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3. Editorial Rules, continued







Included in this chapter






Term ID (required default)


Number identifying a name in ULAN.



Numbers are system-generated in the following range: 1000000000 - 1999999999.




  • Term IDs may not be edited by the editors.

  • The system assigns unique, consecutive numbers to names as names are created or loaded in ULAN. Numbers of deleted names are not re-used.

  • Each name in each subject record has a different Term ID. Homographs do not share the same Term ID.








Name (required)



Proper names, appellations, nicknames, or other identifying phrases used to refer to a person or corporate body.

      • Examples

Wren, Christopher

Rothko, Mark

Christopher Wren


Kalf, Willem

Burgkmair, Hans, the elder

M$00eraud, Pierre-Antoine, p$02ere

Bartolo di Fredi

Pei, I. M.

Sullivan, Louis H.

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Michelangelo Buonarroti

Gilbert & George

Kicking Bear

Limbourg Brothers

Shen Nanpin

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

Katsushika Hokusai

McKim, Mead and White

Hand G

Associated American Artists

Master of the Dido Panels

National Gallery of Art

Achilles Painter

Unterberger family

Monogrammist A. C.

Feature Animation (Disney Studios, Walt Disney Company)

Museum of Classical Archaeology



Names is a free-text field; values are Unicode.



Sources are discussed in a separate section, Sources for Names below.



The Name in ULAN is analogous to the Name in TGN and the Term in AAT. A preferred name is sometimes the only name in the subject record. The preferred name is the name used most often in standard general reference sources in English. It is the name that is displayed in default displays, thus it is sometimes called the "default record-preferred name."

If the name has been translated into English (e.g., Raphael) in most authoritative English sources, this name should be preferred; however, the preferred name in the local language of the artist should be included as well (e.g., Raffaello). Additional alternate and variant names for the artist should also be included.

Languages: The record-preferred ULAN name is the name that should be used in displays in the English language. This does not mean that the name itself is actually of English-language derivation. This rule may be extrapolated to apply to flags for languages other than English, should contributors wish to provide language flags to allow display of ULAN in their local language instead of English.






Minimum requirements
Record at least one name, the preferred name.

  • For modern western people, record the preferred name in inverted order. It is required to also record the preferred name in natural order; flag it as the Display Name.

      • Example






  • For early western people and non-western people, there often is no inverted form of the name.

  • Corporate body names are generally not inverted.

  • List as many variant or alternate names as have at least one legitimate source. Consult sources to gather alternate names as time and editorial priorities allow.


Alphabet and diacritics

   »Roman alphabet

Record all names in Unicode. The record-preferred name should be in the Roman alphabet.

  • Transliterations
    For names in a language that is not written in the Roman alphabet, record the vernacular name that has been transliterated into the Roman alphabet.
  • For the preferred name, you should ideally use the transliteration derived by applying ISO standards. However, you must often choose between variant transliterations without knowing which transliteration method was employed. In such cases, use the transliteration as found in the most authoritative of available possible sources.

  • For variant names, include names derived by alternate transliteration schemes. However, remember that you must have a source for the name - do not try to translate one transliterated name into another form (unless you are an expert in that language and have consulted with your supervisor).



Use Unicode. Legacy data may include diacritics codes.

      • Example
      • L$00opez, Jos$00e Antonio
  • Legacy diacritical codes are found in Appendix A (e.g., $00 in the examples above and below).

      • Example
        [diacritical codes in Appendix A]



Capitalize all proper names.

      • Examples
      • Unterberger, Ignaz
      • Stormont, Mary
      • Neri di Bicci
      • Velde, Willem van de, III
      • Machado and Silvetti
      • Superstudio

  • If the name includes an article, preposition, or conjunction (e.g. of, the, a, and, los, il, la, l', de, des, della), generally use lower case. If an article or preposition is the first element in the name, generally spell it with an initial capital letter. Consult standard reference sources for guidance (see Sources for Names below). See also Inverted and natural order names below.

      • Examples
      • Le Gros, Jean
      • Loo, Abraham Louis van

   »Mixed case

Names and other information should be expressed in mixed case (i.e., not in all-upper or all-lower case). If your source lists the name in all caps, translate it into mixed case.

  • Exception: An exception is when the name has been constructed by an editor (e.g., the word family in Unterberger family). The descriptive word added by the editor should be lower case. (Monogrammists and appellations devised by scholars for anonymous artists should be recorded in mixed case.)

  • Exception: For the name of a corporate body, if the official name includes all caps or an unusual arrangement of uppercase and lowercase, use uppercase and lowercase as found in authoritative sources.



  • For the preferred name, avoid abbreviations, except for living people and extant corporate bodies who prefer to spell their name with an abbreviation.

  • For variant names, include common abbreviations and variations on the name with abbreviations spelled out, as appropriate.

      • Examples
        [preferred name does not include the abbreviation]
      • Lombard Master of Saint George (preferred)
        Lombard Master of St. George

        [preferred name for a modern artist includes the abbreviation; variant includes the abbreviated word spelled out]
      • Cadell, Florence St. John (preferred)
        Florence St. John Cadell (display)
        Cadell, Florence Saint John


   »Corporate Bodies

For corporate bodies, use abbreviations (e.g., ampersand or abbreviated words) for the preferred name, if found in authoritative sources.

      • Example
      • Bedford Lemere & Co. (preferred, display)
        Bedford Lemere and Co.
        Bedford-Lemere & Co.


Avoid initials or acronyms for the preferred name. When cited in authoritative sources, include initials for the variant names. Exception: For relatively modern artists or corporate bodies, initials may be included in a preferred name when this form is the most commonly used form of the name. See also Middle Names below.

      • Examples
        [preferred name does not include the initials]
      • Jackson, Billy Morrow (preferred, index)
        Billy Morrow Jackson (display)
        Jackson, B. M.

        [preferred name for modern artist includes the initial because this is the most common name for him]
      • Pei, I. M. (preferred)
        I. M. Pei (display)
        Pei, Ieoh Ming

  • Include periods after the initials and spaces between initials (e.g., Pei, I. M. above), except for the rare case when a modern corporate body prefers to spell its name without spaces or periods (e.g., SOM in the example below). See also Fullness of the name below.

