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Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online
3. Editorial Rules, continued

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.3

 

Terms [1]

Included in this chapter

  • Example

 

 

     

3.3.1

 

 

Term ID (required default)

     

3.3.1.1

 

 

Definition
Number identifying a term in AAT.

     

3.3.1.2

 

 

Values
Numbers are system-generated in the following range: 1000000000 - 1999999999.

     
3.3.1.3    

Discussion
The system assigns unique, consecutive numbers to terms as they are created or loaded in AAT.

The numeric IDs of deleted terms are not re-used.

Each term in each subject record has a different term ID. Homographs do not share the same term ID.

Note that if a term is deleted from one record, it cannot be added with the same Term ID to another record. In the new record, if the term is retyped, it will have a new Term ID. Given that this happens relatively rarely, it is not considered a priority to fix it at this time.

     

3.3.1.3

 

 

RULES for Term ID

     

3.3.1.4.1

   

Minimum Requirements
Required-default: Unique numeric IDs are generated by the system for each term. Term IDs may not be edited by the editors.

     

 

3.3.2

 

 

Term (required)

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.1

 

 

Definition
A word or words used to refer to a definable, unique concept.

  • Examples

columns

stained glass (visual works)

caisson piles

stained glass (material)

acid-free paper

travertine

piles, caisson

orthogonal plan

cathedrals

orthographic drawings

cathedral ceilings

artists

flying buttresses

painters

retouch varnish

artists' colormen

drafting equipment

acrylic paint

Early Renaissance

Buddhism

Macedonian Renaissance

<British Renaissance-Baroque styles>

 

 

 

 

 

   

Included in the Term section:

   
     

3.3.2.2

 

 

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers. Legacy data and characters outside Unicode (e.g., eszett as distinct from double-s) are represented with codes for diacritics. See discussion in Appendix A: Diacritics.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.3

 

 

Sources
Preferred sources are discussed in a separate section, Sources for terms below.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.4

 

 

Discussion
The Term in AAT is analogous to the Name in ULAN, TGN, and IA, and the title in CONA.

Note that the term must stand for a unique, definable concept.

If the same spelling of a term has a different meaning, create a second record for the second concept and use qualifiers for both homographs.

Terms must be found in authoritative published literature or affirmed by an authoritative source, such as a scholar on a specialized topic.

The term must be used or described in the source in the same way as intended in the AAT in order for that source to be used.

All terms in the record must be exact synonyms, interchangeable in describing the concept. If term B (a presumptive Used For) does not have exactly the same meaning as term A (a Descriptor), make a separate record for term B.

   » Descriptors and the preferred term

    The record-preferred term in each AAT record is always a "descriptor."

    There may be multiple descriptors in a record, one for each language represented, but there is only one record-preferred term.

  • A record-preferred term is sometimes the only term in the record. The preferred term is the American English term used most often in standard general reference sources.

    Include any alternate descriptor. Additional used for terms for the concept should be included if warranted.

  • If the term is the same in both American and British English, flag the language as English for that term. Note that legacy AAT data may have the language flagged as American English even though the British and American English spellings are the same; this is being updated over time.

   » Compound terms

    Multiword or compound terms in natural language are lexemes, that is, words bound together as lexical units. Dictionaries differ in their policies regarding the inclusion of compound terms, and thus they are not always authorities regarding what is and is not a compound term in the AAT. A compound term must express a single concept or unit of thought capable of being arranged in a genus-species relationship within the AAT hierarchy. See the rules at Single word vs. multiword terms below.

 » Precoordinated and postcoordinated terms

    When two or more concepts are combined (e.g., Baroque cathedrals), this is referred to as 1) precoordination when the concepts are combined in the thesaurus, and 2) postcoordination when the concepts are combined in search and retrieval. Precoordination of terms is not allowed in the construction of the AAT, however, end users often precoordinate terms in their own systems for indexing or for creating headings and subheadings for browsing and navigation on a Web site. Postcoordinate retrieval is very useful and may be employed by end users. See also Single-word vs. multiword terms.

    Background:
    The AAT has been designed for use in either a postcoordinate or a precoordinate system.  Applying the vocabulary in a postcoordinate system means that as many individual descriptors as necessary are assigned by the indexer to a record without making any semantic or syntactic linkages between them.  At the time of searching, the terms are combined, or coordinated, using Boolean search techniques, (e.g., AND, OR, NOT).  Normally, more index entries are required in postcoordinate systems. 

    In precoordinate systems of indexing, individual descriptors are used by the indexer as the building blocks of headings for the physical description of objects, and images, or for the expression of the subjects of documents.  Because descriptors are combined in one heading, fewer index entries are required for each catalog record in precoordinate systems; however, the critical disadvantage is that the power of the links between terms and concepts in  the structure of the thesaurus is typically lost in such systems. Also, updates to the AAT terms over time is more difficult or impossible in such systems.

    Cataloging rules, such as the CDWA and the CCO, recommend using individual indexing terms in a postcoordinate system. To achieve the flow and better legibility of the heading, CDWA and CCO include free text display fields, where terms may be strung together to form phrases or even paragraphs for the end-user to read, while the controlled indexing terms are maintained for powerful retrieval and to allow easy updating of terminology as the vocabulary changes over time.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5

 

 

RULES for Terms

     

3.3.2.5.1

   

Minimum requirements

Required: Record at least one term for the concept record. If a concept is known by multiple terms, include them in repeating instances of this field. All terms in one record must be true synonyms.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.2

 

 

How to record Terms

  • It is required to record at least one term -- the record-preferred term, which is the word or phrase used most often in scholarly literature to refer to the concept. Excluded are proper names of persons, organizations, geographic places, named subjects, and named events.

  • Warrant for terms
    The descriptor must be found in at least three authoritative sources. All other terms, including alternate descriptors or used for terms, must be found in at least one authoritative source.

    List as many synonymous terms or translated terms as have at least one legitimate source or have been contributed by an authorized translation project.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.3

 

 

Alphabet and diacritics

  • For the descriptor
    Use the Roman alphabet to record the record-preferred term. The record-preferred term should typically be in English, if possible. Other terms in the record may be in other alphabets and writing systems.

    There may be a preferred term for each language.

    Express terms in Unicode.

  • Transliterations
    For terms in a language that is not written in the Roman alphabet (e.g., Greek, Chinese, Cyrillic), record a transliteration of the term in the Roman alphabet as found in published sources.

    Do not transliterate unless you are an expert. If you are a qualified and authorized expert, use pertinent ISO transliteration standards where possible. Variant transliterations should be included, if known.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.4

 

 

Capitalization

    In general, for terms in English use all lower case, except for terms based on proper nouns or proper adjectives (German, Ionic). Exceptions include the names of styles and periods (Inuit, Louis XVI) and terms that include a brand name (Kodachrome (TM)).

    • Examples

    • tempera
    • stained glass
    • decorative arts
    • painter
    • watercolorist
    • Angevin Gothic
    • Fome-Cor (TM)
    • Brussels lace
    • Tudor roses
    • Burgundy turpentine

   » Mixed case

Terms and other information should be expressed in lower case or mixed case (i.e., not in all-upper case). If your source lists the term in all caps, interpret it as all lower case or mixed case, as appropriate.

  • Use all caps only for an abbreviation, code, or other rare case when the term is commonly or always spelled in all caps (e.g., CD-ROM).

   » German and other languages

For terms in languages other than English, follow the capitalization rules of that language. For example, nouns in German are capitalized (e.g., altarpiece in English, Altarbild in German).

   » Living Organisms

For the scientific taxonomic name, use the conventions of the discipline. Names of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, and Genus are spelled with initial capitals (e.g., Canis). The names of species repeat the capitalized name of the genus, and the distinguishing term for the species is in lower case (e.g., Canis lupus).

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.5

 

 

Punctuation

    Avoid all punctuation except commas, hyphens, and apostrophes. Commas may be used for inverted terms. Hyphens may be used for hyphenated words. Apostrophes are allowed for possessives.

  • Use parentheses in the Term field only for the trademark symbol (e.g., Fome-Cor (TM)). Use the ampersand (&) only as a symbol in a trademark or a term based on a proper name.

  • Do NOT use parentheses for qualifiers; put qualifiers in the Qualifier field, and the parentheses will be added when the data is published.

    Do NOT use angled brackets for Guide terms; use Record Type to flag Guide term, and the angled brackets will be added to the descriptor when the data is published.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.6

 

 

Single-word vs. multiword terms

    Each term must represent a single concept or unit of thought. A single concept is frequently expressed by a single-word term, but in many cases a multiword term may be required to represent the concept. A multiword term for a concept is called a compound term. A compound term typically has a focus word and one or more modifiers.

    • Examples
      [examples of valid single and multiword terms]

domes

watercolor

flying buttresses

art historians

stained glass

High Gothic

archival quality

Felis domesticus

  • A quick test: If either of the components of a compound term expresses different concepts when separate than when they are part of a compound term, bind them together in a compound term. If components of a compound term express the same meaning whether they are individual terms or part of a compound term, do NOT make a compound term. When in doubt, consult with your supervisor; also search the AAT to find similar examples and follow precedent.

   » When to create a compound term

Make a compound term when one or more of the following conditions exist:

  • When the meaning of the expression cannot be accurately reconstructed from the constituent independent parts, generally because the modifier or the focus term changes its meaning in the compound expression (e.g., High Gothic).

  • When the modifier suggests a resemblance, as in a metaphor, to an unrelated thing or event (e.g., rose windows, barrel organs, spade money, saddlebag houses).

  • When the modifier defines a specific shape or type of the focus term (e.g., sleigh beds, basket capitals, window seats, ice houses).

  • When the modifier defines the purpose or function of the focus term, and this purpose or function gives the focus term a specific form (e.g., prayer rugs, china cabinets, crib barns, measuring cups).

  • When components of a compound term are too vague to stand on their own (e.g., first drafts, official documents, stone cutters, lost cities).

  • When the compound includes relational parts of speech (e.g., chests with drawers, books of hours, towers of silence, chapels of ease).

  • When the compound term includes a proper noun or adjective (other than a style term) (e.g., Brewster chairs, Usonian houses, Rangeley boats, Schuetzen rifles).

  • When the modifier does not define a subclass of the focus term or when the modifier changes the meaning of the focus term (e.g., paper airplanes, tin soldiers, artificial limbs, Greek fire).

  • When the modifier is the governing administrator of the focus term (e.g., cathedral cities, capital cities, army bases, colonial cities).

  • When one of the components of a compound term is derived from a guide term (e.g., subway cars, research vessels, emergency currency, clothing stores).

  • When one or more of the components of the compound term are not AAT descriptors and are not appropriate to add.

  • Where there may be a problem in retrieval or vocabulary control, as when splitting the compound term would result in confusion in retrieval due to too many false hits (e.g., library science, science library, foreign correspondent, folding rules).

  • When the distinction between two or more compound terms is confused in the discipline and the distinction would be lost if the terms were not bound as compound terms (Hint: If the scope note distinguishes between the terms, make two compound terms) (e.g., log cabins, log houses, business schools, business colleges, military photography, war photography).

  • When the compound term is in a foreign language (e.g., lits à la duchesse, cadavres exquis, p'ai-lous, aes rude).

  • When the compound term has a trade mark (e.g., Conte crayons (TM), Plastic Wood (TM), Zonolite Concrete (TM)).

  • When the compound term has become so familiar in common use or in the discipline, that it is considered for practical purposes to represent a single concept (e.g., data processing, art history).

  

     

 » When to avoid making a compound term

As ISO (International Organization for Standardization) has stated, dealing with compound terms is one of the most difficult areas of thesaurus construction and indexing. Terms in the thesaurus should represent simple or unitary concepts; compound terms or headings should be factored into simpler elements whenever possible.

Unless there is precedent and a guide term for the concept already established in the AAT, do not make compound terms in any of the following situations.

  • Material or style
    Do not make a compound term composed of a noun phrase containing an adjective ("modifier") that designates material or style. Doing so would mean that these adjectives would recur in infinite combinations throughout the AAT. End users may join the distinct AAT terms for indexing (see below).

Baroque + churches

stone + walls

Baroque + painting

stone + churches

Baroque + sculpture

stone + steps

  • Common physical attributes
    Do not make a compound term when the modifier is a common physical attribute or property that could apply to hundreds of focus terms, including modifiers that imply an action that has been performed on or with the focus term.

round + photographs

red + silk

beaded + jacket

painted + furniture

reinforced + tapestry

trimmed + sheet metal

  • Common scope and content
    Do not make a compound term when the modifier specifies common scope or content that could apply to hundreds of focus terms.

landscape + photographs

empty + rooms

Buddhist + temples

war + ration books

  • Common agents
    Do not make a compound term when the modifier indicates the agent who possesses or produces the focus term, that could apply to hundreds of focus terms.

soldiers' + swords

artists' + dwellings

  • Whole/part or location
    Do not make a compound term when the words express a whole/part relationship or when the modifier is otherwise a location or context of the focus term, that could apply to hundreds of focus terms.

airport + rest rooms

aircraft + engines

coin + inscriptions

book + illustrations

 

     

» "Modified Descriptors" created by end users

End users will ideally have the means to create local compound terms (modified descriptors) or headings in any of three ways.

  • In the first example below, the material red silk is displayed in the free-text field and indexed in controlled fields. The Material and Color are indexed in separate fields that are controlled by the local authority, called the "Concept Authority" in the examples below.
       

 

     
  • Some institutions may not have free-text fields, and thus may need to combine the discrete concepts into compound terms in the controlled fields in the Work Record. If so, ideally each part of the phrase, such as red silk in the Materials field, should retain its original links to the discrete parts of the AAT or local Concept Authority.
       
     
  • Another way to include compound terms in the Work Record is by adding compound terms to a local Concept Authority. This may be necessary for institutions that are building specialized authorities for their local use. In the example below, each color of silk is listed as a separate compound term in the local Concept Authority. If this method is employed, the institution must consider how to effectively flag such terms that are no longer compatible with standard sources of vocabulary, such as the AAT.

 

       
     
     

» Application protocol for end users re. "Modified Descriptors"

End users may combine separate AAT terms to make headings, called "modified descriptors" for short phrases and "strings" for longer subject headings. This discussion deals with modified descriptors only, not with the construction of longer subject heading strings. Users generally should create modified descriptors whenever the two or more components of their phrase are already in the AAT, rather than submitting new candidate terms. Note that although the topic is called "modified descriptors," the user may combine a modifier with any term in the AAT record, not only the descriptor per se.

