III. Roman-Period Clay Lamps / Types from North African Provinces only / Augustan and Imperial Lamps

Bussière type E I 4


This form, primarily found in Algeria, groups together lamps that mostly have volute-nozzles. Among the four subgroups of E I, E I 1, and E I 3 are typologically well identified and both correspond to Deneauve type X A. Subgroup E I 2 contains lamps that keep some features of Deneauve X A (e.g., the volute-nozzle), and that were produced at the same time. The last subgroup, E I 4, more or less artificially gathers together late North African lamps (end of the third century A.D.) of less definable shapes. Most still have volutes as in the previous subgroups, but the volutes are sketchier.

Cat. 474 is close to Bussière 2000, no. 3716, pl. 106. Its red clay, common in central Tunisia, confirms its African place of manufacture or origin. The depth of the basin of cat. 475 as well as the biconvex, nearly biconical basin of cat. 476 along with the profile of its nozzle and its potter’s mark confirm their eastern place of manufacture or origin. According to Schüller, both lamps were purchased in Asia Minor. We nevertheless classify them among African lamps due to their form near Bussière E I 4—a form we admit is not clearly defined—and in order to avoid creating another type. A lamp from Chemtou of a shape close to that of cat. 475 is by Vegas considered a variant of Deneauve type X A = Bussière form E I 1 (Vegas 1994, no. 535, fig. 188). The three Getty lamps may have been produced in the first half of the third century.

Banner image: Detail of cat. 474