      • Example
      • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (preferred, display)
        Skidmore, Owings and Merrill


Only one name per field
Caveat: A single name field should not contain multiple names, as is sometimes found in names contributed from other databases and in LC Subject Headings.

  • Do not include a second name in parentheses. For example, rather than expressing a preferred name with a second name imbedded with parentheses, as in Masaccio (Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai), record these two names as two different names. You would choose Masaccio as the preferred name (because it is the name by which the artist is commonly known), and the full name Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai as a variant name.

  • Even if your source lists a "heading" or entry-form name with parentheses, do not copy this verbatim into the ULAN field. Interpret the source, and enter the data in two separate fields. E.g., if the source lists a name as Hidley, Joseph H. (Joseph Henry), put this in two separate name fields in ULAN. That source's preferred name is Hidley, Joseph H., and a variant name from that source is Hidley, Joseph Henry. (Which name, if either, is the ULAN-preferred name depends upon your research in additional sources, of course, because ULAN requires the most commonly used name.)


Preferred Name
For the preferred name, choose the name commonly used in English-language sources. If the name is not found in English-language sources, use another name.

  • Flag the preferred name. See Preferred Flag below.

  • To determine which name is most commonly used, consult standard artist dictionaries and encyclopedia, textbooks, and authoritative Web sites, such as a museum's official site.

  • All other factors being equal, if the name is included in the Library of Congress Authorities, prefer that name if possible: This is important particularly for kings, patrons, and other non-artists. Do not prefer the LOC form if the form does not comply with ULAN editorial rules or if the form is inconsistent with other similar names in LOC. Note the LOC ID number in the page number of the source on the name. See Sources for Names for a list of standard sources.

  • For names that are not found in standard sources, consult museum records and other published sources. In the rare cases where it is necessary to create a name (as described in specific rules below), construct a preferred name based on the rules in this manual (e.g., rules for names containing "the elder" and "the younger").

    If you cannot find the name in a source and if no specific ULAN rule is applicable for the name at hand, form the name using the Anglo American Cataloguing Rules or the Chicago Manual of Style.



Be consistent regarding the transliteration method, syntax, punctuation, capitalization, and style for the preferred names of artists in the same family or otherwise having similar names. For example, the following preferred names are unacceptable for the two brothers with similar names:

Marseus van Schrieck, Evert
Schrieck, Otto Marseus van

  • The preferred names for both of the above artists should be formatted consistently (in this case, based on warrant, with the names indexed under Marseus instead of Schrieck). Alternate formats and syntax may be used in variant names. Use authoritative sources and a comparison of other similar names already in ULAN to make the decision regarding how the preferred names should be formatted.

  • When dealing with corporate bodies that have hierarchical depth, for the names of subdivisions, use the same source that was used for constructing the hierarchy, if possible. See also 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships.


English Name
Always include the English name if it is different than the vernacular name and if warranted by sources.

  • The English name should generally be the preferred name, except where the vernacular or another name is more commonly used in English-language sources (e.g., Raphael in English, Raffaelo in Italian; National Museum in English, Národní Muzeum in Czech).

  • The preferred name is not necessarily the fullest name, but rather, the name commonly used in published sources.

  • If the British English spelling differs from the American English spelling, flag the British English name as appropriate (British English, Code 70053). See further discussion at Language for Names below.

  • Personal names: Note that most non-English-language personal names do not have an English equivalent (use authorized sources; do not invent English translations of names where none is found in the sources).

  • Corporate body names: Note that most major institutions in non-English-speaking places have an English equivalent for their name. If the English name appears in an authoritative source, including catalogues and Web sites published by the institution itself, use the English name as the preferred name. If you cannot find an English name in an authoritative source, do not invent an English translation; use the vernacular name as the preferred name.

      • Examples
        [for a museum in Prague, Czech Republic, preferred name is English because the English name appears most often in English-language sources and on the English page of the official Web site of the Museum]
      • National Museum (preferred)
        N$00arodn$00i Muzeum

        [for a museum in Mexico City, preferred name is English]
      • National Museum of Anthropology (preferred)
        Museo Nacional de Antropolog$00ia

        [for a French architectural studio, preferred name is French because the French name is most often used in English-language sources]
      • Atelier Le Corbusier (preferred)
        Le Corbusier Studio

        [for a museum in Bologna, Italy, preferred name is Italian because the Italian name is generally used in authoritative English-language sources, including English translations of catalogues published by the institution itself; the English name appears only occasionally in minor and antiquated sources]
      • Pinacoteca Nazionale (preferred)
        National Picture Gallery



  • Use the language field and the preferred language flag to mark the preferred name for a given language. See the section on Languages below.

      • Examples
      • Alpert, Max (preferred, index, English-Preferred)
        Max Alpert (display)
        Al'pert, Maks (Russian-Preferred)
        Al'pert, Maks Vladimirovich

      • Bearded Sphinx Painter (preferred, display, English-Preferred)
        Pittore della Sfinge Barbuta (Italian)
        Maler der b$04artigen Sphinx (German)

      • Aveline, Pierre, the elder (preferred, index, English-Preferred)
        Pierre Aveline the Elder (display, English)
        Aveline, Pierre, le vieux (French-Preferred)

      • New Artists Association of Munich (preferred, display, English-Preferred)
        Neue K$04unstlervereinigung M$04unchen (German-Preferred)



Inverted and natural order names
Names may be in inverted order (e.g., Wren, Christopher, used for indexing) or in natural order (e.g., Christopher Wren, used for display). Record the preferred name in both natural and inverted order. See also Names with articles and prepositions below.


For the inverted order form of the name, record the name in the following order: last name, comma, first name, followed by middle names or initials and title, if any.

      • Examples
      • Harpignies, Henri-Joseph (preferred)
        Henri-Joseph Harpignies (display)

      • L$04ucke, Carl August, the younger (preferred)
        Carl August L$04ucke the Younger (display)

      • Alexander, R. M. (preferred)
        R. M. Alexander (display)

  • For the natural order form of the name, record the name in the following order: first name, middle names or initials (if applicable), and last name. If there is a title, separate it from the name with a comma (e.g., Charles Clifford, 6th Baron of Chudleigh). For Jr. or Sr., use a comma, but for the Elder or the Younger, do not use a comma.