  • A modified descriptor consists of a descriptor (or alternate descriptor or used for term, if so dictated by local preference) chosen as the focus term, and other terms serving as modifiers.
  • A modified descriptor must include only one focus term. As many modifiers as necessary may be used.
  • Modifiers should generally precede the focus term. However, alter this rule as necessary to reflect natural language.
  • Do not use punctuation between the focus term and the modifier(s).
  • When multiple modifiers are used, the terms should be arranged in the order of the facets, except when this order is confusing or does not reflect natural language:
    1. Associated Concepts (adjectival form)
    2. Physical Attributes (adjectival form)
    3. Styles and Periods
    4. Agents (possessive form where appropriate)
    5. Activities (past tense form)
    6. Materials
    7. Objects (for an object part, use the alternate singular form of the whole as the modifier for the part, e.g., church doors)
  • The Part of Speech flag was added to the AAT in 2010 in part to guide construction of modified descriptors.

  • Examples
    [Read these modified descriptor terms vertically, top to bottom. Terms reflect the order of the AAT facets. The focus term is underlined. The order may be changed if it is confusing or reads awkwardly in natural language.]

 

Facet Name

#

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Associated Concepts

1

 

 

asymmetrical

Buddhist

 

 

 

Physical Attributes

2

 

 

blue

 

 

large

 

Styles and Periods

3

Victorian

Renaissance

 

 

 

 

ancient

Agents

4

 

 

 

 

 

army

 

Activities (past tense)

5

painted

 

etched

 

galvanized

 

 

Materials

6

wood

tempera

 

 

metal

 

 

Objects

7

bedroom

paintings

glassware

temples

tools

barracks

coin

Objects (part)

7

furniture

 

 

 

 

 

inscriptions

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.7

 

 

Facet and hierarchy names

    Do not edit, merge, or move the records for the top levels of the AAT hierarchy, including the facets and hierarchies without the permission of your supervisor. See also Guide terms below.
     

3.3.2.5.8

   

Preferred Term

  • Preferred flags for Terms

    For each title/name, there may be four types of preference. The preferences are not mutually exclusive. For example, one title may be preferred for the overall record, for the language English, and also for a given published source.

    • record-preferred: the term preferred for the overall record. One title in the record is flagged as the overall record-preferred, as a default for displays. It is typically the same as the preferred English title.

    • preferred for language: the term preferred for a given language. One title is flagged as preferred for each language.

    • preferred for contributor: the term preferred for a given contributor. For each record, the contributor may have one preferred title.

    • preferred for source: the term preferred for a given source. For each source there is one title preferred as the entry form title in that source.

    • Example
      [AAT subject_id 1000178228; preferred flags noted in red; note that diptychs, descriptor and plural noun, is preferred in English and by contributors VP, GCI, and BHA, but Diptychon, alternate descriptor and singular noun, is preferred in German and by contributor IfM-SMB-PK]

    • diptychs (record-preferred,C)(English-P,D,U,PN)
      .............. [VP-P, GCI-P, BHA-P]
      diptych (C)(English,AD,SN)
      Diptychen (C)(German,D,PN)
      Diptychon (C)(German-P,AD,SN) [IfM-SMB-PK-P]
      Diptycha (C)(German,UF,PN)

    • Examples
      [preferences for sources for the term dyptychs are indicated in red; non-preferred reference (N) is also indicated, contrasted to the display above, where non-preferred flags are suppressed in display]

    • AATA database (2002-) 122838 checked 26 January 2012 (P)
    • Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) sh 85038241 (P)
    • Lucie-Smith, Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Art Terms (1986)(P)
    • Mayer, Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques (1969)(P)
    • Metropolitan Museum of Art [online] (2001-)(P)
    • Oxford Companion to Art (2010) (P)
    • Pierce, From Abacus to Zeus (1987) (P)
    • Tesauro de Arte & Arquitectura (2000-)(N)

 

 

 

  • Choosing the record-preferred Term

    For the record-preferred term and the preferred term in any translation, choose the term most often used in standard and scholarly sources in the language (American English for the record-preferred term).

    The record-preferred term, and all other descriptors, must be found in at least three sources.

    For the form of the preferred term in the different AAT Hierarchies, see the various discussions of Consistency below and at Descriptor Form and Use in 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships.

  • Flag the preferred term. See Preferred Flag below. Make the preferred term a Descriptor (see Term Type).

  • To determine which term is most commonly used, consult standard dictionaries, encyclopedia, textbooks, and authoritative Web sites. See Sources for terms for a list of standard sources.

  • For terms that are not found in standard sources, consult specialized books, journal articles, and other published sources.

   » Consistency

    Within any given section of the hierarchy, for the preferred term, be consistent regarding the singular vs. plural, fullness of the term, spelling style, and punctuation.

  • For Associated Concepts: Descriptors should be nouns. Use of the singular or plural form is decided on the basis of literary warrant and common usage. Provide adjectival forms as alternate descriptors in some cases (e.g., for Buddhism, alternate descriptor = Buddhist). Keep in mind that descriptors and alternate descriptors may be used by end users in combination with other terms (e.g., Buddhist + monasteries; Inuit + customs).

  • For Physical Attributes: Some descriptors may be adjectives; others should be nouns with an adjective provided as an alternate descriptor. Choose the form based on precedent, together with need and usage. Remember that descriptors and alternate descriptors will be used by end users in combination with other terms (e.g., handmade + carpets; porous + stone).

  • For Conditions and Effects: Descriptors should be in the noun form, with alternate descriptors provided as appropriate. In some cases the alternate is the singular noun (e.g., defects with the alternate defect) and others are an adjective form (e.g., wear, alternate worn). Remember that end users use descriptors and alternate descriptors in combination with other terms (e.g., paint + cleavage; surface + defects).

  • For Design Elements: Descriptors should be plural nouns except where usage dictates the singular, including most pattern types (e.g., herringbone). For those in the plural, make singular forms as alternate descriptors if appropriate. Note that end users will create terms for motifs based on objects or figures, by using alternate descriptors from other hierarchies with the term motif (e.g., shell + motif; tree + motif).

  • For Colors: Descriptors should be in noun or adjectival form as appropriate. Provide singular forms as alternate descriptors to plural noun descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors other terms (deep greenish blue + silk; warm color + perception; deep purple + tint).

  • For Styles and Periods: Descriptors from the Styles and Periods hierarchy are intended to be used as modifiers and therefore are in adjectival form, where such exists (e.g., Greek). Otherwise they are in noun form to be used as noun modifiers (e.g., Shawnee). In the modern and post-1945 sections, where a descriptor is an adjective derived from the descriptor of an artistic movement, the descriptor of that movement appears as an alternate descriptor (e.g., Cubist, alternate Cubism). End users will create some style names by combining two or more descriptors from this hierarchy (e.g., French + Renaissance). When place names are needed, users will be advised to take them from the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names, (e.g., Massachusetts + Italianate + houses).

  • For People: Descriptors appear as plural nouns, with the singular, the singular possessive, and the plural possessive provided as alternate descriptors. Descriptors and alternate descriptors may be combined with others (e.g., president's + personal papers; artists' + exhibitions; photograph + librarians).

  • For Organizations: Descriptors are plural nouns, with the singular noun as alternate descriptors. End users will combine descriptors with other terms (e.g., democratic + Greek + city-states, librarians' + professional associations).

  • For Living Organisms: Descriptors are the scientific taxonomic name (e.g., Canis lupus); alternate descriptors are the plural and singular common version of the name (e.g., gray wolves and gray wolf). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

  • For Disciplines: Descriptors appear as singular nouns, except where common usage dictates the plural (e.g., sciences). Include adjectival forms as alternate descriptors where justified by common usage. End users will combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., dance + photography; highway + engineering; Canadian + printmaking).

  • For Functions: Descriptors should be in gerund form or in the most commonly used noun form. Adjectival forms are provided as alternate descriptors in some cases as justified by common usage. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., promoting + military personnel; hospital + maintenance; accredited + institutions).

  • For Events: Descriptors are plural nouns, unless common usage dictates the singular. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors to plural descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Micmac + feasts; boat + races; children's + birthdays).

  • For Physical and Mental Activities: Descriptors appear in either noun or gerund form. They may be used in combination with descriptors from this and other hierarchies (e.g., baseball + bats: automobile + racing).

  • For Processes and Techniques: Descriptors are in gerund or noun form according to need and usage (e.g., abrasion, tuning, tapestry). Adjectival forms are provided as alternate descriptors where appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., hand-colored + photographs: Medieval + cloisonné; half-timber + cottages).

  • For Materials: Most descriptors are singular nouns, except where common usage warrants the plural form. Where appropriate, the plural forms of singular descriptors are provided as alternate descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., stained glass + windows; canvas + sails; archival quality + mounting board; hardwood + shavings).

  • For Objects: Descriptors are plural nouns, with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor where appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., postcard + collections: railroad + personnel).

  • For Object Genres: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor where appropriate. Descriptors may be used in combination with other terms (e.g., Sumerian + votive offerings; furniture + reproductions; prototype + houses).

  • For Components: Descriptors appear as plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., Ionic + capitals; satin + lapels).

  • For Settlements and Landscapes: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. Users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., city + streets; protected + wetlands; Medieval + towns).

  • For Built Complexes and Districts: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., district + zoning; prefabricated + housing; Shaker + cemeteries; rehabilitated + inner cities).

  • For Single Built Works: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., Georgian + saltbox houses; three-story + parking garages; modular + houses; fieldstone + cottages).

  • For Open Spaces and Site Elements: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may combine descriptors with other terms (e.g., concrete + bollards; carved + boundary stones; Renaissance + gardens).

  • For Furnishings: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., blockfront + desks; upholstered + chairs; hooked + rugs; Baroque + frames).

  • For Costume: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users will use descriptors with other terms (e.g., fur + coats; Greek + jewelry; wedding + veils).

  • For Tools and Equipment: Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., pen + drawings; cast iron + bench anvils).

  • For Weapons and Ammunition: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Japanese + engraved + steel + swords; security guards' + handguns).

  • For Measuring Devices: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users will combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Renaissance + brass (alloy) + astrolabes).

  • For Containers: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., enameled + snuff boxes; coiled + pots; creamware + teacups).

  • For Sound Devices: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., alto + flutes, American colonial + church + bell).

  • For Recreational Artifacts: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. Descriptors and alternate descriptors are available for use in combination with others (e.g., tin + toys; round + sandboxes).

  • For Transportation Vehicles: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., oak + carts; yellow + taxicabs).

  • For Visual Works: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Byzantine + icons; ink + drawings; garden + sculpture; portrait + photographs).

  • For Exchange Media: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., gold + coins; French + francs; Canadian + dollars).

  • For Information Forms: Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., plastic + relief maps; furniture + pattern books; newspaper + advertisements).

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.9

 

 

Non-Preferred terms

    At minimum, endeavor to include important alternate and variant terms that appear in major published sources and represent significant differences from the preferred term in form or spelling. As time and editorial priorities allow, check additional dictionaries, encyclopedia, text books, and LC Subject Headings (see AACR2 Flag below); include additional alternate and variant terms, even if the differences in spelling and punctuation are minor.

  • Include non-preferred terms as described below. Be certain that all the non-preferred terms are flagged as Non-preferred. See also the discussion at Term Type and Preferred Flag below.

   » Descriptors

There is only one preferred term per record, but there may be multiple descriptors (flagged with Term Type = descriptor). Descriptors are the terms that will be used by default in displays and in indexing (i.e., when end users have a policy of using one single term consistently).

  • The descriptor in American English is required and must be flagged as the preferred term in the record (see Preferred term above). Also include the descriptor in British English if it differs from American English; include descriptors in any other languages, if known or as instructed by your supervisor.

  • For each descriptor in various languages, mark its language as preferred. A Descriptor is the preferred term for an AAT concept in a given language; in other words, it is the term used most often to refer to that concept in the language.
   » Alternate Descriptors

Alternate descriptors have a different grammatical form than the descriptor. Include all appropriate Alternate Descriptors (AD) for the preferred term Descriptor (D). Refer to the following list for guidance in adding Alternate Descriptors in American English.

  • Singular AD for plural D: Objects Facet, all hierarchies; Events hierarchy; Organizations hierarchy; People hierarchy: Include a singular form of the plural descriptor (e.g., cathedral is the alternate descriptor for the descriptor cathedrals; christening for the descriptor christenings; society for the descriptor societies). You do not need to include singular forms for all used for terms, unless the spelling is unusual. For example, include the singular form if the plural spelling is not formed by the simple addition of an "s" for English words and for all words in languages other than English, if known.

  • Plural AD for singular D: Materials hierarchy, Object facet: Include a plural form of singular noun descriptors (e.g., clays is the alternate descriptor for the descriptor clay; embroideries for the descriptor embroidery).

  • Past participle AD for verbal noun or gerund D: Processes, Techniques, Physical and Mental Activities hierarchies, Functions: Include the past participle of a verbal noun or gerund (e.g., carved is an alternate descriptor for carving; maintained for the descriptor maintenance).

  • Adverbial AD for noun D: Disciplines hierarchy: Include the adverbial form of a noun descriptor (e.g., the alternate descriptor mathematical for the descriptor mathematics).

  • Possessive AD for noun D: People hierarchy: Include the singular noun form, and the singular and plural possessives as alternate descriptors (e.g., for the descriptor deacons, alternate descriptors are painter, painter's, and painters' ).

  • Common name AD for scientific D: Living Organisms hierarchy: Include the plural and singular noun forms of common terms for the scientific term descriptor (e.g., for the descriptor Canis lupus, alternate descriptors are gray wolves and gray wolf).

  • Noun AD for adjectival D: Styles and Periods hierarchy: Include an alternate descriptor that is the noun form of an adjective (e.g., include Impressionist for the descriptor Impressionism).

  • Adjectival AD for noun D: Associated Concepts hierarchy: Include an alternate descriptor that is the adjectival form of a noun descriptor whenever appropriate in the Associated Concepts hierarchy (e.g., include Buddhist for the descriptor Buddhism).

    • Add adjectives as alternate descriptors in other hierarchies where appropriate, and when time and editorial priorities allow.

  • No AD: Physical Attributes facet: Terms in this facet tend to be adjectives and have no Alternate Descriptors.

  • Other languages: Include alternate descriptors for descriptors in other languages as your own expertise and your sources warrant.

   » Used For terms

Add used for terms that are 1) spelling or grammatical variants of the descriptor or 2) have true synonymity with the descriptor.

  • No "upward posting": In many thesauri it is acceptable to include used for terms that are not true synonyms, but are actually narrower contexts to the descriptor. This is called upward posting; it is forbidden in the AAT. If a term represents a valid child of the concept, add it as a child.

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.10

 

 

Including additional terms

  • Spelling variants
    Include variants that differ in spelling, diacritics, capitalization, or punctuation (e.g., bird's eye views is a spelling variant for the descriptor bird's-eye views).

    • Example
    • still lifes (preferred)
      still life
      still-lifes
      still lives

  • Lexical variants
    Include different forms of speech for a descriptor, as appropriate. Lexical variants are often alternate descriptors (see Non-Preferred Terms: Alternate Descriptors above). You may include lexical variants as used for terms, if warranted.

