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ID: 300018427
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300018427

 

Record Type: concept
Song (Chinese culture, style, and period) (Chinese dynastic styles and periods, Chinese (culture or style), ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Refers to a Chinese dynastic culture, style, and period dating to 960 to 1279 CE. It was a time of social, economic, and artistic invention and transition; in particular, an unsurpassed refinement was achieved in many of the arts. As society shifted away from being one of aristocrats towards one of meritorious commoners, the ruling class sought to shore up their power. For instance, emperors promoted the painting of themes associated with dynastic legitimacy and stability. The Song emperors were among China's most culturally enlightened rulers and many were even accomplished artists in their own right. Since the Song emperors were less powerful than their Han and Tang predecessors and because they maintained a tenuous peace with their hostile neighbors, the art of this period is introspective. The Song period is best known for landscape painting, although ceramics, sculpture, and architecture also flourished. Clay and wood often replaced stone for sculpture, allowing for softer, more lifelike figures. Song architecture is notably elongated and thin with curved roofs and a distinctive Song spire. Pagodas were first constructed of masonry during this period. There are two divisions within this style and period: Northern Song, dating to 960 to 1127, and Southern Song, dating to 1127 to 1279.
 
Terms:
Song (Chinese culture, style, and period) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,A)
Song (estilo) (Spanish-P,D,U,U)
Song (Chinese stijl) (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
Sung (culture, style, and period) (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
宋朝 (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
Song Chinese (C,U,English,UF,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  F.FL

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Styles and Periods Facet
Styles and Periods Facet
Hierarchy of Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)
.... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <styles, periods, and cultures by region>
........ <styles, periods, and cultures by region> (G)
Hierarchy of Asian
............ Asian (G)
Hierarchy of East Asian
................ East Asian (G)
Hierarchy of Chinese (culture or style)
.................... Chinese (culture or style) (G)
Hierarchy of Chinese dynastic styles and periods
........................ Chinese dynastic styles and periods (G)
Hierarchy of Song (Chinese culture, style, and period)
............................ Song (Chinese culture, style, and period) (G)

Additional Notes:
Dutch ..... Verwijst naar een Chinese dynastieke stijl en periode tussen 960 en 1279 n. Chr. Het was een overgangsperiode met tal van maatschappelijke, economische en kunstzinnige vernieuwingen; met name in allerlei kunstvormen werd een onovertroffen graad van verfijning bereikt. Er was een maatschappelijke ontwikkeling gaande waarbij de aristocraten geleidelijk hun macht verloren aan de gegoede burgerij, hetgeen ertoe leidde dat de heersende klasse zijn machtspositie probeerde te versterken. Zo bevorderden de keizers het verbeelden van thema's die de legitieme status en stabiliteit van de dynastie moesten uitdrukken. De Song-keizers behoorden tot de meest verlichte heersers van China, en vaak waren ze zelf verdienstelijk kunstenaar. Aangezien de Song-keizers minder macht bezaten dan hun voorgangers uit de Han- en Tang-dynastie en zij bovendien een wankele vrede met vijandige buurlanden in stand moesten houden, is de kunst uit deze periode introspectief van aard. De Song-periode is vooral bekend om de landschapsschilderingen, hoewel ook de keramiek, beeldhouwkunst en architectuur een bloeiperiode beleefden. In de beeldhouwkunst werd steen vaak vervangen door klei en hout, materialen die zachtere, levensechtere figuren mogelijk maakten. Een opvallend kenmerk van de Song-architectuur is de langwerpige, slanke vormentaal, met gebogen daken en een duidelijk herkenbare Song-spits. Tijdens deze periode werden de pagodes aanvankelijk opgetrokken uit metselwerk. De stijl en periode kunnen worden onderverdeeld in Noordelijke Song, van 960 tot 1127, en Zuidelijke Song, van 1127 tot 1279. 
Spanish ..... Se refiere a un estilo y a un período dinástico chinos que fechan al d.C 960 a 1279. Era una época de la invención y de la transición social, económicas, y artísticas; particularmente, un refinamiento fue alcanzado en muchas de las artes. Por ejemplo, los emperadores promovieron la pintura de los temas asociados a legitimidad y a estabilidad dinástico. Los emperadores estaban predispuestos al quehacer cultural y muchos eran incluso artistas. El período de Song es el más conocido por la pintura del paisaje, aunque prosperaron la cerámica, la escultura, y la arquitectura también. La arcilla y la madera substituyeron a menudo la piedra para la escultura, teniendo en cuenta figuras más suaves, más realistas. La arquitectura es notablemente alargada y fina con azoteas curvadas. Las pagodas primero fueron construidas de albañilería durante este período. Hay dos divisiones dentro de este estilo y período: fechado a partir de 960 a 1127, y meridional norteño, con fecha a 1127 a 1279. 

Related concepts:
followed ....  Five Dynasties (culture, style, period)
................  (Chinese dynastic styles and periods, Chinese (culture or style), ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)) [300018422]
preceded ....  Yüan (dynastic styles and period)
................  (Chinese dynastic styles and periods, Chinese (culture or style), ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)) [300018436]

Sources and Contributors:
宋朝............  [VP]
...........  Archaeology Magazine [online] (2000-)
Song (Chinese culture, style, and period)............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, GCI Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
....................................................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
....................................................................  AATA database (2002-) 129042 checked 26 January 2012
....................................................................  Grove Art Online (2003-2008) accessed 28 Apr 2004
....................................................................  Kunstschatten uit China (1982)
....................................................................  Lee, History of Far Eastern Art (1982) 13; Song
....................................................................  Miyagawa, Chinese Painting (1983) 215; Song
....................................................................  Tregear, El Arte Chino (1991) 10
....................................................................  Vandier-Nicolas, Chinese Painting (1983) 255; Song
Song Chinese............  [VP]
.......................  Langer, Encyclopedia of World History (1980)
Sung (culture, style, and period)............  [VP]
........................................................  Chang, Archaeology of Ancient China (1963) 343
........................................................  Grove Art Online (2003-2008) accessed 28 Apr 2004
........................................................  Sickman and Soper, Art and Architecture of China (1971) 523
........................................................  Trubner et al., Asiatic Art in the Seattle Museum (1973) 13
 
Subject: .....  [CDBP-SNPC, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AATA database (2002-) 129042 checked 26 January 2012
............  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-) China--History--Sung dynasty 960-1027
............  Kunstschatten uit China (1982)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Encarta Encyclopedia (2004) "Chinese Art and Architecture"
.......... Grove Art Online (2003-2008) accessed 28 Apr 2004
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Kunstschatten uit China (1982)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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