  • Commas: For inverted names, in general, use only one comma (e.g., Meier, Richard and Sefton, Mrs. Walter). An exception is for titles and honorifics that appear at the end of the natural order form of the name; these titles and honorifics should be positioned at the end of the inverted name, which requires a second comma (e.g., Hartray, John F., Jr. or Clifford, Charles, 6th Baron of Chudleigh). Follow specific rules throughout this manual for placement of commas.

  • Initials: Use periods with initials; if there are multiple initials, include a space between them. Exceptions are for initials that are part of an official name of a corporate body (e.g., MoMA, which would typically be an alternate name, not the preferred name).




For the preferred name, names for persons should generally be in inverted order. Attempt to find the inverted form in a standard source; if you cannot find the name in a source, invert the name using the rules above. Label the appropriate names as Display (i.e., set to "yes") and Index with the Display Name flag.

      • Example
        [for a person, example from VCS]

  • If the preferred name is inverted, include the natural order form of the preferred name in position #2, and flag it as the Display Name (see Display Name below). It is not required to include natural order forms for non-preferred variants.

  • If you are not familiar with the language and cultural usage of the name, and you thus cannot determine which word is the last name, do not invert the name. In general, do not attempt to invert names in non-western languages unless the name is inverted in authoritative sources.

  • Do not invert names of early artists (e.g., Gentile da Fabriano), unless the name is commonly inverted in authoritative sources (check the indices and other alphabetical lists in such authorities).


   »Corporate bodies

For corporate bodies, preferred names should generally be in natural order, not inverted. You may include a variant name in inverted order, if appropriate.

      • Examples
      • Eero Saarinen & Associates (preferred, display)
        Saarinen & Associates, Eero

      • Takenaka Komuten Company Limited (preferred, display)
        Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd.


   »Early people

For western peoples dating from before the 16th century, do not invert the preferred name if it is not inverted in authoritative sources. Such names are often a combination of a given name plus a patronymic, place name, or other descriptive phrase, and are thus not inverted because they do not have a "last name" per se. You may include an inverted version of the name as an alternate name, if appropriate.

      • Example
      • Leonardo da Vinci (preferred, display)
        Vinci, Leonardo da

      • Bartolo di Fredi (preferred, display)
        Bartolo di Fredi Cini
        Bartholus Magistri Fredis de Senis


   »Non-Western people

As for names in all western languages, prefer the name used most often in standard English-language sources.

  • For non-western people, do not invert the preferred name if it is not inverted in authoritative sources. In such cases, the name may already be listed in inverted order or may otherwise be inappropriate for inversion. For example, for Chinese names, it is generally proper to write the surname and first name in inverted order without a comma.

      • Examples
        [8th-century Chinese artist]
      • Zhang Xu (preferred)
        Chang Hs$04u
        Zhang Chengshi

        [modern Chinese artist]
      • Hai Bo (preferred, display)
        Bo, Hai (display)
        Hai, Po

  • Caveat: If the preferred name has no comma, include a variant name with a comma, if warranted. Note that Library of Congress names will typically include a comma; you may use that form as preferred if you have no more authoritative sources that contradict use of this name form as preferred (see AACR Flag below).

  • Westernized names: Note that some Chinese, Japanese, and other non-western names have been westernized, meaning the surname is given last in natural order spellings. Such names should be inverted with surname first and a comma, as for western people.

  • Consistency: Consistently prefer the form used by a single general source (such as Grove Art for artists) for names in a given language. So, for example, if the artist is in Grove, use that preferred form. If not, use the form preferred in a Japanese art specialty book. In the examples below, Hokusai's preferred name is an exception in inverted order because, although Grove lists it in natural order with no comma, he is very famous, thus we researched him in many sources; his name is listed with the comma in most other standard sources. For non-artists, Library of Congress may be used as a consistent source.

      • Examples
      • Hokusai, Katsushika (preferred, index, V)
        Katsushika Hokusai (display, V)
        Hokusai (V) .... name taken by the artist in 1798
        Shunro (V) .... go (artist's name), used in his years of training, when painting hosoban (narrow prints)
        Sori (V) .... go (artist's name), used in early career, named taken from his Rinpa-school master Tawaraya Sori
        Kako (V)
        Tatsumasa (V)
        Gakyojin (V)
        Taito (V) .... name used since 1810, when creating illustrated picture books
        Iichi (V)
        Manji (V)
        Tokitaro (V)

      • Aoki Mokubei (preferred, display, V)
        Hyakurokusanjin (V)
        Hyakuroku Sanjin (V)
        Kokukan (V)
        Kokikan (V)
        Kukurin (V)
        Robei (V)
        Ryubei (V)
        Sahei (V)
        Seirai (V)
        Teiunro (V)
        Yasohachi (V)

      • Ando Hiroshige (preferred, display, V)
        Ando, Hiroshige (V)
        Hiroshige, Ando (V)
        Utugawa Hiroshige (V)
        Ando (V)
        Hiroshige (V)
        Ichiyusai (V)
        Ichiryusai (V)
        Tokutaro (V)
        Tokubei (V)


   »Names with articles and prepositions

Generally, the "last name" part of the inverted name should not include the article or preposition. However, this depends upon common usage. For the preferred name, the inverted form of the name should begin with the article or preposition if this is the form found most often in standard authoritative sources. See also Capitalization above and Nicknames and pseudonyms below.

      • Examples
        [inverted form does not begin with preposition]
      • Loo, Abraham Louis van (preferred, index)

        [inverted form begins with preposition]
      • Da Rosa, Gustavo (preferred, index)

  • Caveat: For early artists, you must first establish if the name should be inverted at all. The names of early artists are often not inverted, and the article or preposition may represent a descriptive phrase, not a last name per se (e.g., Bartolo di Fredi is not inverted). See Early creators above.