  • Synonyms
    Include all true synonyms for the concept. Synonyms are terms that have meanings that are the same or virtually the same in a wide range of contexts. True synonyms are relatively rare in natural language. The following types of synonyms should be included:

    • Terms of different linguistic origin (e.g., sodium and natrium).
    • Popular and scientific names (e.g., house cat and Felis domesticus).
    • Generic and trade name synonyms (e.g., photocopies and Xeroxes). Note that trade names are included only under rare conditions; see Trademarks below.
    • Outdated terms or historical terms (e.g., airports and aerodromes).
      Slang or jargon synonyms (e.g., helicopters and whirlybirds).
    • Dialectical or language variants (e.g., elevators and lifts).

  • Abbreviations
    For the preferred term, avoid abbreviations, initialisms, acronyms, and codes, unless the abbreviation is better known and more often used than the full term.

    • For used for (variant) terms, include commonly used abbreviations, codes, acronyms, and initials.

      • Example
      • Saint Andrew's crosses (preferred, descriptor)
        St. Andrew's crosses (used for)

    • Choose an abbreviation, code, initials, or acronym as the preferred term only in the rare case where the usage is well established and the abbreviation is consistently the preferred or only form in major sources. Include the spelled out versions of such terms as used for terms.

      • Examples
      • HVAC (preferred, descriptor)
        heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (used for)
        heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (used for)
        indoor climate control (used for)

      • CD-ROMs (preferred, descriptor)
        CD-ROM (alternate descriptor)
        CDROM (used for)
        Cd Roms (used for)
        compact discs read-only memory (used for)
        compact disk read-only memory (used for)
        compact disks read-only memory (used for)

    • Do not use the abbreviation as the preferred term if both the abbreviation and the fuller form are used with equal frequency, or if the abbreviation can be confused with another common abbreviation, even if the other abbreviation is not in the AAT. In the example below, AI could refer to artificial intelligence, but also to army intelligence, artificial insemination, active ingredient, recommended average daily nutrient intake, etc.

      • Example
      • artificial intelligence (preferred, descriptor)
        AI (used for)

  • Brand names
    For brand names of materials and techniques, generally place them in the Brand Names facet. if the term is an established trademark, spell it with an initial uppercase letter and follow with the code "TM" in parentheses (e.g., Diasec (TM)).

    • Example
    • Top of the AAT hierarchies
      .... Brand Names
      ........ <brand name techniques and processes>
      ............ Diasec (TM)

    Trademarks or brand names may be included in the other facets only if the term is found in common usage to refer to a generic material, object, or process. It will typically be a Used For term for the generic Descriptor.

    • Example
    • diffusion transfer prints (preferred, descriptor)
      diffusion transfer print (alternate descriptor)
      Polaroid (TM) transfer prints (used for)

    • gypsum board (preferred, descriptor)
      gypboard (used for)
      Sheetrock (TM) (used for)

  • Only one term per field
    Caveat: A term is a unique concept (although it may comprise multiple words). A single Term field should not contain multiple terms or headings, as is sometimes found in terms contributed from other databases and in LC Subject Headings.

    Qualifiers: Do not include a second word or term in parentheses. Put qualifiers in the Qualifier field, NOT in the term field. See the section on Qualifiers below.

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.11

 

 

Singular vs. plural
If the term is a descriptor, and if it can exist as both singular and plural, generally include both forms in the record. Follow the guidelines below in determining whether the singular or plural should be the preferred term.

   » Count nouns

For the preferred term, use the plural for count nouns, that is, for nouns that would be quantified by "how many?" If the preferred term is a plural, make an alternate descriptor in the singular form.

    • Examples
    • chairs (preferred, descriptor)
      chair (alternate descriptor)

    • essays (preferred, descriptor)
      essay (alternate descriptor)

   » Mass nouns

For the preferred term, use the singular for mass nouns, that is, for those nouns that would be quantified by "how much?"

    • Examples
    • iron (preferred, descriptor)
    • additive (preferred, descriptor)
    • correspondence (preferred, descriptor)

  • If the concept is generally quantified by "how much," but could also occasionally be quantified by "how many," include the plural as an alternate descriptor.

    • Example
    • embroidery (preferred, descriptor) Qualifier: visual works
      embroideries (alternate descriptor)

   » Processes, properties, and conditions

For the preferred term, use the singular for processes, properties, and conditions.

    • Examples
    • absorbtion (preferred, descriptor)
    • boiling point (preferred, descriptor)
    • color shift (preferred, descriptor)
    • radiocarbon dating (preferred, descriptor)

   » Materials

For the preferred term, use the singular for materials. Add a plural form of the term as an alternate descriptor.

    • Examples
    • stone (preferred, descriptor)
      stones (alternate descriptor)

    • paint (preferred, descriptor)
      paints (alternate descriptor)

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.12

   

Homographs

    A homograph is a term that is spelled like another term, but the meanings of the terms are different. When adding a term, always check to see if there is homograph for the term in the AAT. If so, you are required to add qualifiers for both terms.

  • It is also required to add qualifiers for terms that do not have homographs in the AAT but for which there are homographs in common language. See 3.3.4 Qualifiers below.
   

 

3.3.2.5.13

   

Guide terms or node labels

    Guide terms, also called node labels, are records represented by a term or phrase that is created as a hierarchical level where no concept is appropriate as the level, to provide order and structure to thesauri by grouping narrower terms according to a given logic. Guide terms are not used for indexing and in the AAT are enclosed in angled brackets in displays (for example, <photographs by form>).

    Elimination of incorrect guide terms: In order to correct overly complex hierarchical levels and to eliminate guide terms that do not follow ISO standards, certain guide terms in AAT are being changed to concept records, or are eliminated entirely. Clue: if the guide term does not contain the word "by" in English, it should probably be revised as a concept record.

    • Examples
    • <photographs by technique>
    • <single built works by location or context>
    • <single built works by function>

  • Note that the angled brackets appear in displays. Do NOT type angled brackets in the term field. Indicate that a record is a guide terms by using the Record Type field (see 3.2 Identifying numbers, status flags, and subject sources); implementers will add the brackets when they process and display the data.

    • Example
 
     
  • Check with your supervisor before adding or editing guide terms or node labels. Create a guide term or node label only 1) to be consistent with other hierarchies in the AAT or 2) when a valid concept record will not suffice to mark the level.

  • Three recurrent nodel label forms are <...by form>, <...by function>, and <...by location or context>; others are used where necessary (e.g., <…by method of representation>).

  • Caveat: Do not create guide terms or node labels if there will be fewer than 10 narrower concepts. Avoid making overly complex divisions that cause unnecessary complexity in the structure; such divisions hinder the ability of end users to access the data through browsing the hierarchies, in addition to making displays difficult to read.

  • Records for guide terms and node labels generally have only a preferred term (descriptor); do not add used for terms or alternate descriptors for guide terms unless told to do so by your supervisor. Guide term descriptors in other languages may be added by translation projects.

  • If you compose a guide term or node label, create a term that will represent the characteristics of division by which a listing of narrower terms is clustered. Follow precedent in the same or similar areas of the AAT hierarchies. For further discussion of Guide Terms, see 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships.
   

 

3.3.2.5.14

   

Language of the terms

    For the record-preferred term, record the term most commonly used in American English. Label the language "English" unless there is also a British equivalent. Include variant terms (synonyms) in British English when the spelling differs. If the spelling is the same in British and American English, use the language English.

    Synonyms in other languages may also be included, although the more common way of adding translated terms is through official translation projects.

    • Examples
    • rocking chairs (preferred, descriptor, English-P)
      rocking chair (alternate descriptor, English)
      rockers (chairs) (used for term, English)
      schommelstoelen (descriptor, Dutch-P)
      schommelstoel (alternate descriptor, Dutch)

    • elevators (preferred, descriptor, American English)
      lifts (descriptor, British English)

    • artists' colormen (preferred, descriptor, American English)
      artists' colour-men (descriptor, British English)

    • amphitheater artists' colormen (preferred, descriptor, American English)
      amphiteatre (descriptor, British English)
      anfiteatro (descriptor, Italian)

   » Loan terms

Loan terms or loanwords are terms borrowed from other languages that have become naturalized in American English. If such terms are well established, include them in the AAT record. Flag authentic loan terms using the Language Status flag, discussed below. Loan terms are also discussed in the context of translations, below.

  • For English terms, if terms are commonly used instead of an English translation in authoritative American English sources, or if no English translation exists, make the loanword the preferred term. Use the term most commonly found in authoritative American English publications. Use diacritics as required. List languages for both English and the original language, if known.

    • Examples
    • papier-m$03ach$00e (preferred, descriptor, English, French)
    • Schnitzaltars (preferred, descriptor, German)
    • santos (preferred, descriptor, Spanish)

  • If the loanword is sometimes used - but it is not predominantly used - for the concept in American English sources, include it as a non-preferred term.

    • Examples
      ["allées couvertes" in the example below]
    • gallery graves (preferred, descriptor, English, French)
      gallery grave (alternate descriptor, English)
      graves, gallery (used for, English)
      all$00ees couvertes (used for, English, French)
       

3.3.2.5.15

   

TRANSLATIONS of AAT terms

    The following section is intended for contributors and editors who are translating or supplying terms in foreign languages as an occasional task.

    For large translation projects: For projects who wish to translate all or a significant portion of the AAT, see Appendix D: Contributors and Contributions. See also Guidelines for Multilingual Equivalency Work: Translating the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (Harpring, publication expected in 2016).

    For general contributors or editors: Include terms in various languages only if provided by a reliable source.

    Always defer to the contributions of the official contributing projects, if any. Do not work on terms in another language unless you are authorized to do so; you must be familiar enough with the language to read it and to distinguish singulars and plurals.

    • Examples
    • Coptic (preferred, descriptor, English-preferred)
      Copte (descriptor, French-preferred)
      Koptisch (descriptor, German-preferred, Dutch-preferred)
      Copto (descriptor, Italian-preferred, Portuguese-preferred, Spanish-preferred)
      Copt (used for, English)

    • preservative (preferred, descriptor, English-preferred)
      fang fu ji (preferred, descriptor, Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-preferred)
      conserveringsmiddel (preferred, descriptor, Dutch-preferred)
      agent de conservation (preferred, descriptor, French-preferred)
      conservante (preferred, descriptor, Spanish-preferred)

  • Descriptors in other languages: The descriptor should be the term most often used for the concept in the authoritative published sources of that language. NOTE: Each language may have only one descriptor and one alternate descriptor. The descriptor for that language should have the language cited and the preferred flag set to Preferred. Each language may have only one Preferred flag associated with a given language; for example, there may NOT be two terms labeled as Preferred for French.

  • Preferred for language: In brief, unless stated otherwise below, descriptors, alternate descriptors, and used fors should be established according to the analogous rules for plural and singular for that language. For example, for objects, the descriptor for the term in another language should typically be the plural; the alternate descriptor should be singular for objects.

  • Exceptions: Note that the language preference for a term may occasionally vary due to the rules of that languge. The preferred flag for a language may be attached to the alternate descriptor rather than the descriptor for nouns. In some languages, for example German, the singular noun (an alternate descriptor for German) is preferred for that language. For Chinese, the plural and singular are determined by context, not by the form of the word; most nouns in Chinese are neither singular nor plural.

  • Disagreement among contributions: The Vocabulary Program endeavors to assure there is only one official translation project for any given language. If two groups or nations wish to translate the AAT into one language, they should work together and reach consensus regarding the correct descriptors. Alternatively, they may flag different descriptors based on dialect or national usage, designated with variations on the Language name. Editors: If two contributors have submitted descriptors for the same language, but the terms are not the same, consult with your supervisor.

  • Both singular and plural: Note that a single term may be both singular and plural in a single language. (Conflict between singular and plural in different languages is discussed below.) If the fact that a single term is both singular and plural causes a situation where that term should be flagged both Descriptor and Alternate Descriptor, flag it as Descriptor (since you cannot flag a single term with two term types). You may use the Display Date to explain the situation (e.g., German plural and singular); since they are required, fill in very broad dates for Start and End Date.

  • In the example below, the term ending in "s" is both plural and singular in French. When used in a sentence, the distinction in this case would be made with a plural and singular article, but the article is not included in the thesaurus, so there is no distinction. The Term Type is set to Descriptor, the Preferred flag is set on the French language, and the Display Date explains: French plural and singular. Set the Part of Speech flag to Both singular and plural noun.

  • Example
       
     

» Translations should be true synonyms

  • Inexact translations: Do not include inexact translations or near-matches in the same AAT record. All terms in the record must have true synonymity, even when there terms in other languages. For terms that do not have an exact match in English, enter them as separate records in their original language; they will be treated as loan terms. Consult with the AAT editorial team (or your supervisor) before making such a decision.

  • Overlapping meaning: Use Associative Relationships, as necessary, to make links between terms that are not exact matches in meaning, but that may have overlapping meaning. Use the Relationship Type 2110 meaning/usage overlaps with. This may occur between terms in different languages, as well as for records where both descriptors are in English.

  • Rules of the language: For terms in other languages, be certain to include the correct diacritics and punctuation (such as hyphens). Respect the rules of capitalization for other languages; for example, nouns are capitalized in German.

  • Conflicts between languages: Term type is linked to language. If the term is spelled the same but is a different term type in two languages, designate the difference in Term Type.

  • In the example below, filigrane is the Descriptor (plural) for Italian, but it is the Alternate Descriptor (singular) for French. Term Type and Part of Speech correctly flag the Italian plural and French singular.
       
   

 

 

   

» Translating issue: What if you cannot make an exact translation?

  • The ideal translation
    The goal to which AAT translations should aspire is to find an exact equivalence for the English descriptor in the target language. All translations require literary warrant in a source that indicates that the term has the same meaning as described in the scope note. For example, if you want to enter a French term for tin mines, you must find warrant in a French source where the two words are combined in a term with the same meaning as the English tin mines; e.g., your source must list the term mines d'étain. The Language Status for this translation would be N/A meaning the translation is direct and sourced, without problems.

  • When the ideal translation is not possible
    In the real world of translations, the ideal translation is not always possible. Therefore, the AAT editorial rules allow for three other possibilities. However, the rule requiring exact equivalence always remains in force.

    • Loan Term: This is the most desirable option when the ideal translation is not possible. It is in fact desirable to use a loan term when it is found most often in the target language sources. If an exact translation is only occasionally found in the target language sources, prefer the loan term as your translated descriptor; include the exact translation as a UF term in the target language.

      For a loan term, the English term (or French, etc.) is used in target language sources to refer to the concept. For example, in English sources, we use the Italian sotto in sù (a type of foreshortening), so for English this is a loan term. It is never translated. If you find the same situation when translating from English into your target language, where sources in your language use the English term, retain the English term, flag it with your language (meaning it is used in your language, not that the words are of that language), and set Language Status flag to Loan Term.

