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ID: 7012341
 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Speyer (inhabited place)  Speyer (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 49 19 47 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 49.3297  decimal degrees
Long: 008 25 40 E  degrees minutes   Long: 8.4278  decimal degrees

Note: The German river port of Speyer is situated on the east bank of the Rhine river some 22 miles north of Karlsruhe. A major Celtic settlement in ancient times, by 100 BCE it had become a Roman military outpost. It was sacked by Huns around 450 CE. In the 7th century it was rebuilt and made an episcopal see. Powerful bishops ruled it until 1294 when it became a free city of the Holy Roman Empire, having already become a major trading center by the 11th century. A protest in 1529 against the loss of certain concessions made by the Roman Catholic Church to the Lutherans brought the word "Protestant" into use. French troops destroyed the city in 1689 in the War of the Grand Alliance. It was absorbed by France in 1797, passed to Bavaria in 1815, and became the capital of the Bavarian Palatinate from 1816 to 1945. Surviving historic structures include an 11th-century Romanesque cathedral, the old town gate with a 13th-century gate tower, the underground Jews' bath built 1104, and the Baroque Trinity Church of 1701-1717. Speyer has a diverse range of industries, including oil refining, the manufacture of building materials, and brewing. The calculated population for 2005 was 50,608.

Names:
Speyer (preferred,C,V)
Spires (C,O)
Augusta Nementum (H,V)
Civitas Nemetum (H,V)  ............ ancient name
Spira (H,V)  ............ medieval name

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Germany (nation)  ........  Germany (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Rhineland Palatinate (state)  ............  Rhineland Palatinate (state) (P)
Hierarchy of Speyer (inhabited place)  ................  Speyer (inhabited place) (P)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  was Celtic settlement, then Roman
city (C)
industrial center (C)  ............  produces building materials, aircraft, electrical equipment, wood products, textiles, footwear, chemicals, beer & wine
cultural center (C)  ............  noted for medieval architecture & museum of pre-Roman & Roman artifacts
episcopal see (C)  ............  granted major secular powers under Otto I in 10th cen.; famed for Romanesque imperial cathedral, rebuilt after fire of 1159
publishing center (C)  ............  noted as early center of printing
capital (H)  ............  of Rhenish Palatinate, until 1945
political center (H)  ............  especially 11th-16th cen., site of several diets including Diet of Speyer of 1529, where Lutheran princes protested Charles V
religious center (H)  ............  especially noted for preaching of Bernard of Clairvaux in Second Crusade in 1146

Sources and Contributors:
Augusta Nementum..........  [VP]
.............................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 885
Civitas Nemetum..........  [VP]
.............................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 341
Speyer..........  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
.................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
.................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 1148
Spira..........  [VP]
..............  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 885
Spires..........  [VP]
.................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 356
Subject: .....  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 885
..................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
..................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-) -1866426
..................  NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
..................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 341; 356
..................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 1148
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]

 

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