  • Article without a space: For the variant names, if there is warrant, add names so that the record includes a version of the name with and without a space between the article and preposition (e.g., Le Gros and Legros in the example below).

      • Example
      • Legros, Jean (preferred, index)
        Jean Legros (display)
        Le Gros, Jean

  • How to invert a name: For the preferred name, if the name contains an article or preposition and you cannot find the inverted form of the person's name in authoritative sources, use the following procedure: assume that the use of uppercase letters for an article in the natural order form of a personal name (e.g., the "D" in William Frederick D'Almaine) is an indication that this part of the name should be used as the "last name" part of the inverted name (see examples above). If the article or preposition is in lowercase (e.g., Charles d'Agar), assume that it should not be part of the "last name." If there is warrant, include a variant name with the article as part of the "last name."

      • Examples
      • Agar, Charles d' (preferred, index)
        Charles d'Agar (display)
        d'Agar, Charles

      • D'Almaine, William Frederick (preferred, index)
        William Frederick D'Almaine (display)
        Almaine, William Frederick D'


   »Multiple words in a last name

When there are multiple names in a last name (e.g., with married names or Spanish names), the preferred name should be the most commonly used inverted name. Make a variant name with the additional word listed first, if there is warrant.

      • Example
      • Acosta Losada, Juan de (preferred, index)
        Juan de Acosta Losada (display)
        Losada, Juan de Acosta


Including variant names
Be certain that variant names are flagged as Non-preferred names. See discussion at Preferred Flag below.

  • At minimum, include important alternate and variant names that appear in major published sources and represent significant differences from the preferred name in form or spelling. As time and editorial priorities allow, check additional artist dictionaries and encyclopedia for additional alternate and variant names. Include variant names even if the differences in spelling and punctuation are minor.

      • Examples
      • Brueghel, Abraham (preferred, index)
        Abraham Brueghel (display)
        Breughel, Abraham
        Bruegel, Abraham
        Brughel, Abram
        Brucolo, Abraam
        Brucoli, Abraham
        Ryngraaf, Abraham
        Rijngraaf, Abraham


Names in various languages

  • When to include names in various languages Include names in various languages, with the correct language designation, if known and appropriate for the sake of clarity. This rule will generally apply only 1) to early people who are extremely famous and have names actually translated in various languages, 2) to modern or early people who were active in more than one country and thus had multiple expressions of their name, 3) to people whose names are constructed using descriptive phrases rather than strictly names (e.g., Master of the Tegernsee Altar or Christina, Queen of Sweden), and 4) to corporate bodies, whose names are often translated in various languages.

    • Examples
      [for an Austrian painter active in Italy]
    • Unterberger, Christoph (preferred, index, German-preferred)
      Christoph Unterberger (display, German)
      Unterberger, Cristoforo (Italian-preferred)

      [for an Italian artist active in China]
    • Castiglione, Giuseppe (preferred, index, Italian-preferred)
      Giuseppe Castiglione (display, Italian)
      Lang Shih-ning (Chinese transliterated-preferred)

  • If the name is in a language expressed in an alphabet or characters other than the Roman alphabet, the language designation should refer to the appropriate language designation, with the greatest specificity known by the cataloger (such as Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)).

  • If the name form includes English words (e.g., Louis IX, King of France), flag the language as English.


Variant transliterations
Include variant transliterations. See Roman alphabet: Transliterations above.

      • Examples
      • Gu Kaizhi (preferred, display, Chinese)
        Ku K'ai-chih (Chinese)

      • Shishkin, Ivan (preferred)
        Ivan Shishkin (display)
        Shishkin, Ivan Ivanovich
        Shiskin, Ivan Ivanovitch
        $07Si$07skin, Ivan Ivanovi$07c
        Chichkin, Ivan Ivanovitch
        Chichkine, Ivan-Ivanovitch
        Schischkin, Iwan Iwanowitsch
        Szyszkin, I. I.


Alternate spelling, punctuation
Include variants that differ in spelling, diacritics, capitalization, or punctuation.

      • Example
      • Delerive, Nicolas Louis Albert (preferred)
        Nicolas Louis Albert Delerive (display)
        Delarive, Nicolaes Louis Albert
        Delarive, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        Delerive, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        Della Riva, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        Delrive, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        della Riva, Nicolas-Louis Albert


Include a misspelling if it is found in a major published source (e.g., O'Keefe, Georgia, with one "f" below). If you are absolutely certain that the name is a misspelling (and not a historical name or other valid variant), note this in the Display Date for that name (because Display Date is a free-text field, you may use it for this purpose, although you must also have dates in mind for Start and End Dates; see Dates for Names below).

      • Example


  • Caveat: Names of early artists may be spelled in various ways, because there was no established, correct spelling during the artist's lifetime. Include such names only if they appear in major published sources. Do not describe such names as "misspellings."

  • Caveat: Consult with your supervisor before including modern or historical misspellings if the misspelling occurs in only one document.


Fullness of the name
Include significant differences in the fullness of the name. The preferred name should not necessarily be the fullest name, but rather the most commonly used name.

      • Examples
      • Goya, Francisco de (preferred)
        Francisco de Goya (display)
        Goya, Francisco Jose y Lucientes de
        Francisco Jos$00e de Goya y Lucientes
        Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jos$00e de
        Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
        Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Paula Jos$00e
        Goya, Francisco Jose de

  • Caveat: In general, do not include only a first name or only a last name; even if an archival or other source uses only the first or last name, do not include it in ULAN. For example, the single word Goya should NOT be a variant name in the above example. Exceptions include only rare examples of very famous artists, e.g., Raphael. Consult with your supervisor before adding such a name. Do not use a last name alone with a title of nobility, a social title, or an honorific (e.g., do NOT include Mrs. Stieglitz as a variant name). See Titles below.


   »Middle names

Avoid including middle names or initials in the preferred name, except when the most commonly used name includes the middle name(s) or initials. This exception will most often occur with modern artists who themselves prefer the fuller name. Include middle names and initials in variant names, where warranted by authoritative sources. See also Initials above.

      • Examples
      • Meier, Richard (preferred, index)
        Richard Meier (display)
        Meier, Richard Alan

      • Grassi, Guy (preferred, index)
        Guy Grassi (display)
        Grassi, Guy N.