    • Literal Translation: When you cannot find a translation in target language sources, and when you cannot find the term used in English as a loan term in your target language, you may create a literal translation. This should be a translating project decision; given that the AAT translating projects are considered experts in the target language, the AAT accepts their judgment in employing this strategy. Set the Language Status flag to Literal Translation.

      Literal translation may be used when there is no target language source for the English term, but you have translated the words literally. This usually would happen with compound terms. It is allowed only when a loan term is not found in the target language source. An example is the French translation petites louches à fruits rafraîchis for the English berry spoons.

    • Translation N/A: You may use the English term as the target language descriptor, even if you cannot find the English term translated in target language sources. In such a case, the term is not strictly a Loan Term because target language sources do not use the English term; but your translating project has decided to retain the English term in target language hierarchy views. Perhaps your translation project will try again later to find a translation. Set the Language Status flag to Translation N/A.

    • What are the rules for equivalence in the wider thesaural standard community?
      Although the AAT allows only exact equivalence among terms in the same record, the thesaurus standards actually allow more leeway. For your information, below are the other types of equivalence, which are not allowed in the AAT. The issues surrounding the development or implementation of multilingual terminology are discussed in detail in ISO 5964:1985: Documentation—Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri and Introduction to Controlled Vocabularies (Harpring, revised 2013).

      Exact equivalence: The most desirable match involves terms in each language that are identical, or nearly identical, in meaning and scope of usage in each language. This is the only type of translation allowed in the AAT. For example, the English prayer nut and the Italian noce di preghiera have the same meaning.

      Inexact and partial equivalences: In cases where a suitable preferred term with the exact meaning and usage of the original term is not available in the second language, terms are sometimes linked as equivalents when they have only inexact or partial matches in scope and meaning. For example, the English science and the German Wissenschaft have overlapping but not identical meanings. This is not allowed in the AAT.

      Single-to-multiple term equivalence: If there is no match in scope and meaning between terms, sometimes a concept in one vocabulary is matched to multiple descriptors in the second language. For example, the Spanish term relojero means both watchmaker and clockmaker in English; however, in translation, the Spanish term could be repeated as a homograph and distinguished with the qualifiers relojero (de pulsera) and relojero (de pared) in order to map to the English terms. This is not allowed in the AAT.

      Nonequivalence: Sometimes there is no exact match, no term in the second language has partial or inexact equivalence, and there is no combination of descriptors in the second language that would approximate a match. For example, the French term trompe l'oeil has no equivalent in English. This is allowed in the AAT, with the appropriate Language Status flag, Loan Term in this case.

  • Qualifiers: Apply qualifiers to terms in other languages according to the same rules used for English terms. If the term is a homograph of another term in the AAT, or if the term is a common term that has multiple meanings in the language - even if those homographs are not actually in the AAT - the term must have a qualifier.

  • For the term in another language, the qualifier should be in the language of the term. Occasionally editors may use English qualifiers for terms in other languages as a temporary measure, when a qualifier is needed but language expertise is lacking. Such terms should be collected and submitted to the original contributor or to language specialists at a later date.

  • The language designation for terms may refer to a transliterated language; labeling a term "Chinese" means that the term is written in Chinese script. If the Chinese term has been transliterated, use the language Chinese (transliterated) or a more specific designation, if known (e.g., Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles).
       
 
     

   » Variant transliterations

For terms from languages using non-Roman alphabets, include variant transliterations, if known. See Roman alphabet above.

   » Preferred British English term

In addition to the preferred term (which is in American English), it is required to record a preferred British English term for the concept, if the British English spelling differs from the American English term.

NOTE that spelling differences in British and American English are increasingly fewer, generally now restricted to "z" and "s" (cozy and cosy), "ter" and "tre" (theater and theatre), "m" and "mme" (program and programme), "or" and "our" (color and colour), and a few other examples. Generally, terms having differences in use of the hyphen are English, no longer considered a distinction between British and American English (earth sheltered buildings and earth-sheltered buildings are both English), because either variation can typically be found in both American English and British English texts

  • The preferred British English term should be the term used most often in standard authoritative sources in British English, only where the spelling consistently differs from modern texts in American English.

  • Most American English and British English terms are the same: flag the language as English. Note that in almost all cases in current literature, the spelling is the same; this has changed in the past few decades.

  • Mark the preferred term in British English as a descriptor. Use the language field and the preferred language flag to mark the preferred British English term. See the sections on Languages and Term Type below.

    • Examples
    • theaters (preferred, descriptor, American English-Preferred)
      theater (alternate descriptor, American English)
      theatres (descriptor, British English-Preferred)
      theatre (alternate descriptor, British English)
      playhouses (used for, English)

    • base color (preferred, descriptor, American English-Preferred)
      base colour (descriptor, British English-Preferred)
      base-colour (used for, British English)
      color, base (used for, American English)
     
   

 

3.3.2.5.16

   

Possessives

    Include the possessive form as an alternate descriptor, where appropriate (in the People hierarchy). Include both the singular and plural forms.

    • Examples
    • cabinetmakers (preferred, descriptor, American English)
      cabinetmaker (alternate descriptor, American English)
      cabinetmaker's (alternate descriptor, American English)
      cabinetmakers' (alternate descriptor, American English)
      cabinet-makers (descriptor, British English-Preferred)
      cabinet-maker (alternate descriptor, British English)
      cabinet makers (used for, American English)
      cabinet-workers (used for, American English)

  • With a compound term, use the plural possessive and the singular possessive as appropriate.

    • Examples
      [the possessive is plural, "deacons' "]
    • deacons' benches (preferred, descriptor)
      deacon's bench (alternate descriptor)

      [the possessive"bird's" is singular, even when the term is plural]
    • bird's-eye views (preferred, descriptor)
      bird's-eye view (alternate descriptor)
   

 

3.3.2.5.17

   

Natural order and inverted terms

    For a multiword term (compound term), generally record the preferred term in natural order. Compound terms typically have two components, the focus word and the modifier of that word (e.g., deacons' benches, for which benches is the focus). In English, the modifier typically precedes the focus in natural order; do not use a comma in the natural order form of the term.

  • When the preferred term comprises a compound term in which the focus word is not the first word of the term, include a used for term in inverted order, with the focus word first. Flag this term as Display flag = Indexing as well.

    Add an inverted term for alternate descriptor(s) if time and editorial priorities allow.

    It is not necessary to record inverted order terms for used for terms.

    • Example
    • deck chairs (preferred, descriptor)
      deck chair (alternate descriptor)
      chairs, deck (used for)
      deck-chairs (used for)
      steamer chairs (used for)

  • If the compound term descriptor includes relational parts of speech, generally create an inverted used for term, with the noun of the modifying phrase first.

    • Examples
    • books of hours (preferred, descriptor)
      book of hours (alternate descriptor)
      hours, books of (used for)

    • aids to navigation (preferred, descriptor)
      aid to navigation (alternate descriptor)
      navigation, aids to (used for)

  • Label the inverted term with the Display Flag set to Index. See Display Term Flag below.

   » Syntax

For the natural order form of the term, record the term in natural word order, that is, the way the term is spoken or written in natural language (e.g., composite drawings).

  • For the preferred term, make a used for term by inverting the term, that is, by recording the focus of the term first, followed by a comma and the modifier (e.g., drawings, composite). Use commas consistently.

    • Examples
    • composite drawings (preferred, descriptor)
      composite drawing (alternate descriptor)
      drawings, composite (used for)

    [example from VCS]

   
 

3.3.2.5.18

   

Initial articles

    Avoid including initial articles in terms except in the rare case where the initial article is consistently used in authoritative sources as a part of the term itself.

  • If the descriptor has an initial article, invert the term; make a used for in natural order.

    • Example
    • Sublime, the (preferred, descriptor)
      the Sublime (alternate descriptor)
   

 

3.3.2.5.19

   

Historical terms

    Include historical terms, if warranted. Given the nature of the standard sources that are most often used in constructing the AAT, it is relatively unusual to run across synonyms that historically were spelled differently from the modern term; however, you should add them if your source mentions them. If you have any doubts, consult with your supervisor before adding the historical term.

    If you add historical terms, explain the meaning and timeframe of usage in the Display Date for the term or in the Descriptive/Scope Note, if known.

  • Historical terms are always used for terms; do not make a historical term a descriptor or alternate descriptor.

    • Example
      [for the "still lifes" record]
 
     
  • If the historical term is now used in another sense as a descriptor in another record, clearly explain this in the Display date and add qualifiers for both homographs (see Qualifiers below).
   

 

3.3.2.5.20

   

Neologisms

    Include neologisms, if appropriate. A neologism is a newly created or coined term that was recently introduced in professional or popular discourse, and which can sometimes be attributed to a specific individual, publication, date, or event.

    • Examples
    • televillages (preferred, descriptor)
    • recharging stations (preferred, descriptor)

  • Such terms are typically not yet included in standard dictionaries and it may therefore be difficult to find three sources of warrant. However, three sources are required for a published AAT term; for neologisms, rather than requiring dictionaries, encyclopedia, and text books as sources, you may use journal articles, authoritative Web sites, and museum databases for all of the sources, if necessary. If you still cannot find the term in three such sources, put the record in a temp.parent pending the discovery of further warrant.
     

3.3.2.5.21

   

Slang and jargon

    Slang is casual or informal language. Jargon is specialized technical terminology characteristic of a particular subject. Include slang terms and jargon as used for synonyms, if warranted. Generally, do not make slang or jargon terms the preferred terms, unless the term has been widely accepted and is used more often than the more traditional term.

    • Example
    • helicopters (preferred, descriptor)
      helicopter (alternate descriptor)
      whirlybirds (used for)

  • Flag the slang or jargon term with the Other Flags set to slang/jargon. See Other Flags below.
   

 

3.3.2.5.22

   

Pejorative terms

    For the preferred term, avoid using pejorative or objectionable terms. If two terms are used to refer to the same concept, and one of them is pejorative, choose the neutral term for the preferred term, but include the pejorative as a used for term. Explain that the term is pejorative in the Display Date or Descriptive/Scope Note.

    • Example
      [Hottentot is considered offensive by the native peoples to whom it refers]
    • Terms: Khoikhoi (preferred, descriptor)
      Hottentot (used for)
      Display Date: considered pejorative, probably invented by the Dutch colonists in imitation of the clicking sounds of the native language
   
3.3.2.5.23    

Popular and scientific terms

    If a popular term and a scientific term refer to the same concept, make the scientific term the preferred term. The plural and singular versions of the common term most often used in authoritative sources should be alternate descriptors.

    • Examples

    • Terms:
      Felis domesticus (species) (preferred, descriptor) [scientific name]
      domestic cats (alternate descriptor) [common name]
      domestic cat (alternate descriptor)
      cats, domestic (used for)
      Felis catus (used for)
      house cat (used for)

    • Terms:
      Lepisma saccharina (species) (preferred, descriptor) [scientific name]
      silverfish (alternate descriptor) [common name]
      fishmoths (used for)
  • Flag the scientific term with the Other Flags set to Scientific term. See Other Flags below.
   

 

   

   » For the Living Organisms hierarchy

  • The Living Organisms hierarchy terms for animals and plants, including their scientific names as well as common names. This hierarchy is under development and will grow over time through contributions.

  • In general, records in this hierarchy comply with overall rules for scientific terms: If a common term and a scientific term refer to the same concept, make the scientific term the preferred term. The plural and singular versions of the common term most often used in authoritative sources should be alternative descriptors.

  • Regarding other hierarchies
    Records for animals or plants may be linked through Associative Relationships to records for the products derived from them, particularly when the product is unique and used to produce architecture or art (e.g., vellum).

  • Compound terms: Users may combine the name of the animal or plant with the name of the part or product in local indexing (e.g., birch + bark, ostrich + egg). Do not pre-coordinate these compound terms in the AAT.

  • Organization
    The basic underlying structure is arranged according to the most recent available taxonomies of animals and plants in standard, general reference sources.

  • Compared to scientific taxonomies: Note that the AAT hierarchy does not duplicate scientific taxonomies: it includes levels and records that are inappropriate for a scientific taxonomy but are necessary for the target audience of the AAT, which is the art and architectural history cataloging community. The hierarchy combines living and extinct animals and plants, animals or plants by location and context (e.g., waterfowl), common names (e.g., zebras) that have no direct counterpart in a scientific taxonomy because they do not correspond to a single species or genus, groups of animals (e.g., flocks), components of animals (e.g., paws), and other divisions that are not part of a scientific taxonomy.

  • The preferred scientific names and the basic underlying structure of the AAT hierarchies are usually derived from encyclopedia and other authoritative general reference sources rather than the most recent scientific taxonomies: taxonomic classifications have been in flux since the 1980s and many competing classifications exist, some based on traditional morphological evidence and others on analyses of molecular data. It is out of scope for the AAT to reflect the most current developments in this field.

  • Required levels: The hierarchies to the level of order should already be established. If you need an order that is missing, consult with your supervisor. If you are adding a new species, you must enter all relevant levels up to order. To determine the appropriate levels for a particular area of the hierarchy, consult other nearby or analogous sections of the hierarchy. The minimum hierarchical levels for a species are the following:

    • Kingdom
      .... Phylum (Division for plants)
      ........Class
      ............Order
      ................Family
      ....................Genus
      ........................Species

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are the scientific taxonomic name (e.g., Canis lupus); this is true for English and all other languages. Alternate descriptors are the plural and singular common version of the name (e.g., gray wolves and gray wolf). The preferred common name in any language is an AD, however the language flag is Non-preferred (because the Latin name would be preferred for all languages). All additional synonymous names in a given language are UFs (e.g., timber wolves).

    Expression of descriptors should follow the conventions of the discipline. Names of kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, and genus are spelled with initial capitals (e.g., Canis). The names of species repeat the capitalized name of the genus, and the distinguishing term for the species is in lower case (e.g., Canis lupus).

  • Alternate Descriptors and Used For terms: Provide the common plural and singular forms of the descriptor as an alternate descriptors if and only if they are exact synonyms for the descriptor (e.g., domestic cats is a synonym of the D Felis domesticus, but wolves is not a synonym to either species D Canis lupus (gray wolf) or to the next higher level, genus D Canis (because wolves refers multiple species, not only Canis lupus, but Canis includes various canids besides wolves; thus wolves matches neither).

  • UF terms may be added if they are exact synonyms for the descriptor.
  • Other Flags: Flag the scientific term with the Other Flags set to Scientific term. Flag the common terms with the flag Common term.
  • Language: Flag the scientific term with two languages: Latin and English. Remember that the English flag refers to the term used by English speakers, not to the etymological derivation of the word. As the record is translated, the Latin term will be flagged with other languages.

  • Alternate Descriptors should be flagged with Language = English for English terms. Other languages should be flagged as necessary.

