使眾生可移動的媒介。此詞彙對耆那教的意義獨特。此詞彙也可簡單指耆那教的教誨。在耆那教中,達摩還有相反詞叫「非達摩」,意指錯誤、不道德、休止或暫止的能力。 
Dutch ..... Verwijst naar een sleutelbegrip met verschillende betekenissen in het hindoeïsme, boeddhisme en jaïnisme. In het hindoeïsme is de dharma de religieuze en morele wet die de samenleving en het individuele gedrag bestuurt en activeert. Deze dharma wordt aangetroffen in de eerste religieuze handboeken, de dharmasoetra’s, en is later uitgebreid tot grotere wetscompilaties genaamd dharmashastra. Dharma heeft in het boeddhisme de hindoeïstische betekenis van kosmische wet en orde behouden maar wordt daar ook toegepast op de lessen van Boeddha, die wordt gezien als een manifestatie van de universele waarheid die de dharma is. Zo is de dharma de praktische toepassing van deze waarheid in het boeddhisme. De triratna ('drie juwelen') is een fundamenteel aspect van het boeddhisme en bestaat uit Boeddha, de dharma en de sangha (gemeenschap van gelovigen). Binnen de boeddhistische metafysica verwijst de term in het meervoud (dharma’s) naar de onderling verbonden elementen waaruit de empirische wereld bestaat. Behalve dat dharma in de jaïnistische filosofie gewoonlijk wordt opgevat als morele deugd, verwijst de term hier ook naar een eeuwige 'substantie' (dravya) die het middel vormt waardoor levende wezens kunnen bewegen. Deze betekenis is uniek voor het jaïnisme. De term kan eenvoudigweg verwijzen naar de leerstellingen van de Jina. Voor de jaïnisten heeft dharma een tegenpool, adharma, dat 'fout' en 'immoraliteit' betekent maar ook 'de mogelijkheid om te rusten of pauzeren'. 
Spanish ..... Se refiere a un concepto importante con significados múltiples en Hinduismo, Budismo, y Jainismo. En Hinduismo, el dharma es la ley religiosa y moral que gobiernan y hace posible la conducta social e individual. Se encuentra en los primeros manuales religiosos llamados los dharmasutras y se ha extendido en las recopilaciones más grandes de leyes llamados los dharmashastras. El Dharma en Budismo retiene el sentido de la ley cósmica y orden hindú pero también llegó a ser aplicado a las enseñanzas del Buda que es visto como una manifestación de la verdad universal que es el dharma. Así, el dharma es la práctica de esta verdad en el Budismo. El triratna ("tres joyas") es un aspecto fundamental del Budismo y consiste en Buda, el dharma, y el sangha (comunidad de creyentes). En el contexto de la metafísica budista, el término en plural (dharmas) se refiere a los elementos interrelacionados que constituyen el mundo empírico. Además de normalmente entenderse como virtud moral en filosofía Jaina, el dharma se refiere también a una "substancia" eterna (dravya) que es el medio que les permite a los seres vivientes moverse. Es un significado particular al Jainism. El término simplemente puede referirse a las enseñanzas de los Jinas. Para los Jainas, el dharma tiene su opuesto en adharma que es error e inmoralidad así como la habilidad de descansar o hacer una pausa. 

Related concepts:
reflect/produced by ....  Hinduism
....................................  (religions (belief systems, cultures), <religions and religious concepts>, Associated Concepts (hierarchy name)) [300073727]
reflect/produced by ....  Jainism
....................................  (religions (belief systems, cultures), <religions and religious concepts>, Associated Concepts (hierarchy name)) [300143540]

Sources and Contributors:
達摩............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  印度藝術史概論 16
...........  大英百科全書線上繁體中文版 December 6, 2012
da mo............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
..............  TELDAP database (2009-)
dá mó............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
..............  TELDAP database (2009-)
datsuma............  [VP]
.................  Bowker, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions (1997) 261
dhamma............  [VP]
.................  Bowker, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions (1997) 275
.................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1994-2001) accessed 10/01
.................  Goring, ed., Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs and Religions (1994) 138
dharma............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
.................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
.................  Bowker, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions (1997) 275
.................  Enciclopedia Encarta de Lujo. Bibioteca de Consulta 2003 (2003)
.................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1994-2001) accessed 10/01
.................  Goring, ed., Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs and Religions (1994) 138
.................  TAA database (2000-)
.................  Van Dale Engels-Nederlands (1989)
dharmas............  [VP]
.................  Bowker, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions (1997) 275
.................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1994-2001) accessed 10/01
ta mo............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
..............  TELDAP database (2009-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Bowker, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions (1997) 275
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1994-2001) accessed 10/01
.......... Goring, ed., Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs and Religions (1994) 138
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... TELDAP database (2009-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Van Dale Engels-Nederlands (1989)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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