Former Names

   »For persons

If a person's name has changed over time, include the former names. Examples include legal name changes (e.g., a married name) and any other instance of former appellations. The preferred name should be the name most often used in authoritative sour

      • Examples
        [for married names]
      • Alma-Tadema, Laura Theresa (preferred, index)
        Laura Theresa Alma-Tadema (display)
        Alma-Tadema, Laura Theresa Epps
        Alma-Tadema, Lady Laura Theresa
        Alma-Tadema, Laura Teresa
        Alma-Tadema, Laura
        Alma-Tadema, Mrs. Laurence
        Epps, Miss Laura Teresa
        Epps, Laura Theresa


   »For anonymous artists

For artists whose identity has changed over time through scholarship, include their previous appellations as alternate names.

      • Examples
        [it is generally accepted that Robert Campin is the formerly anonymous Master of Flémalle]
      • Campin, Robert (preferred, index)
        Robert Campin (display)
        Master of Fl$00emalle

  • Caveat: If the identity of an artist is uncertain, do not record the additional names in one record; instead, make two records. For example, Barthélemy d' Eyck is possibly, but not firmly, identified with Master of King René of Anjou. Given that the association is uncertain, do not put the name Master of King René of Anjou in the record for Barthélemy d' Eyck. Make two separate records and link them through Associative Relationships (see also 3.6).


   »For corporate bodies

If the name of a firm or other legally incorporated entity has changed, first determine if the new name represents a second, distinct corporate body, which would require a separate corporate body record. Such related corporate bodies should be linked through as Related Persons and Corporate Bodies (see 3.6 Associative Relationships).

      • Example
      • Morris & Co. (preferred) .... name of the firm after 1875
        Morris and Company (display)
        Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (historical) .... original name of the firm, 1861-1875
        Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company (historical)

  • For one record: Generally include the former names as historical names in one record rather than making two records 1) if the corporate body is a historical studio or institution (e.g., Manufacture Royale des Gobelins and Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins are two names in the same record), or 2) if the primary partners have remained the same for a modern firm.

  • For separate records: Generally make two separate records 1) if the function or location of the historical corporate body changed with the name change, or 2) if the question involves a modern firm and legal incorporation, the primary partners have changed, and the firm apparently prefers to clearly distinguish its separate incarnations. Link the related corporate bodies (see 3.5 Associative Relationships).


Nicknames and pseudonyms
Include pseudonyms and nicknames if found in standard sources. If a pseudonym or nickname is the preferred name, do not invert it if it is not inverted in authoritative sources.

      • Examples
      • Man Ray (preferred)
        Radnitzky, Emmanuel
        Rudnitsky, Emmanuel

      • Pontormo (preferred)
        Jacopo Carrucci
        Giacomo da Pontormo


   »Article in the name

If the preferred name is a nickname or pseudonym that includes an article, generally invert the name (e.g., Volpino, Il). Include the display name in natural order in sequence number 2.

      • Example
      • Greco, El (preferred, index)
        El Greco (display)
        Theotokopolous, Domenikos

  • If the variant name contains an article, it is not necessary to include an inverted version. Include a variant name without the article, if warranted by an authoritative source. For example, Giuseppe Mazzuoli has two variant names: Il Bastarolo and Bastarolo.

      • Example
      • Mazzuoli, Giuseppe (preferred, index)
        Giuseppe Mazzuoli (display)
        Il Bastarolo


Homographs in the same family
Names with the same spelling are called homographs. Include designations that distinguish two or more members of the same family bearing the same name (e.g., the Elder or Sr.).

   »Junior and Senior

For modern artists, for the preferred name, include the abbreviations Jr. and Sr. if this is the form of the artist's name found in authoritative sources. Follow the syntax and punctuation in the examples below for display and indexing forms of the names.

      • Example
      • Hartray, John F., Jr. (preferred, index)
        John F. Hartray, Jr. (display)
        Hartray, J. F., Jr.

  • If a father and son with the same name are both in the ULAN, be sure to include Jr. and Sr. to distinguish between them, even if the Jr. or Sr. is omitted in authoritative sources.

  • Names containing non-abbreviated versions of "Junior" and "Senior" may be included as variant names.


'The younger' or 'the elder'
For pre-modern artists, for the preferred name, generally include the younger or the elder to distinguish between fathers and sons who are both in ULAN and who have the same name. Follow the syntax in the examples below. Note that for the preferred inverted name, the younger and the elder are spelled in lower case, while the display form includes the Younger and the Elder in upper case. This is an idiosyncrasy of ULAN that was devised as an aid in creating algorithms for retrieval.

      • Examples
      • Breughel, Pieter, the elder (preferred)
        Pieter Bruegel the Elder
        Brueghel, Pieter, I

  • Variants using Roman numerals may be included if found in authoritative sources (e.g., Brueghel, Pieter, I in the example above). However, the name with the Roman numeral should not be the preferred name when there are only two artists with that name and they are father and son. See Names with Roman numerals below.

  • Other languages: When there is warrant, include language variations of 'the younger' and 'the elder.' Examples include the following: Italian (il Vecchio, il Giovane), Dutch (de Oude, de Jonge), German (der $04Alterer, der J$04unger), Spanish (el Viejo, el Joven), and French (le Vieux, l'Ancien, le Jeune, and le P$02ere, le Fils).

      • Example
        [names in Italian and French are included]
      • Longhi, Martino, the elder (preferred, index)
        Martino Longhi the Elder (display)
        Longhi, Martino, il vecchio
        Martino Longhi il Vecchio
        Longhi, Martino, l'Ancien
        Longhi, Martino, I
        Longhi, Martino
        Lunghi, Martino
    • Make the English form (the elder, the younger) the preferred name, and the names in other language(s) variants. If you find warrant for an exception to this rule, consult with your supervisor. Add language flags where appropriate.


   »Names with Roman numerals

Use Roman numerals when all of the following conditions apply: 1) there is more than one artist with the same name in ULAN, 2) the artists have a familial relationship, 3) they have an older and younger relationship, 4) a) but they are not father and son (e.g., when a nephew and his uncle have the same name), or b) there are more than two people with the same name (e.g., when a father, son, and grandson all have the same name; if there are only father and son, use the elder and the younger, or Jr. and Sr.).