  • Qualifiers: The qualifiers should be in the language of the term. For the scientific term, include a qualifier in the Qualifier field indicating the level of the term: in English, family, genus, species. For extinct animals and plants, qualifiers should be extinct genus or extinct species.
  • In the example below, qualifier, language, term type, and part of speech are linked at the language level. A single term has multiple languages. “Other flag” (e.g., Scientific term, Common term) is linked at the term level.
       
 
   
  • Common names as AD or UF must be true synonyms for the Descriptor: Be absolutely certain that the scientific term and the common term are synonyms. For Living Organisms, the common term may be a synonym at any of various levels, usually but not always one of the following three levels: Family, Genus, or Species. For example, domestic cats is a synonym for the scientific term at the species level Felis domesticus; however, the common term chimpanzees is a synonym for the scientific term at the genus level, Pan.

  • When a common term has no scientific equivalent: If the common term does not match a level in the hierarchy of the scientific taxonomy, make a separate record for the common term, and make hierarchical or associative relationships to the related records with scientific descriptors, as necessary. For example, zebras is a common term referring to any of three species of in the genus Equus, however all members of the genus Equus are not zebras. Thus, zebras becomes a descriptor for an independent record, to which species of zebras are linked as non-preferred children.

  • When sources use the common name at various levels: In the AAT, a single common term may apply to only one level of the scientific hierarchy. For example if an order has only one family, you may find sources in which the same common term may be used for both the order and family. In the AAT, the common term should be applied at the narrowest level where it is appropriate. If you believe that the term may apply to multiple levels, consult with your supervisor.
    • Example
      [partial, abbreviated hierarchical display]
    • Top of the AAT hierarchies
      .... Agents Facet
      ....... Living Organisms
      [...]
      .................... Equidae (family)
      ........................... Equus (genus)
      ........................... Equus asinus (species)
      ........................... Equus burchellii (species)
      ........................... Equus caballus (species)
      [...]
      ........................... zebras (mammals)
      ................................ Equus burchellii (species) [N]
      ................................ Equus grevyi (species) [N]
      ................................ Equus quagga (extinct species) [N]
      ................................ Equus zebra (species) [N]

  • Sources for Living Organisms: Preferred sources for this hiearchy are listed with sources below.
   

3.3.2.5.24

   

Misspellings

    Variant terms may occasionally include an apparent misspelling, if the term is found in a major published source. If you are absolutely certain that the term is a misspelling, note this in the Display Date for that term (Display Date is a free-text field; in order to use this field, you must also have dates in mind for Start and End Dates; see Dates for Terms below).

  • Do not refer to historical terms as "misspellings" in the Display Date. Be sure to flag them as Historical.
   

 

3.3.2.5.25

   

Constructed terms

    A constructed term is a term created by the editor, rather than being transcribed from a source. Given that all terms in the AAT must have literary warrant, the only constructed terms allowed in the AAT are 1) the guide terms, names of facets, and hierarchy names, 2) inverted versions of natural order terms or natural order of inverted terms when the source lists only one or the other, and 3) plural terms, when the source lists only the singular (or vice versa).

  • The source for a constructed term is the following:

    Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
    Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.

    In rare exceptions, a translation project may also use constructed terms (called coined terms).
   

 

3.3.2.5.26

   

Language

    Flag the language of the term, if known, by choosing a language from the controlled list of languages. See Language for terms below.
 

3.3.2.5.27

   

Order of the terms

    The terms must be organized according to a set of rules. Number the terms as instructed in Sequence Number below.
   

 

3.3.2.5.28

   

Editing contributed terms

    Editors should not edit terms that have been loaded into VCS from a contributor's database or the online contribution form, except for minor punctuation typos. If you add a date or a source to the term, add the initials VP as a contributor for the term and its related information.

  • If directed to do so by your supervisor, you may occasionally delete contributed terms that are inappropriate for the AAT.
     

 

3.3.3

   

Preferred Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.3.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether or not the term is the preferred term for its subject record.

     

3.3.3.2

 

 

Values
The flags are controlled by a list:

    preferred
    variant
     

3.3.3.3

   

Sources
For a discussion of how to determine which term should be the preferred term, see Preferred Term above.

     

3.3.3.4

   

Discussion
Every record must have one preferred term to use as a default in displays.

Note that the record-preferred term is always a descriptor (i.e., the Term Type = descriptor). However, there may be multiple descriptors in a record; if there are terms in multiple languages, there may be a descriptor for each language.

Only the descriptor in American English is the record-preferred term for the concept. For further discussion, see Preferred terms above.

     

3.3.3.5

   

RULES for Preferred Flag

     

3.3.3.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: The term in sequence number 1 is automatically flagged "preferred" by the system. If this is not correct, change the Preferred Flag and sequence numbers accordingly.

     

 

3.3.4

   

Qualifier

     

3.3.4.1

   

Definition
Word or phrase used primarily to distinguish between homographs.

     

3.3.4.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers. Legacy data and characters outside Unicode (e.g., eszett as distinct from double-s) are represented with codes for diacritics. See discussion in Appendix A: Diacritics.

     

3.3.4.3

   

Discussion
When are qualifiers required? Qualifiers are used in AAT to distinguish between homographs in the data and when an AAT term is a homograph for a common word in natural language.

What is a homograph? A homograph is a term that is spelled like another term, but the meanings of the terms are different. In a dictionary, homographs are listed under a single heading, with several definitions listed (e.g., in a dictionary, drum would be listed as a noun, with several definitions). In a thesaurus, each homographic term is in a separate record. The use of homographic terms in a thesaurus requires clarification of their meaning through use of a qualifier (a gloss in linguistic jargon). A qualifier is a word or words used with the term to make the specific meaning unambiguous.

In the AAT, the qualifier is recorded in a separate Qualifier field. The qualifier is displayed in parentheses to the right of the term when the AAT is published.

    [in VCS]
 
     

[in a published display]

     

3.3.4.4

   

RULES for Qualifier

       

3.3.4.4.1

   

Minimum requirements

Optional: Required where necessary. Where necessary as described below, create a qualifier to disambiguate homographs or to clarify an ambiguous term (the latter is rarely needed).

       

3.3.4.4.2

   

When to include qualifiers

   » Qualifiers for homographs

If a term is a homograph to another AAT term, it is required to add a qualifier for both terms to distinguish them. Qualifiers may refer to the broader context of the term or another significant distinguishing characteristic. In the examples below, scope notes are included to explain the differences in meaning.

    • Examples
    • Term: drums Qualifier: walls
      Descriptive/Scope Note: The vertical walls, circular or polygonal in plan, that carry a dome.

    • Term: drums Qualifier: column components
      Descriptive/Scope Note: Cylinders of stone that form the shaft of a column.

    • Term: drums Qualifier: membranophones
      Descriptive/Scope Note: Membranophones with a resonating cavity covered at one or both ends by a membrane, which is sounded by striking, rubbing, or plucking.

  • If the terms differ in capitalization or punctuation but are otherwise spelled the same, add qualifiers.

    • Examples
    • Term: Mbulu Qualifier: Central Tanzanian styles
    • Term: mbulu Qualifier: reliquary figures

  • Homographs and their qualifiers may occur with descriptors, alternate descriptors, or used for terms.
       
     

   » Qualifiers for clarification

Add qualifiers if the term has a homograph that is a common term in general usage, even if the homograph does not appear in the AAT. If you suspect that such a qualifier is necessary, consult with your supervisor.

    • Example
    • Terms:
      developing Qualfier: photograph
      developed Qualifier: photography
      development Qualifier: photography
       
   
  • Do not use a qualifier to represent a compound concept. For example, NOT records (phonograph); instead, make the term phonograph records. NOT pipes (plastic), instead pipes (conduits) and plastic are two separate AAT terms that may be combined by end users in a local precoordinated or postcoordinated term.
       

3.3.4.4.3

   

Creating a qualifier

    In creating a qualifier, remember that the purpose of the qualifier is to clarify an ambiguous term for the user; it is not intended to define or give more specificity to the term.

   » Brevity

Make the qualifier as brief as possible, ideally consisting of one word. Two or more words may be used if necessary.

   » Language

Make the qualifier in the language of the term, if known. Qualifiers may be expressed in English as a temporary solution if language expertise is lacking.

Exceptions where a permanent qualifier is in one language and the term is in another include the case when the source of the qualifier term (parent or the descriptor, when appropriate) is a loan word in another language (e.g., for miracolos, Qualifier: ex-votos).

   » Grammatical form

If possible, create a qualifier with the same grammatical form as the term.

    • Examples
      [noun]
    • Term: workshops Qualifier: seminars

      [gerund]
    • Term: pickling Qualifier: woodworking

   » Broader term

For descriptors, use the broader term as the qualifier, if possible. If the immediate broader term is too long, not clear, or otherwise inappropriate, choose a term or a word in a term higher up in the hierarchy.

    • Examples



  • If the homograph has multiple parents, include a reference to both in the qualifier, if necessary.

    • Example
      [for chapels, which is under both rooms/spaces and single built works]
    • Term: chapels Qualifier: rooms or structures

   » Descriptor as qualifier for UF

For used for terms, qualify the term with its descriptor, if appropriate.

    • Example
    • Terms:
      maps (preferred, descriptor)
      charts (used for) Qualifier: maps
     
       
   

   » Other types of qualifiers

Always be clear and unambiguous. If using a word or words from a parent or the descriptor will not result in the homographs being unambiguously distinct when displayed together, create another qualifier that will disambiguate them. Use the scope note to find a distinguishing characteristic of the two terms.

  • In the first example below, if the descriptor (reredoses, which is a term unknown to most users) or a parent (altarpieces, but the second rebablos also can be an altarpiece) were made the qualifier, the UF retablos would still be confused with the second record, where the descriptor is retablos. Therefore, the qualifier screens has been chosen, because this characteristic is what makes the homographs distinct: one is a screen, while the other is a smaller scale panel painting.
    • Example

 

   » Living Organisms

For the scientific term of a living organism, include a word in the Qualifier field indicating the level of the term: family, genus, species (e.g., Felis domesticus (species)). For extinct animals and plants, qualifiers should be extinct genus or extinct species.

     

 

3.3.5

   

Sequence Number (required-default)

     

3.3.5.1

   

Definition
The Display Order number (or Sort Order number) indicating the sequence of the term in relation to the other terms of a subject record.

     

3.3.5.2

   

Values
Values are controlled, integers 1 through n.

     

3.3.5.3

   

Discussion
Most records have only 1 to 5 terms. It would be highly unusual to require more than 15 terms for an AAT concept, not counting translated terms.

If you need to add more than 15 terms in one language for a concept, consult your supervisor. All terms must be true synonyms.

     

3.3.5.4

   

RULES for Sequence Number

     

3.3.5.4.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default:
The sequence numbers are system-generated as terms are entered, but the numbers may be changed by the editor. Values begin with 1 and are numbered sequentially; there is no upper limit imposed by the system.

     

3.3.5.4.2

   

How to assign sequence numbers

  • Number the terms in sequence. Do not skip numbers. Arrange the terms in a logical order.

  • The term in sequence number 1 must be the subject default Preferred term and a descriptor.

  • After the Preferred term, list the American English alternate descriptor, if any.

  • Then list the inverted form of the preferred term descriptor, if any.

  • Position all of the natural order American English terms at the top.

  • Next, position the terms in British English, if any.

  • Next, position the terms in other languages, if any. Descriptors of any language should go above all other terms in that language. After the descriptor in a language, position the alternate descriptor. After that, place used for terms in alphabetical order. Keep terms for any one language together.

  • Next, position historical terms, if any. Historical terms, if any, should always follow all of the current terms. Place historical terms in reverse chronological order, if known.

  • Position other inverted-order terms, if any, at the bottom of the list.
 
     

[as displayed in term data entry and term sort windows in VCS]

 

 

   

 

3.3.6

   

Historical Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.6.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating the historical status of the term.

     

3.3.6.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list.

    current
    historical
    both
    not applicable
    local use
     

3.3.6.3

   

Sources
Editors should use standard, authoritative sources in determining whether or not a term is historical.

     

3.3.6.4

   

RULES for Historical Flag

     

3.3.6.4.1

   

Minimum requirements

Required-default: It is required to have a historical flag for the terms. Change the default setting if it is not appropriate

     

3.3.6.4.2

   

How to choose the Historical Flag

    Choose a setting for Historical flag based on the definitons below.

  • Current: The default flag is Current. Most terms in the AAT will be current. If the term is currently in use, the flag should be set to Current. terms found in dictionaries and encyclopedia are almost always Current, unless otherwise indicated.

  • Historical: If the term was used in the past but is not used currently, set the flag to Historical.

  • Both: A term may occasionally be Both historical and current, generally when a loanword or obsolete spelling was formerly used in English, and this same spelling is now a current spelling in another language. If you feel you have such a situation, consult with your supervisor.

  • Not applicable: Do not use this flag in AAT. It is reserved for data loads.

  • Local use: Reserved for terms that are found in archival sources or otherwise are not helpful for broad retrieval use. This flag will be used in special cases for data loads.
    • Example
 

 

3.3.7

   

Term Type (required-default)

     

3.3.7.1

   

Definition
Indicates the type of term, described with specialized terminology used in thesauri.

     

3.3.7.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list:

    descriptor (D)
    alternate descriptor (AD)
    used for term (UF)
     

3.3.7.3

   

RULES for Term Type

     

3.3.7.3.1

   

Minimum requirements

Required-default: The default setting for this field in VCS is used for term. Editors adding new terms should carefully consider each new term and set the term type correctly. Data that is loaded will have term type already set.

     

3.3.7.3.2

   

How to choose Term Type

    Choose term type based on the definitions below.

  • Note that there is only one Descriptor per language.

    All Alternate Descriptors must be a variant form of the descriptor, designated according to the editorial guidelines for the given facet.

    All terms that are not derived from the descriptor are Used For terms, keeping in mind that all terms in the record must be true synonyms. Do not create non-synonyous Used For terms.

  • Descriptor
    The descriptor is the term that will be used by default in displays. The preferred term, in term position number 1, must be a Descriptor; every record must have a preferred term descriptor. The record-preferred term is the term used most often in American English (see Record-Preferred term above).

    If there are terms in British English or other languages, flag the preferred term in that language as a Descriptor (if you know which term is preferred in that language). There may be only one descriptor per language in the record. If you do not have enough information to know if the foreign language term is a descriptor for that language, flag it as a used for term.

  • Alternate descriptor: If the term has a different grammatical form than the descriptor, such as a singular noun (when the descriptor is plural) or possessive, or otherwise as described above under Non-preferred terms: Alternate descriptors, flag it as an Alternate Descriptor.

  • Used for term: For all terms that are not descriptors or alternate descriptors, but are true synonyms for the concept, flag them as used for terms.
       

 

3.3.8

   

Part of Speech (required-default)

       

3.3.8.1

   

Definition
Indicates the category into which the term would be placed relative to its normal function in a grammatical context.

