III. Roman-Period Clay Lamps / Types from both Western and Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire / Late Republican Lamps

Bailey type M (i) (late Vogelkopflampe)


This type is derived from the earlier Dressel type 4. Its most characteristic features are a transverse pierced handle; broad anvil-shaped nozzle with slightly curved tip; and concave plain discus, separated from the flat, plain shoulder by a curved groove. This groove extends into a series of four to six vertical notches displayed along a horizontal line at the base of the nozzle. One can see in this design the ultimate stylization of the earlier two bird’s heads flanking a narrow channel on Dressel type 4 lamps. The flat base often bears a great variety of incuse marks of lampmakers, the majority of them being central Italian, active from the Late Flavian to the Hadrianic period. Derived from the earlier form of Vogelkopflampen first made in Campania, the type was broadly diffused in the western part of the Mediterranean basin, in Italy, Sicily, the Iberian peninsula, Africa, Gaul, Switzerland, and Germany, where it was locally imitated. Outside this area, one example has been found in Corfu. Chronology of the type: Flavian to Hadrianic (Bailey).

Banner image: Detail of cat. 75