  • Follow the syntax and punctuation in the examples below. Note that the preferred name has two commas; the display name has no comma.

      • Examples
        [there are three men in the same family with the same name]
      • Teniers, David, II (preferred, index)
        David Teniers II (display)

        [name with the preposition "de" and a Roman numeral]
      • Verbruggen, Gaspar Peeter de, II (preferred, index)
        Gaspar Peeter de Verbruggen II (display)

  • If you come across an example where there are two or more related female artists with the same name in ULAN, consult with your supervisor.

  • In the extremely rare case where there are two sets of fathers and sons with exactly the same name and if their biographies are similar and thus do not provide adequate distinction between them in displays, use middle names to distinguish the two sets. If this is not possible, use "I" and "II" to distinguish one of the sets.

      • Examples
        [names are exactly the same between two sets of fathers and sons, middle names are unknown, all four are printmakers and painters, and there is overlap with works produced in the same century]

      • Harris, John, I (British engraver and probably painter, active 1686-1740)

      • Harris, John, II (British painter and printmaker, 1715-1755)

      • Harris, John, the elder (British engraver and watercolorist, 1767-1832)

      • Harris, John, the younger (British watercolorist, engraver, and lithographer, 1791-1873)


Titles and honorifics
Include honorifics and titles, as appropriate.

  • Syntax: Capitalize titles of nobility. Use punctuation and syntax as illustrated in the examples below. For the preferred name, generally prefer the name as found in the Library of Congress Authorities, unless the name form is inconsistent with other similar names in the LOC authorities or if the name is too long.


   »Social titles and courtesy titles

Social titles denote gender and marital status. Courtesy titles are used when addressing persons of nobility.

  • For males: For males, you may include courtesy titles (e.g., Lord) in a variant name if there is warrant. In general, do not include variant names with social titles denoting gender for males (e.g., Mr., Monsieur, etc.).

  • For females: For females, you may include courtesy titles (e.g., Lady) in a variant name if there is warrant. In contrast to the rule for males, you may include variant names with social titles denoting gender or marital status (e.g., Mrs., Miss, Mme, Mlle, etc.) if these forms are found in authoritative sources and if they clarify the significance of the name (i.e., if they designate a married or maiden name). Use the punctuation and syntax displayed in the following example. Note that the syntax with one comma "Sefton, Mrs. Walter" is preferred, not "Sefton, Walter, Mrs.", although the latter could be included as a second variant name if there is warrant.

      • Examples
        [a variant name]
      • Sefton, Mrs. Walter

  • For English, use spelling and punctuation of female social titles as indicated below:
Mrs. Mlle
Miss Mme
  • Indicate "married name" in the display date for the name, where appropriate. Include any other comment on the name in the display date that, including information not covered by the Other Flags (e.g., official name, N/A, pseudonym, birth name, abbreviation, common name, full name). See Dates for Names below.


   »Titles of nobility and peerage

Titles for nobility and peerage should be part of the preferred name when the name-plus-title is the form found in Library of Congress authorities and other sources, thus the most commonly used to refer to the person. Also keep in mind consistency with precedents of similar names already in the ULAN.

  • Below are examples of variations in the expression of the preferred names of people having titles.
      • Examples
        [For Holy Roman emperor, 1050-1106]
      • Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (preferred, display, LC name)

      • [For French queen consort, 1519-1589; the LOC is non-preferred, because it is deemed too long]
      • Catherine de Médicis, Queen consort of Henry II (preferred, display)
      • Catherine de Médicis, Queen, consort of Henry II, King of France (LC name)

      • [For British peer, painter, 1896-1993; Library of Congress name is the preferred name, but "indexing," not the "display" name; also, include the name having number in the sequence for this earldom ("5th earl"), but this should not be the preferred name]
      • Amherst, Jeffrey John Archer, Earl of (preferred, indexing, LC name)
      • Jeffrey John Archer, Earl of Amherst (display name)
      • Amherst, Jeffery John Archer Amherst, 5th Earl (variant name)

      • [For the Flemish painter, 1577-1640; knighthood was bestowed as an honorary title later in life, thus is not the preferred name]
      • Rubens, Peter Paul (preferred, indexing, LC name)
      • Peter Paul Rubens (display name)
      • Rubens, Peter Paul, Sir (variant name)

    • Title in English: When the title is included in the preferred name, use the form of the title most often used in English-language sources. For kings and queens, this will likely be the title translated into English (e.g., Queen rather than Reina). For other titles, the title may be in the original language because the title does not necessarily translate directly into English (i.e., the English translation of the word may not actually designate the same rank).

    • Title must go with a full name: For both preferred and variant names, do not include names comprising only the title or honorific and a last or given name. For example, do not include a variant name such as Miss Browning, Sir Jackson, or King Henry; instead, record Browning, Miss Elizabeth; Sir Robert Jackson; or Henry VII, King of England. An exception may occur with anonymous artists who are known only by one name (e.g., Master Adolfo).

    • Dates of names with titles: While you may include a display, start, and end dates for a name with a title, it is best to, instead or in addition, index the dates with the appropriate context as an Event. For people who hold several different titles throughout life, and thus have several names based on title, indeed it is useful to index the dates for these names linked to the Name field.

      • For the preferred name, generally include the title if the person was born to the title or in succession for the title (i.e., hereditary peerages and royal titles, e.g., King, Prince, Princess, Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, Baron, Comte, Graf). There is often a distinction between the name of the peerage and the surname (e.g., Talbot and Shrewsbury in the example below). Follow the syntax below. Note that the inverted preferred name in such cases may have two commas. The display name has one comma.

      • For the preferred name, generally exclude the title if it was bestowed during the person's lifetime (i.e., life peerages such as knighthoods and baronets, e.g., Sir, Dame).

      • Baronets: A variant name for baronets should include both Sir and Baronet, the latter following the name to distinguish him from a knight (e.g., Sir Alfred Bridge, Baronet).