       

3.3.8.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list:

    undetermined
    noun
    plural noun
    singular noun
    both singular and plural
    past participle
    verbal noun/gerund/verb
    adjectival/possessive
    not applicable
       

3.3.8.3

   

RULES for Part of Speech

       

3.3.8.3.1

   

Minimum requirements

Required-default: Include the part of speech if known. The default value is undetermined.

       

3.3.8.3.2

   

How to label Part of Speech

    Choose the appropriate part of speech based on the definitions below.

  • A primary purpose of this flag is to distinguish plural noun descriptors from singular noun alternate descriptors, for languages where this is relevant. These flags allow end-users to extract via algorithm plural terms for indexing (used by libraries) and singular terms for displays (used by museums, who also often index with the singular form too).

    Flagging adjectival forms is encouraged, as time and editorial priorities allow, since this may assist end-users in constructing modified descriptors (e.g., Baroque costume). Other parts of speech may also be flagged.

     Even though some values in this controlled list are not actually parts of speech (e.g. plural noun), per se, the field is called Part of Speech.

    For discussion concerning which parts of speech should be used in which facets, see 3.1.1.6.5: Determining levels of the hierarchy.

  • Differs by language: Part of Speech is connected to the repeatable Language field. Note that the same term may be a given part of speech in one language but another part of speech in a second language.

  • Undetermined: Undetermined is the default value for this field. The Descriptor and Alternate Descriptor must have a correct part of speech flagged, however, other terms may have the default value undetermined. If you are not certain of the part of speech of a given term, leave the value set to undetermined. New bulk-loaded data often has the part of speech flag set to undetermined.

  • Noun: If you know the term is a noun but are uncertain if it is a plural or singular noun, set the value to Noun.

  • Plural Noun: Use this value for Descriptors or Alternate Descriptors that are plural nouns, such as paintings or rhyta. You may also flag UFs, if time and editorial priorities allow. A term may be the singular in one language, but the plural in another language; for example filigrane is the Italian plural but the French singular for watermarks.

  • Singular Noun: Use this value for Descriptors or Alternate Descriptors that are singular nouns, such as painting or rhyton. You may also flag UFs, if time and editorial priorities allow. A term may be the singular in one language, but the plural in another language.

  • Both Singular and Plural Noun: Use this value where the Descriptor or another term is used for both the singular and plural nouns, for example, the French term chassis is both singular and plural.

  • Past Participle: Do not use this value without first checking with your supervisor. This value will rarely be used, but if at all, is most likely to apply in Attributes and Properties. If a term is a past participle that is used as an adjective, such as hand-painted, flag it as Adjectival/Possessive, because this indicates that the term may be combined with other terms in post-coordinated compound terms.

  • Verbal Noun/Gerund/Verb: Use this value for terms that are verbal nouns, including gerunds, such as polishing. Even if the verbal noun may be combined with other terms in post-coordination and modified descriptors, flag it as Verbal Noun/Gerund rather than Adjectival/Possessive (we must make this choice because each term may have only one value assigned for part of speech, although two may actually apply). Verbs may also be marked with this flag, typically used with certain terms in languages other than English.

  • Adjectival/Possessive: The purpose of this value is to flag terms that may be combined with other terms in post-coordinated compound terms (modified descriptors), such as Renaissance or painter’s (as in Renaissance cathedral and painter’s smock). Flag such terms if time and editorial priorities allow.

  • Not Applicable: This designation may be used for terms for which Part of Speech is not applicable; for example, for many Chinese terms there is no difference between plural and singular nouns. However, generally this flag is reserved for data loads, guide terms, and facet records.
     

 

3.3.9

   

Vernacular Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.9.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether or not the term is in the "vernacular" language. Most terms in the AAT are set to Undetermined.

     

3.3.9.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list:

    vernacular
    other
    undetermined
     

3.3.9.3

   

Discussion
The vernacular flag is also associated with names and terms in TGN, ULAN, CONA, and the IA. The flag has various levels of relevance in each vocabulary.

For AAT, the vernacular flag would theoretically designate each term for a given concept, in a given language, where the term is not a loan term from another language. Given that the Language Status flag already tracks loan terms, as of this writing, in AAT the Vernacular flag is rarely used. All terms that are not Loan Terms are assumed to be vernacular for the language indicated.

     

3.3.9.4

   

RULES for Vernacular Flag

     

3.3.9.4.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: A value is required, althoug as of this writing, the Vernacular flag in AAT is usually set to undetermined based on the data contributions.

     

 

3.3.10

   

Language for terms (required-default)

     

3.3.10.1

   

Definition
The language of the term, which does not necessarily designate the etymological derivation of the word, but rather the term that is used in texts written in that language. A single term may have multiple languages, because the term may be spelled the same in multiple languages.

  • Example
  • watermarks (record-preferred)
    ..........(C)(English-P,D,PN)
    watermark (C)(English,AD,SN)
    water marks (C)(English,UF,PN)
    water mark (C)(English,UF,N)
    water-marks (C)(English,UF,PN)
    浮水印 (C)(Chinese (traditional)-P,D)
    fú shuǐ yìn (C)(Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF)
    fu shui yin (C)(Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles),UF)
    watermerken (C)(Dutch-P,D,PN)
    watermerk (C)(Dutch,AD,SN)
    filigranes (C)(French-P,D,PN)
    filigrane (C)(Italian-P,D,PN)
    .............(French,AD, SN)
    Wasserzeichen (C)(German-P,D,B)
    filigrana (C)(Italian,AD,SN)
    .............(Spanish,AD,SN)
    filigranas (C)(Spanish-P,D,PN)
    papermarks (H)(English,UF,PN)
     

3.3.10.2

   

Values
As of this writing, values for languages are controlled by an extensible list, mapped to the AAT language hierarchy. In the future, the language will be linked directly to the AAT.

  • Example
     

3.3.10.3

   

Sources
For an indication of the language of the term, use authoritative published sources or official translation projects. Editors should not guess what is the language for a term.

Regarding sources for languages, see Appendix E: Languages.

     

3.3.10.4

   

Discussion
The language of the term should be recorded, when known. The addition of terms in various languages improves the usefulness of the AAT in retrieval; labeling the language allows for identification of terms for display by users who prefer one language over others.

In VCS, there are three language fields visible: the language name plus its code, coming from the authority, plus a flag for the preferred status of this language. Preferred Flag for Language, discussed below, indicates whether or not this term is preferred in that language. Qualifier, Term Type, Part of Speech, and Language Status are also associated with the language.

     

3.3.10.5

   

RULES for Language for Terms

     

3.3.10.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: A value is recorded for this field. The default, when you do not know the language, should be undetermined.

     

3.3.10.5.2

   

How to label the language of the Term

  • The flag is by default set to undetermined. Change the flag to indicate the appropriate language for every term, as far as your expertise, time, and editorial priorities allow.

  • What does a language designation mean?
    Note that the language designation means that this is the term used in the language indictated. It does not necessarily mean the words of the term are in that language. For example, the term trompe-l'oeil comprises French words; however, this term is used in English texts and references in other languages as well. Thus, it is flagged as Language = English.

  • Loanwords: The example of trompe-l'oeil is a loanword. For loanwords, which are foreign language words that are used in English rather than an English translation, flag the term as both English and the original language of the term, if known. If the term is the record-preferred term, flag it as American English or English descriptor.

  • Variations within a language
    If the same language is used in multiple nations, but the term is spelled differently in these nations, include both spellings and flag appropriately.

    For example, flag both the American English and British English spellings, if they differ. (The rcord-preferred title should be the American English spelling.) If American and British spellings are identical, flag the term simply English.

  • Other languages
    For terms in languages other than English, flag them with the name of the correct language, if this is known from authoritative sources or if this is done by an official translation project. Note that the term may be spelled the same in multiple languages, and thus there may be multiple languages linked to one term.

  • Uncertainty
    Label a language only if your source indicates what it is or you are an authorized expert in that language. Do not guess.

    If you are uncertain regarding a specific language, use the broader designation. For example, if your source does not specify if the term is Ancient Latin, Medieval Latin, or Liturgical Latin, but you are positive that it is Latin, use the more general designation Latin.

    If you do not know the language, leave the flag set to undetermined.

  • Transliterated terms
    For many languages in the language list, there are different designations for the transliterated language and the language expressed in its native alphabet, logography, syllabary, or other writing system. Choose the designation for transliteration when appropriate.

    For example, if the term is in Chinese characters, but you are not sure of the type of script, use the more general 72550/Chinese designation. If you know that the script is traditional script rather than simplified, use the more specific 72551/Chinese (traditional).

    Likewise, if you are entering a transliterated Chinese term, but you do not know the transliteration method, use the language designation 72581/Chinese (transliterated). If you know that it is a Pinyin transliteration, use the more specific 72583/Chinese (transliterated Pinyin).

  • When no language is applicable
    For numeric codes or other coded designations used as a term, do not flag a language; set the flag to not applicable.

  • Non-standard terms
    If the term is slang, jargon, or another non-standard word in a given language, explain this in the Display Date and flag it in Other Flags, if appropriate.

    • Example
     

 

3.3.11

   

Preferred Flag for Language (required-default)

     

3.3.11.1

   

Definition
Flag designating whether or not the term is preferred in that language.

     

3.3.11.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list:

    preferred
    non-peferred
    undetermined
     

3.3.11.3

   

RULES for Preferred Flag for Language

     

3.3.11.3.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: Record an appropriate value from the controlled list indicating if the term is preferred or variant in a given language for this iconographical subject.

       

3.3.11.3.2

   

How to flag the Preferred Flag for Language

    Flag the preference of the term for a given language based on the following definitions.

  • Preferred: If the preponderance of authoritative sources indicates the term is preferred for a given language, use preferred. There may be only one preferred term per language.

    For English, the preferred term is the Descriptor and the plural noun for count nouns (see discussion at Part of Speech below).

    For other languages, the authorized translation project, in consultation with the vocabulary program, may choose whether the Descriptor or Alternate Descriptor is the preferred term for that language.

  • Non-preferred: If you have enough information to know a term is non-preferred for a given language, use non-preferred for that language.

  • Undetermined: If information is not available regarding whether or not the term is preferred in a given language, set the flag to undetermined.
       

 

3.3.12

   

Language Status (required-default)

       

3.3.12.1

   

Definition
Indicates if the term is a loan term from another language, meaning the term in one language is used with little or no change in a second language (e.g., trompe-l'oeil is a French term used in English).

       

3.3.12.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list:

    undetermined
    not applicable
    loan term
    literal translation
    translation N/A
       

3.3.12.3

   

Sources
Use authoritative reference sources.

       

3.3.12.4

   

Discussion
This flag is used to indicate that a term in one language is not actually composed of words in that language (e.g., sotto in sù is the term used in English sources, but is borrowed from an Italian phrase).

       

3.3.12.5

   

RULES for Language Status

       

3.3.12.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default:
The default is undetermined. If this is not correct, change the value as indicated below.

       

3.3.12.5.2

   

How to flag Language Status

    Flag the Language Status based on the following definitions.

  • undetermined: The default, meaning the term is translated using sources, no need to explain language designation.

  • Loan Term: The English term (or French, etc.) is used in target language sources to refer to the concept. Examples: in English sources, we use the Italian sotto in sù(foreshortening), so for English this is a loan term. It is never translated.

    • This flag is most often used in translations of the AAT, to indicate why there is not a translation for the English (source) term into the second (target) language. You may also use it as appropriate for true loan terms in the existing AAT. See the fuller discussion of these flags under 3.3.2.5.19 Translations of AAT Terms above.

    • Caveat: Do not use this flag for English words that are derived from another language, because common English employs many words that are of French, Latin, or another language derivation. Such words become part of the English language over time, and are no longer loan words. A clue in recognizing true loan terms is that they are generally printed in italics in texts, while English words that were originally derived from another language are not italicized in texts. In some cases, the singular may be a loan word, but the plural in English is formed according to the rules of the other language, but by adding an “s” to the term; this plural with an “s” is NOT a loan term.

    • For example, rhyta is a loan term (English descriptor), the transliterated plural of a Greek word; rhyton, the singular (English AD),is  also a loan term. However, sometimes in English the plural is formed with an “s,” rhytons (English UF); rhytons is NOT a loan term, but being used as an English word. Another example is the German term Sturzbecher. The term is also spelled in English with a lower case initial “S”, sturzbecher, with the lowercase “s” is no longer a German loan term, because in German nouns must be capitalized.

    • When in doubt, do NOT flag the term as a loan term.

  • Literal Translation: There is no target language source for the English term, but you have translated the words literally. This usually would happen with compound terms. It is allowed only when a loan term is not found in the target language source. An example is the French translation petites louches à fruits rafraîchis for the English berry spoons.

  • Translation N/A: This flag is used when you cannot find the English term translated in target language sources, and the term is not strictly a Loan Term sources that use the English word either -- but you want to retain the English term in target language hierarchy views. Perhaps your translation project will try again later to find a translation.
     

3.3.13

   

Contributor for Term (required-default)

     

3.3.13.1

   

Definition
A reference to the institution or project that contributed the Term.

     

3.3.13.2

 

 

Values
Controlled by a link to a file of controlled terminology; the list changes as new contributors are added.

  • Example
     

3.3.13.3

   

Sources
The identification of the contributor for a title should be derived from data as it is loaded. Generally, any record added by hand to VCS has the contributor VP (Vocabulary Program).

     

3.3.13.4

   

Discussion
The Brief Name, which is an acronym, initials, or abbreviated term of the institution, appears in the place record. The Full Name is linked to the Brief Name in displays for the end users.

In the controlled file for contributors' names, the following fields are included. In an associated file, not released to the public, contact information and details about contributions and licenses are recorded.

  • Contributor ID: Unique numeric identifier for the contributor within the Getty Vocabularies.

  • Brief Name: An acronym, initials, or abbreviated name of the institution.

  • Full Name: A full version of the name of the contributing institution or project.
     

3.3.13.5

   

RULES for Contributor for Terms

     

3.3.13.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: It is required for each term to have a contributor.

     

3.3.13.5.2

   

How to choose the contributor

    The following are rules for assigning a contributor to a term. See Appendix D: Contributors for rules regarding the recording of contributor names in the contributor authority.

  • Default is VP
    The default Contributor is VP (Vocabulary Program). Editors may change contributors' initials only in very rare cases. If you feel it is necessary to change a link from one contributor to another, consult with your supervisor.

  • Contributor for hand-entered data
    If a vocabulary program editor is adding data by hand, even if the data was given in a printout or other form by an institution or project for entry into VCS, the contributor for the term should usually be VP (not the contributor's acronym), because the Vocabulary Program is actually entering the data (and thus some amount of interpretation is going on). To give credit to the contributing project, for the Source of the term, link to a citation for the contributing institution or project.

