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ID: 7017509
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/tgn/7017509

 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Susa (inhabited place)  Susa (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 32 12 00 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 32.2000  decimal degrees
Long: 048 20 00 E  degrees minutes   Long: 48.3333  decimal degrees

Note: The ancient city of Shūsh was inhabited from ca. 4000 BCE to the 13th century CE, and lay at the crossroads of important trade routes, located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains. From the 4th-3rd millenia BCE, the city and Susiana were connected with Mesoptamia. In ca. 2800 BCE, after the previous civilization had died out, the city was reunited with Mesoptamia, yet had also enveloped the mountain culture of the Proto-Elamites. A temple on the acropolis had statues in the Mesoptamian style with unique Elamite elements from eastern Îrān. From ca. 2300 BCE, governors were installed in Shūsh by the Semetic kings of Akkad, whose empire collapsed ca. 2100 BCE. A new district of the city was created during the Elamite period, ca. 18th century BCE, the Elams eventually becoming a major power in the 14th century, though their capital was Chogha Zanbil, further to the west. In the 12th century BCE, King Shutruk-Nahhunte I returned to Shūsh with riches, after destroying Babylon, including the Code of Hammurabi. In 646 BCE, Assyrians destroyed Shūsh, ending the Elamite empire. In 522 BCE, Persian king Darius I made Shūsh his administrative capital, and transformed the city, removing any former Elamite structures. The city was conquered by Alexander the Great, and gradually declined, and later abandoned after the 13th century invasion of the Mongols. In 1850, the archaeological site was discoverd by W. K. Loftus, with Darius' palace being discovered, as well as the Code of Hammurabi, along with many items in the lower strata. The small town of Shūsh stands on the original site.

Names:
Shūsh (preferred,C,V,display)
Shush (C,V)
Susa (C,V,English-P,U,N)
Shushan (H,V)  ............ Biblical name
Eran Khurra Shapur (H,V)
Susiane (H,O)  ............ Greek name
Sus (H,O)
Seleukia of Eulaios (H,V)

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Asia (continent)  ....  Asia (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Iran (nation)  ........  Iran (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Khūzestān (province)  ............  Khūzestān (province) (P)
Hierarchy of Susa (inhabited place)  ................  Susa (inhabited place) (P)

Additional Parents:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Asia (continent)  ....  Asia (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Persia (historical region)  ........  Persia (historical region) (P,H)
Hierarchy of Susa (inhabited place)  ............  Susa (inhabited place) (P,H)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  settled from 4th millenium BCE
town (C)
archaeological site (C)  ............  identified by W. K. Loftus in 1850
capital (H)  ............  of successive kingdoms at end of Ubaid period
administrative center (H)  ............  of Achaemenian kings, from 522 BCE
religious center (H)

Related geographic places:
located on ....  Persian Royal Road .......... (road)
..................  (World, Asia) [8711714]

Sources and Contributors:
Eran Khurra Shapur..........  [VP]
...................................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 342
Seleukia of Eulaios..........  [VP]
...................................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 7 October 2003
Shūsh..........  [VP Preferred]
..............  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 899
..............  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) XI, 416
..............  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 179
Shush..........  [VP]
..............  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) XI, 416
Shushan..........  [VP]
.................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 899
.................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) XI, 416
Sus..........  [VP]
...........  ARLIS/NA: Ancient Site Names (1995)
Susa..........  [VP]
...........  Atlas of Mesopotamia (1990) 65
...........  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 7 October 2003
Susiane..........  [VP]
.................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) XI, 416
Subject: .....  [VP]
..................  ARLIS/NA: Ancient Site Names (1995)
..................  Atlas of Mesopotamia (1990) 65
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 899
..................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) XI, 416
..................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 7 October 2003
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 179
..................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 342
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) 11,416

 

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