      • Kings, queens, emperors: Note that kings, queens, emperors, and other nobility are often referred to by their first name without the use of a surname. However, you should avoid using a single name as a preferred name. Instead, use the display name in natural order with the title as the preferred name; use syntax and punctuation as illustrated in the examples below:

          • Examples
          • Henry VII, King of England (preferred, display)
            King Henry VII of England
            Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond

          • Christina, Queen of Sweden (preferred, display)

          • Trajan, Emperor of Rome (preferred, display)
            Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus (official name)
            Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus .... 97-98 CE
            Marcus Ulpius Traianus .... original name
            Optimus Princeps .... nickname meaning "the best chief"
        • Consorts and regents: For a consort, that is a man or woman who married the hereditary ruler, choose the preferred name based on common usage in authoritative sources. Female consorts of kings and other high nobility generally include the title of consort in the preferred name. For the preferred name of male consorts of queens and other female rulers, common usage dictates that they will usually be listed with their hereditary title rather than the title of consort. Preferred names of consorts of lower levels of nobility often omit the title of consort for both sexes, to instead use the hereditary title of the person as the preferred name. For regents, who rule while the hereditary ruler is under age or incapacitated, the title of regency is generally not included in any of the names.

          • Examples
            [for the French queen consort, 1601-1666]
          • Anne, Queen consort of Louis XIII (preferred, display)
            Anne, Queen, consort of Louis XIII, King of France
            Anne of Austria
            Anne d’Autriche
            Ana María Mauricia (birth name)

          • [for a male consort, German and British noble and patron, 1819-1861]
          • Albert, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg (preferred, display)
            Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (full name)
            Albert, Prince Consort of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain

       »Popes and clergy

    Include the title Pope in the preferred name. As a variant name, include the person's name before becoming pope.

        • Example
        • Leo X, Pope (preferred, indexing, LC name, English)
          Pope Leo X (display, English)
          Medici, Giovanni de' (birth name)
          Leone‏ X,‏ papa (variant name, Italian)
          Leo PP. X

    • For members of the clergy other than the pope, include the title (e.g., Father, Fra, Bishop, etc.) in the preferred name if it is the name in Library of Congress authorities and most commonly found in other sources. In general, the title should be included in the preferred name. Also check precedents in ULAN for consistency.

        • Examples
        • Baldini, Fra Tiburzio (preferred, index)
          Fra Tiburzio Baldini (display)

        • Beckett, Sister Wendy (preferred, index)
          Sister Wendy Beckett (display)
          Beckett, Sister Wendy Mary
          Beckett, Wendy

        • Hugh of Northwold, Bishop of Ely (preferred, display)

    • If the person assumed a new name when becoming a member of the clergy, include their former name as a variant name (e.g., Guido di Piero in the example below).

        • Example
        • Angelico, Fra (preferred, index)
          Fra Angelico (display)
          Angelico, Fra Giovanni
          Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole
          Guido di Piero .... baptismal name
          Guido di Piero da Mugello


       »Multiple titles

    If a person has multiple titles, the latest title or the title of highest rank should be preferred.


    Abbreviations for titles (e.g., Bt., Bart., Hon.) may be part of a variant name if there is warrant; however, the full version of the abbreviated word should be represented in another name. Names with abbreviations should not be preferred, with the exception of Jr. and Sr. (discussed above).

        • Example
        • Clerk, John (preferred, index)
          John Clerk (display)
          Clerk, Sir John, Baronet
          Clerk, Sir John, Bt.
          Clerk, Sir John


    Names with credentials and degrees

       »Doctors, lawyers, etc.

    In the rare event that there is warrant for a name followed by an indication of a degree or credentials (e.g., Ph.D., M.D., M.F.A., etc.), place the initials for the degree at the end of the name, using two commas for an inverted name. Do not put a space between the initials of the degree. Such a name should never be the preferred name.

        • Example
          [variant name includes degree credentials]
        • Crane, Arnold Herman (preferred, indexing)
        • Arnold Herman Crane (display)
        • Crane, Arnold Herman, J.D. (variant name)

       »Royal Academicians

    Note that R.A. typically does not refer to initials of names, but rather to the credential of Royal Academician. Do not include this designation in the preferred name. For a variant name, you may include it if there is warrant; use periods with "R.A."; do not include a space between "R." and "A." Use two commas for the inverted name.

        • Example
          [variant name]
        • Pickersgill, Frederick Richard, R.A.

      • For R.A., add a display date for this variant name (e.g., made a Royal Academician in 1994). A date for when a person was made a Royal Academician is usually readily available. See Dates for Names below.


    Anonymous creators
    For anonymous creators, use an appellation provided by an authoritative source or devised by scholars. In the context of this manual, an "anonymous creator" is defined as a creator whose hand is identified and oeuvre is established, but whose name is not known (e.g., Master of the Morgan Leaf). This type of creator is distinguished from Unknown creators, discussed below. Generally, do not invert appellations for anonymous creators.

        • Examples
        • Monogrammist A. D. L. (preferred)
        • Borden Limner (preferred)
        • Master of Artajona (preferred)

       »Unknown creators

    Unknown creators are outside the scope of the ULAN. An unknown creator has no identified oeuvre or personality; an appellation is typically generic and encompasses many artists (not a single individual); The appellation may include the word "unknown" and the culture or nationality (e.g., unknown Korean); it may include broad dates (e.g., unknown Korean 16th century). Unknown creators are used in cataloguing art works and may be included in local authorities, but are not included in ULAN. Note that some institutions use the word Anonymous to refer to Unknowns.



    Constructed names
    A constructed name is a name created by the editor, rather than being transcribed from a source.

    • For the preferred name, do not construct a name if you can avoid it. Transcribe the name as found in the source.

      • Exception: If you need to find a particular form of the name in order to be consistent with other similar preferred names or to follow specific rules in this manual, you may construct a preferred name.

    • For variant names, editors must occasionally devise a name that is not found in published sources. Do so only in the situations described below. If you feel that another situation warrants the construction of a name, consult with your supervisor before doing so.


       »Display names

    A Display Name is used in horizontal displays (e.g., in wall or slide labels). If the preferred name is in inverted order, construct a Display Name by expressing the name in natural order.