    In only the rarest of cases will a VP editor link a term to a contributor other than VP. If you feel this is appropriate, consult first with your supervisor.

  • Contributors for loaded data
    For data that is loaded into VCS, contributors' names will be linked to the term and other data in the record at the time when the data is loaded into VCS; the link to the contributors' acronym in such cases virtually never needs to be changed.

    • Example
     

 

     

3.3.14

   

Preferred Flag for Contributor (required-default)

     

3.3.14.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether the term is the one preferred by the contributor or a non-preferred term from the contributor.

     

3.3.14.2

   

Values
The values are derived from a controlled list:

    preferred
    non-preferred
     

3.3.14.3

   

Sources
Use information directly from the contributing institution, or authorized publications from the institution.

     

3.3.14.3

   

Discussion
Terms added to a new VCS record in sequence number one are flagged Preferred for the contributor VP.

Other contributors' data is loaded with the appropriate contributor name linked to their terms.

     

3.3.14.5

   

RULES for Preferred Flag for Contributor

     

3.3.14.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required-default: The default value is non-preferred. Flag the term as preferred for the contributor if warranted.

     

3.3.14.5.2

   

How to choose preferred flag for Contributor

  • For contributed data
    For contributed data, the flag is set when the data is loaded. Editors rarely have to change this flag for data loaded from contributors. If you feel you should do so, please consult with your supervisor. Note that there may be one and only one preferred term for each contributor per record.

  • For terms added by VP
    Flag one and only one VP-preferred term for each record. Each contributor may have only one preferred term per record.

    The VP-preferred term should be the same term as the overall Preferred term (in English) for the record.

    The default flag for a new variant term in VCS is Non-preferred. If you are adding the preferred term for VP, change the flag to Preferred (which swaps the term to the Preferred position, sequence no. 1).
     

 

3.3.15

   

Sources for Terms (required)

     

3.3.15.1

   

Definition
A reference to the sources used as warrant for the term, typically published sources.

     

3.3.15.2

   

Values
Sources for the citations are the title pages of the bibliographic works, Web pages, etc.

  • Values are controlled by the Sources file in VCS. A source must be added to the Source file in order to be used in (linked to) the Subject (place) record. For a discussion of how to add sources to the Sources file, see Appendix C: Sources.

  • For a discussion of which sources are considered authoritative as warrant for specific types of titles, see the discussion of titles above.

    • Examples
     

3.3.15.3

   

Sources
Sources for terms are authoritative, scholarly and general published bibliographic works.

     

3.3.15.4

   

Discussion
The source file is linked to terms, the Descriptive (Scope) Note, and the Subject (refers to "subject as a whole," meaning for any information in the record other than term or Descriptive/Scope Note).

Sources for terms include authoritative publications, museum and university Web sites, and contributor databases. Other sources may be other published thesauri and vocabulary lists, books on the history of art and architecture, journal articles, newspaper articles, and catalog records of repositories of art objects.

     

3.3.15.5

   

RULES for Sources for Terms

     

3.3.15.5.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Required: It is required to cite sources used for the term. Descriptors must have three authoritative sources.

     

3.3.15.5.2

   

Basics of sources for terms

  • Sources are required
    The descriptor must have at least three authoritative sources. Three sources are required to establish that this is the term most commonly used in authoritative sources to refer to the concept.

    All other terms must have at least one authoritative source.

  • Transcribe terms accurately
    Transcribe the term as found in an authoritative source.

    In order to be stated as having derived from a source, the term should have been transcribed precisely, retaining the diacritics, capitalization, and punctuation of the source.

  • Exceptions: There are a few exceptions, where the formatting of the source is specialized, and contradicts form and syntax rules for AAT terms.

    For example, if in the source, the term is inverted or in all caps, or the source lists a heading instead of a term per se), the source may be linked even though the term entered in AAT does not match it exactly (but do not mark this term as the preferred term for that source). See instructions at Terms above and Preferred Flag for Source below.

  • Page field
    In the Page Field, it is required to cite the page number, volume, date of accessing a Web site, or other appropriate indication of the specific location where the term was found in the source.

  • Edition
    If there are multiple editions or multiple publication dates for a source, link to the specific edition, with the correct year of publication, that you are using.
     

3.3.15.5.3

   

Preferred sources for terms

    For the preferred term and other information, prefer the most authoritative, up-to-date sources available, which may include the following, arranged according to preference:

  • Authoritative published sources on the area of specialization reflected by the term.

  • Standard general reference sources
    • major authoritative dictionaries of the English language, including Webster's, Random House, American Heritage, and the Oxford English Dictionary (for the OED, be aware that words may be spelled differently in American English).
    • encyclopedia
    • dictionaries in languages other than English
    • LC Authorities

  • Other authoritative sources
    • other authoritative thesauri and controlled vocabularies
    • textbooks, such as Gardner and Janson

  • Other material on pertinent topics
    • books, journal articles, and newspaper articles
    • archives, historical documents, and other original sources (for historical terms only)

  • Other sources
    • databases of contributors
    • articles or databases on museum or university Web sites

   » Unpublished sources

If there is no published source for a preferred term, place the record under a temp.parent pending further documentation of the term in the future. Remember that there must be two published sources for any descriptor, and the third source may be the contributor's database.

   » Constructed terms

    Occasionally, terms are constructed by the Vocabulary Program in order to create terms that conform to certain editorial rules (e.g., for creating inverted terms, such as "towers, clock"). The linked source for constructed terms should be the following:

    • Example
    • Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program.
      Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.

    In rare exceptions, a translation project may use constructed terms for some translated terms (called coined terms).

   » Terms from a database

    If terms are taken out of a contributor's database, special citations are used to refer to the database. Generally, these citations are attached to terms when the records are loaded, thus the editors need not be concerned with them. However, if you are entering terms by hand that have been derived from a contributors' data base, consult with your supervisor regarding which citation to use to refer to the database. (Note that the Contributor in this situation will be VP, not the contributing project's acronym. See Contributor above.)

    • Example
    • Brief Citation: BHA, Authority file (1973-)
      Full Citation: J. Paul Getty Trust. Bibliography of the History of Art. Authority file. [unpublished database] Los Angeles, 1973.
     

3.3.15.5.4

   

Sources for special cases

    Consult the Scope Note for the Hierarchy name to ascertain the preferred sources for concepts in certain sections of the AAT. In addition, as of this writing, sources for a few sections of the AAT are discussed below.

   » Sources for Living Organisms

    Editors should not add levels above family. If an order (the level above family) is missing, consult with your supervisor. Sources for the preferred scientific names of family, genus, and species should be standard general reference works, not necessarily the latest specialist literature of the discipline. Reason is, the classification of animals and plants is constantly in flux among professionals in the field, and it is out of scope for the AAT to keep up to date with the latest research in this area; the AAT focuses on terms necessary to catalog art.

    Always prefer the Encyclopedia Britannica Online for the structure of the hierarchy at the levels of family-genus-species. If various articles in the EB disagree, consult with your supervisor.

    Use the following for the names of plants, listed in order of preference:

    • Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
      www.britannica.com/
    • National Center for Biotechnology Information (2008)
      www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi
    • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (2005-)
      www.itis.gov/
    • International Plant Names Index (2005-)
      www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do
    • Index to Organism Names
      www.organismnames.com/
    • USDA Plants (2008)
      plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SASA10
    • Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-) (common names)
      www.oed.com/

    Use the following for the names of animals, listed in order of preference:

    • Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
      www.britannica.com/
    • National Center for Biotechnology Information (2008)
      www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi
    • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (2005-)
      www.itis.gov/
    • Animal Diversity Web (1995-)
      animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/
    • Index to Organism Names (2001-)
      www.organismnames.com/
    • Wilson and Reeder, Mammal Species of the World. John Hopkins University Press (2005)
    • Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-) (common names)
      www.oed.com/

    Note that Animal Diversity Web is a wiki product; however, it is constructed and monitored by university professors and students, which makes it more reliable than most wikis. Do not use Wikipedia as a source. You may use Wikipedia to clarify information you have found elsewhere or provide citations to authoritative sources.

     

3.3.15.5.5

   

Citing Sources

  • For rules for constructing the Brief Citation and the Full Citation, see Appendix C: Citations.

    The Brief Citation should be a short, unambiguous reference to the source. The Full Citation is full reference to the published or unpublished work, including author, title, place of publication, publisher, and year of publication.
     

 

3.3.16

   

Page Number for term Source (required)

    • Examples

459

12-34

title page

276 ff.

211-213

inscription

6:97

7:89 ff.

folio 21, verso

fiche 2

index

accessed 24 April 2013

map 17

23, note 2

10; all-white quilts

plate 88

A-54

"Roman Republic and Empire," accessed 9 July 2012

glossary

illustration, 115

"filet lace," example in usage note, accessed 7 April 2010

     

3.3.16.1

   

Definition
A reference to the volume (if applicable) and page number where the term was found in the source. It may also include other information describing the precise place in the source where the term was found (e.g., title of an article or a URL for an online source).

     

3.3.16.2

   

Values
Free-text field; values are Unicode characters and numbers. Legacy data and characters outside Unicode (e.g., eszett as distinct from double-s) are represented with codes for diacritics. See discussion in Appendix A: Diacritics.

     

3.3.16.3

   

Discussion
The Page Number field is used for recording the page number or other reference indicating where in the cited source was the information found. The Page field is found in the subject record in VCS. The Page field concerns the relationship of the data field in the VCS subject record, as it is linked to the source record in the source authority. Each page field is a free text field.

     

3.3.16.4

   

RULES for Page Number

     

3.3.16.4.1

   

Minimum Requirement

Required: Although VCS will allow you to save a record without page numbers, it is required to record them when known.

     

3.3.16.4.2

   

How to cite references in the Page Number field
The Page Number field contains references to page numbers, but also other references to specific locations in the source where the term was found.

For rules regarding citing the page or other references, see Appendix C: Citations: Page.

  • Examples

  • Brief Citation: Cambridge World Gazetteer (1988)
    Full Citation: Cambridge World Gazetteer: A Geographical Dictionary. David Munro, ed. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
    Page: 850-852

  • Brief Citation: Niles, Fancy Work Recreations (1885)
    Full Citation: Niles, Eva M. Fancy Work Recreations: A Complete Guide to Knitting, Crochet, and Home Adornment. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Buckeye Publishing Co., 1885.
    Page: title

    [For terms taken from the Library of Congress Subject Headings and flagged with AACR2 flag set to Yes (see AACR2 Flag below), include the full heading in the Page field and the date on which the site was accessed.]
  • Brief Citation: Library of Congress Subject Headings
    Full Citation: Library of Congress Authorities. Subject Headings (LCSH). http://authorities.loc.gov/ (13 March 2003).
    Page: Kabre (African people), accessed 8 June 2014

  • Brief Citation: Times Atlas of the World (1999)
    Full Citation: Times Atlas of the World. 10th comprehensive ed. New York: Times Books, 1999.
    Page: xvi

  • Brief Citation: New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967-1979)
    Full Citation: Catholic University of America. New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Publishers Guild in association with McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967-1979. 17 vols.
    Page: 3:568

    [For newspaper and journal articles, the page number should appear in the Full Citation and need not be repeated in the Page field]
  • Brief Citation: Cotter, Buddhas of Bamiyan, New York Times (2001)
    Full Citation: Cotter, Holland. "Buddhas of Bamiyan: Keys to Asian History." New York Times (3 March 2001), A3.
    Page:

  • Brief Citation: Seized towns, New York Times (2002)
    Full Citation: Agence France-Presse. "Seized Towns: Nablus Makes 8." New York Times [online] (4 April 2002). http://www.nytimes.com (10 April 2002).
    Page: accessed 2 May 2002

  • Brief Citation: Jones, Anzick Site (1997)
    Full Citation: Jones, J. Scott. " Anzick Site: Analysis of a Clovis Burial Assemblage." Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, Department of Anthropology, 1997. [online]. http://osu.orst.edu/dept/anthropology (1 July 1999).
    Page: accessed 30 March 2001

  • [for a hard copy source, volume and page number ]
  • Brief Citation: New Encyclopedia Britannica (1988)
    Full Citation: New Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1988 printing. 29 vols. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1988.
    Page: 5:303

    [for an online source]
  • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
    Full Citation: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2002-. http://www.eb.com/ (1 July 2002)
    Page: accessed 2 May 2014
     

 

3.3.17

   

Preferred Flag for Source (required-default)

     

3.3.17.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether or not this term is the preferred form of the term for this concept in the source.

     

3.3.17.2

   

Values
Controlled by a list:

    preferred
    non-preferred
    alternate preferred
    unknown
     

3.3.17.3

   

RULES for preferred flag

     

3.3.17.3.1

   

Minimum Requirement

Required-default: It is required to include this flag. The non-preferred setting is the default for new titles created in VCS. Change this flag if necessary, as described below.

     

3.3.17.3.2

   

How to choose the preferred flag

    Choose the setting for this flag based on the definitions below.

  • Preferred: If the term is preferred by the source, mark the term Preferred for that source. There may be only one term preferred by the source per record.

    A term is preferred by the source when one of the following is true: it is the primary entry in an index, title, glossary, or table of contents; it is an entry-form term or title term for an entry or article in a dictionary or encyclopedia; it is the term predominantly used in a text.

  • Non-Preferred: Flag the term as a non-preferred term if it is a variant or alternate form of the term for the concept in that source. Sources may indicate this in various ways, including placing the variant term in parentheses after the preferred term, using a phrase such as "also called" or "also spelled" or the like, or noted with a "see" reference back to the preferred term.

  • Alternate Preferred: Flag the term as an Alternate Preferred term if it is apparently preferred equally by the source, for example, if a source is bilingual and both French and English term forms are treated with equal preference.

  • Unknown: Editors should typically not use this flag, because they should be able to make a judgment regarding the term preferred in the source at hand. This flag is primarily used for data loaded from contributors' systems in which the preference was not captured.
     

 

3.3.18

   

Dates for Terms

     

3.3.18.1

   

Definition
Dates delimiting the time period when the term was used or is still used.

     

3.3.18.2

   

Fields

  • 1. Display Date: A free-text field to express nuances of the date to the user; it is indexed by the two indexing fields representing the Start and End Dates implied in the free-text date.
  • 2. Start Date: The exact or estimated earliest year implied in the Display Date.
  • 3. End Date: The exact or estimated latest year implied in the Display Date.

      • Example
        [from the VCS Subject Edit window]
     

3.3.18.3

 

 

Values
Free text. Use Unicode characters and numbers.

Start Date and End Date must be numbers representing years. Years BCE are represented with negative numbers.

     

3.3.18.4

   

Sources
The dates should be determined using the same standard reference works that supply other information about the term.

     

3.3.18.5

   

Discussion
There may be a Display Date associated with the term. Although it usually refers to a period or date, the Display Date field may contain notes that do not reference dates per se.

Display Dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date. Start and End Dates are controlled by special formatting; dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.

     

3.3.18.6

   

RULES for Dates for Terms

     

3.3.18.6.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Dates for terms are optional. However, if any of the three fields is used, all three fields must be filled in.

     

3.3.18.6.2

   

How to record Dates

  • In the free-text Display Date field, record a phrase referring to a year, a span of years, or period that describes the specific or approximate date in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Index this free-text date with Start and End Dates delimiting the appropriate span.

    Alternatively, the display date field may contain other information regarding the term.

    If the display date is used, estimated years for Start Date and End Date must be entered too.

  • A short set of rules appears below. For further discussion of Dates, see Appendix B: Dates and Date Authority.
     

3.3.18.6.2.1

   

Display Date

   » State only what is known

Precise date spans for terms are rarely known. Where ambiguity exists, use natural word order to clearly state what is known (and only what is known; do not surmise). Follow the style of existing Display Dates.

    • Example

   
    • Examples
      [for the term "papermarks" in record for descriptor "watermarks"]

    • Display Date: term used prior to ca. 1790
      Start Date: 1285 End Date: 1810

      [for the term "forzieri" in the record for descriptor "cassoni"]
    • Display Date: plural form of the 15th-century term
      Start Date: 1300 End Date: 1900

      [for the term "angel beds," in the record for descriptor "lits d'ange"]
    • Display Date: English 18th-century term
      Start Date: 1700 End Date: 1850

      [for the term "aeronautical views" in the record for descriptor "bird's eye views"]
    • Display Date: term is seldom used now, since it can be confused with "aerial views"
      Start Date: 1800 End Date: 1920

      [for the term "tapissery" in record for descriptor "tapestries"]
    • Display Date: early form of the term, now obsolete
      Start Date: 600 End Date: 1800

      [for the term "Cristes Maesse" in the record for descriptor "Christmas"]
    • Display Date: documented in 1038
      Start Date: 800 End Date: 1400

   » Punctuation

Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation. If the Display Date could be ambiguous because it contains more than one phrase, separate phrases with a semi-colon for clarity.

    • Example
      [for the term "vie coya," from the record for descriptor "still lifes"]
    • Display Date: French for "silent life"; this French term was later replaced by "nature morte"
      Start Date: 1300 End Date: 1800

   » Capitalization and abbreviation

Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names. Avoid abbreviations, except with the word circa (ca.), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE.

   » Calendar in Display Date

Display Dates should generally be listed by reference to years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction. If indicated in a source, dates may be expressed according to systems other than the proleptic Gregorian calendar (e.g., Julian, Napoleonic, Islamic, or other calendars). This should be clearly designated, also noting the year in the proleptic Gregorian calendar to avoid end-user confusion (e.g., 946 anno Hegirae (1540 CE)). All dates should be indexed in the Start and End Dates using the proleptic Gregorian calendar for consistency in retrieval.

   » Span of years

If a precisely delimited span of dates is applicable, list the beginning year of the span first, followed by the end of the span, with the years separated by a hyphen. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., 1921-1924, not 1921-24).

  • Caveat: In the AAT it is unusual for such specific dates to be known. Do not state specific dates in the Display Date if there is broadly defined information, ambiguity, or uncertainty. For example, instead of 1500-1599, use 16th century if that is what is meant.

   » BCE in Display Dates

Dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar should be indicated as Before Common Era, which should be abbreviated BCE. For dates after the year 1, it is generally not necessary to include the designation CE (Current Era) except where confusion may occur. For example, for very early years CE, especially if a span of dates begins BCE and ends CE, include both BCE and CE in the free-text date (e.g., 75 BCE-10 CE). Avoid using BC (Before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini). Dates BCE should be indexed with negative numbers in Start and End Dates (see below).

   » Uncertain dates

If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient in the example below) or words such as documented, ca., and probably. Note that the first year when a term was documented is not necessarily the year when the term was first used; therefore, you must create a sufficiently early Start Date.

    • Example
      [for the term "stilleven" in the record for descriptor "still lifes"]
    • Display Date: in use from ca. 1650
      Start Date: 1600 End Date: 9999

   » Periods and dynasties

For the names of dynasties and other precisely defined periods, include the dates for the period, when known, in parentheses. In the example below, the dates of the Dynasty are the broadest possible dates for the term; parentheses in the Display Date indicate that the dates refer to the dynasty, not specifically to the term.

    • Example

    • Display Date: term used during the Chou Dynasty (1122-255 BCE)
      Start Date: -1122 End Date: -255

   » Acceptable scope of information in the Display Date

Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date. However, the Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the term, often referring to the derivation of the term (see the examples above and below); occasionally, it may not even refer to a date per se. However, given that Start and End dates are required for Display Dates, you should have a period or date in mind when you write the Display Date.

    • Examples
      [for the term "Ferris wheels"]
    • Display Date: named for creator George W. Ferris
      Start Date: 1890 End Date: 9999

      [for the term "Copt," in the record for descriptor "Coptic"]
    • Display Date: refers to a person
      Start Date: 1500 End Date: 9999

      [for the term "bureaus" in the record for descriptor "chest of drawers"]
    • Display Date: American usage, European "bureaus" have a surface for writing
      Start Date: 1700 End Date: 9999

   » Dates refer to the term, not to the concept

Caveat: Note that the dates represent the dates of the usage of the term, not the date of the usage or invention of the object or other concept referred to by the term (e.g., if you were giving dates for the term amphora, the dates would refer to the usage of the term, not to dates of the invention or use of amphorae as objects).

     

3.3.18.6.2.2

   

Start Date and End Date

   » Delimiting the span

Record years that delimit the span of time when the term was in use, as referenced in the Display Date. It is better to delimit the span too broadly than too narrowly.

  • Start Date must represent some year earlier than or equal to End Date.

   » Do not use punctuation

Express years without commas or other punctuation. An exception is the hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers (dates BCE).

   » Gregorian calendar

Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

   » Current terms

For a term currently in use, use the End Date 9999.

    • Example
      [for term "First Nations" in the record for descriptor "Native Americans"]

    • Display Date: term used by Canadian tribes to refer to the native peoples of the Americas
      Start Date: 1900 End Date: 9999

   » Month and day

If a specific month and day are referenced in the Display Date, index with the year. For the display date, the preferred syntax is day, month, year with no punctuation. The alternative syntax - month, day, comma, year - is found in many legacy records. Do not bother editing records that already contain this syntax, except in order to make the record consistent when you are editing the record.

    • Example
      [for the term "hormone"]
    • Display Date: coined 20 June 1905 by Ernest Starling, professor and physiologist at University College, London, during a lecture to the Royal College of Physicians
      Start Date: 1905 End Date: 9999

   » Dates BCE

Express dates BCE by negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

    • Example
    • Display Date: Roman
      Start Date: -300 End Date: 500

   » Estimating Start and End Dates

Use available information to estimate Start and End Dates. In many cases, the years will be approximate. When in doubt, it is better to estimate too broad a span rather than too narrow a span. See the Date Authority in Appendix B for approximate dates of historic events and entities; you should also consult other, related records in AAT to establish dates.

  • If a display date is qualified by ca., early in a century, probably, etc., estimate Start and End Dates accordingly.

    • Example
    • Display Date: Roman, used ca. 50 BCE to 5th century CE
      Start Date: -75 End Date: 499

    • Display Date: used from the mid-18th century
      Start Date: 1730 End Date: 9999

  • For a broad designation in the Display Date (e.g., medieval, ancient, or Roman), estimate Start and End Dates based on available information or by referring to Appendix B: Date Authority.

    • Example
      [for the term "kylichnides," in the record for descriptor "pyxides"]

    • Display Date: probably ancient Attic term
      Start Date: -700 End Date: 9999

  • It is rare that the exact date is known for when a term came into use. Use information gathered from authoritative sources to estimate Start and End Dates. Dictionaries such as the OED may provide usage notes documenting the earliest known use of the term.
     

 

3.3.19

   

Display Term Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.19.1

   

Definition
Flag designating whether or not the term is to be used in natural order displays or in permuted indexes.

     

3.3.19.2

   

Values
Controlled by a list:

    not applicable
    index
    yes
     

3.3.19.3

   

RULES for Display term flag

     

3.3.19.3.1

   

Minimum requirements

Required-default: The default value for this flag is not applicable. Edit the flag for descriptors and alternate descriptors for multiword terms to indicate the indexing and display terms for the concept..

     

3.3.19.3

   

How to apply display term flag

    Choose the flag for Display Term based on the definitions below.

    For multiword terms, flag the natural order preferred term as the display term. Flag the inverted form of this term as the indexing term.

    As of this writing, most legacy terms in AAT are flagged not applicable. This flag may be updated over time to match the rules in this section.

  • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if necessary. Most terms in the AAT are currently flagged NA.

  • Index: For the inverted form of the record-preferred term, flag it as Index to indicate that this term may be used in permuted indexes. There may be only one term marked index per record.

  • Yes: For multiword terms, flag as Display = Yes the natural order form of the term for the language, which, for English, should be the record-preferred term. There may be only one term marked Yes per record.

    • Example
 

 

       

3.3.20

   

AACR Flag (LC Authorities preference)

     

3.3.20.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating if the term is the authorized heading in the Library of Congress Authorities.

     

3.3.20.2

   

Values
Controlled by a list:

    yes
    not applicable
     

3.3.20.3

   

Sources
Library of Congress Authorities. http://authorities.loc.gov/.

     

3.3.20.4

   

Discussion
As time and editorial priorities allow, consult LC Authorities online to find warrant for certain AAT terms. With linked open data, it is desirable to indicate where an AAT term and LC authorities may be linked.

Note that AAT terms and LC Subject Headings are not identical things, so interpretation is required by AAT editors. Library of Congress subject headings are headings, not terms; they contain a term or terms, but are formed as a heading, not fielded terms per se. In contrast, AAT puts each term in a distinct field (and builds headings by using qualifiers and stringing parents together using algorithms). Therefore, when the AACR2 flag is used, it simply means that the term is the form found in an LC heading, not that the term is the LC heading.

When you search the LC Subject Headings, you will typically retrieve many headings that are not terms at all. You must figure out which is the primary heading that contains the term you are trying to verify.

For example, the heading Kabre (African people) indicates that the LC Authorities preferred term for this concept is Kabre, and that Kabre are a type of African people (which may be a broader context in the AAT).

     

3.3.20.5

   

RULES for the LC Authorities preference

     

3.3.20.5.1

   

Minimum requirements

Optional:
It is optional, but highly recommended, to record the LC Authorities counterpart to the AAT term, if any.

     

3.3.20.5.2

   

How to flag the LC Authorities preference

  • It is highly recommended to search LC Authorities and set this flag to Yes for terms having a counterpart in the LC Authorities.

  • Yes: Flag the term as the AACR2 form if the heading in which you found it is noted as an "authorized heading" on the LC Authorities Web site (note that the AACR2 flag indicates the authorized heading, not simply a term formulated using AACR). There should be one and only one term with the AACR2 flag in each record.

    For the term matching the authorized heading, add the Source for Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-); in the page field, transcribe the LC control no. (e.g., sh 85096661).

    If the heading does not precisely match the LC Authority entry, in the Page field put the full heading in which you found the term (e.g., Kabre (African people), accessed 1 December 2014). Be sure that you are citing the heading for the concept itself, not a heading for some other topic that contains the term (e.g., the heading for the place is Kabre (African people), NOT Kabre (African people)-Agriculture.

    If you find other variant terms in the full LC Authority Record, and if those terms are true synonyms according to the rules of AAT, add them to AAT record; do not flag the variant terms as AACR = yes.

  • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is not applicable. If you have not checked the LC Authorities, or if there is no counterpart for the AAT term in the LC Authorities, retain the value not applicable.

    • Example
     

 

3.3.21

   

Other Flags

     

3.3.21.1

   

Definition
Flags designating various special characteristics of the term.

     

3.3.21.2

   

Values
Controlled by a list:

    not applicable
    full term
    abbreviation
    neologism
    jargon/slang
    scientific term
    common term
    chemical name
    code
    formula
     

3.3.21.3

   

Sources
Use authoritative sources.

For Scientific terms, use the name in the approved scientific source for the topic at hand.

Neologisms may be found in journal and newspaper articles, as well as in more authoritative sources.

     

3.3.21.4

   

Discussion
Other flags provide designations for terms outside the Term Type and other flags.

     

3.3.21.5

   

RULES for Other Flags

     

3.3.21.5.1

   

Minimum requirements

Optional: It is optional to include an Other flag. Consult guidelines for each facet to determine when Other flags may be necessary.

     

3.3.21.5.2

   

How to choose Other flag

    If warranted, use an Other flag based on the following definitions.

  • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is not applicable. Retain this value unless any of the following definitions applies to the term.

  • Full term: Use for the full form of the term, when the descriptor is a shorter form of the term and/or when the record also contains an abbreviation (e.g., digital versatile discs, compact disks read-only memory).

  • Abbreviation: Use for abbreviations, initialisms, or acronyms (e.g., DVD, CD-ROM).

  • Neologism: Use for any term that is new to the language, generally having been coined due to new technology (e.g., televillages, recharging stations, cell towers).

  • Jargon: Use to flag a term that is slang or jargon for the descriptor (e.g., whirlybirds is slang for helicopters).

  • Scientific term: Use to flag the preferred scientific term in the record, as appropriate (e.g., Felis domesticus). Flag only one scientific term per record.

  • Common term: Use for records that contain a Scientific term, flag the preferred common language term for the record (e.g., domestic cat). Flag only one common term per record.

  • Chemical name: Use for the name of the chemicals that comprise a material. For example, sodium chloride is the chemical name for the common term, common salt; the formula for this material is NaCl.

  • Code: Use for a set of alphabetical, numeric, or alphanumeric symbols that stand for a concept, as for identification or classification (e.g., zho is the code from ISO for the descriptor Chinese (language)).

  • Formula: Use for formulas, such as chemical formulas, which are a set of chemical symbols showing the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions, and in some cases the structure of the compound (e.g., CO2 for the descriptor carbon dioxide). The formula should be a used for term, not the descriptor.
     

 

3.3.22

   

Assigned To

     

3.3.22.1

   

Definition
Indication of the person or project assigned to research this term.

     

3.3.22.2

   

Values
Free text.

     

3.3.22.3

   

Sources
Editor logins or contributor Brief Name.

         

3.3.22.4

   

RULES for Assigned To

     

3.3.22.4.1

   

Minimum Requirements

Optional: Do not use this field unless otherwise instructed by your supervisor. There is also an Assigned To flag for the entire subject record: Chapter 3.8.

     

 

         
   

[1] Some of the rules and examples in this chapter are derived from ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005. Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies (2005).

[2]"Required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set, but should be changed by the editor as necessary. Some required-default values are system-generated and may not be edited.

       

Last updated 7 January 2016
Document is subject to frequent revisions




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