    • Flag the Display Name by setting the flag to Yes. See a discussion of the flag at Display Name Flag below.

        • Example

    • If the name was constructed by the editor, the source for the Display Name should be the following:

      Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
      Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.



    Vernacular names
    Flag names as Vernacular, Other, or Undetermined as recommended at Vernacular Flag below. Note that Undetermined is typically used only for data being batch loaded; editors should avoid using it.

    • Most artist names will be in the vernacular language of the artist. However, if you are unfamiliar with a particular vernacular language, in order to determine which name is the vernacular name, consult a reference source that labels the vernacular or names in other languages, or a source in the vernacular language.

    • For the preferred name, choose the name most commonly used in English-language sources, which is generally the vernacular name. Only occasionally do artists have name variations in English; these occasional examples include famous early artists, anonymous artists, and corporate bodies.


       »Multiple vernacular languages

    If an artist worked in multiple nations where multiple languages were spoken, there may be multiple vernacular languages applicable to a single artist.

        • Example
          [The artist was French-speaking Flemish, but worked in Italy, so both French and Italian are Vernacular names]
    • There may be several variants in any given language. Be sure to list all variants in any vernacular language and flag them as vernacular too (as in the example above).


    Official name
    The official name is the full name in natural order. This name typically includes all middle names and titles. The official name is not necessarily the preferred name.

    • For the preferred name, do not use a long name simply because it is the fullest, official name for the person or corporate body. Prefer the short version of the name most commonly found in sources. For instance, the preferred name for the person will not necessarily include a title. Include the longer name with the title as a variant name and flag it as Other Flag = Official Name, if appropriate. See Other Flags below.

        • Example


    Flag the language of the name, if known, by choosing a language from the controlled list of languages. See Language for Names below.



    Order of the names
    The names must be organized according to a set of rules. Number the names as instructed in Sequence Number below.



    Editing contributed names
    Editors should not edit names that are from contributors, except for minor punctuation errors and very minor typos. If you add a date or a source to the name, add the initials VP as a contributor for the name.

    • If directed to do so by your supervisor, you may occasionally delete contributed names that are inappropriate to ULAN, including names that are only first or last names and names that are misspellings that appeared in only one archival source (and thus are not common misspellings). Such names inhibit the utility of ULAN in retrieval.




    Preferred Flag (required-default)



    Flag indicating whether or not the name is the preferred name for its subject record.



    The flags are controlled by a pick list in VCS: P - Preferred, V - Variant



    For a discussion of how to determine which name should be the preferred name, see Name above.



    Every record must have a preferred name to use as a default in displays. For further discussion of preferred names, see Name above.




    • The name in sequence number 1 is automatically flagged "preferred" by the system. If this is not correct, change the Preferred Flag and sequence numbers accordingly.







    Word or phrase used primarily to distinguish between special cases of homographs and other rare circumstances.



    Free text.



    RULES for Qualifier



    Minimum requirements

    Optional: Add a qualifier only in rare situations, as directed by your supervisor.



    When to add a qualifier

    • Homographs
      With your supervisor's permission, use a qualifier to disambiguate homographs in ULAN when other information in the label for two people or firms is not sufficient to disambiguate them.

      Currently qualifiers are used in the ULAN only in rare cases. Check with your supervisor before adding a qualifier.

    • Unidentified Named People and Firms
      Use a qualifier unidentified for records in the facet Unidentified Named People and Firms, which are people and corporate bodies known from archival or other documentary evidence, but the true identification of which is uncertain or unknown.




    Sequence Number (required-default)



    The Display Order number (or Sort Order number), indicating the sequence of the name in relation to the other names of a subject record.



    System generated, but the numbers may be changed by the editor. Values begin with 1 and are numbered sequentially; there is no upper limit imposed by the system.



    Most records have only 1 to 5 names. It would be highly unusual to require more than 15 or 20 names for an artist or corporate body. If you need to add more than that, consult your supervisor.




    • Number the names in sequence. Do not skip numbers. Arrange the names in a logical order, as described below.

    • The name in sequence number 1 must be the subject default Preferred name, which is the most commonly used form, in inverted order (where appropriate). When the name in sequence number 1 is inverted, the name in sequence number 2 must be the natural order form of that name.

    • For names in sequence number 3 and below, place the next most commonly used forms at the top of the list. Position former or other alternate names above names that are rarely used. Place misspellings at the bottom of the list.

    • If there are historical names, arrange the names in reverse chronological order, with Current names placed before Historical ones.

    • Within the parameters of the above rules, keep variants in the same language or of similar spelling together when possible.

        • Examples

    [as displayed in VCS]


    [another display in VCS]





    Historical Flag (required-default)



    Flag indicating the historical status of the name.



    Values are derived from a controlled list: B - Both, C - Current, H - Historical, NA - Not Applicable, LU - Local Use



    Editors should use standard, authoritative sources in determining whether or not a name is historical.




    • Note that in ULAN, most names will be flagged NA because this flag only rarely applies to persons.

    • This flag is most often used with corporate bodies. If there are both current and historical names in the record, use Current and Historical flags to clarify. In all other cases, leave the flag set to NA.

    • Before entering a historical name in the record, ascertain whether or not this is actually a separate corporate body that should be recorded in a separate record. See Chapter 3.3: Names: Former Names: Corporate Bodies.

    • Current: If there are historical names, flag the name that is currently in use.

    • Historical: If the name was used in the past but is not used currently, set the flag to Historical. Also flag the current name.

    • Both: This flag will only rarely be used in ULAN. Consult your supervisor if you believe that you have need of this flag.

    • Not Applicable: This is the default for ULAN names. Use it for all names, except if there are historical names in the record (when you should flag the historical and current names).

    • Local Use: Special flag for names that are from archival sources and other sourves, where the name is imporant for local use by a contributor but should generally be omitted when using ULAN in broader searching environments..




    Term Type (required-default)



    Flag currently not in use in ULAN.



    Value is derived from a controlled list: U - Undetermined; NA - Not Applicable.




    • Not Applicable: When contributing data, set the flag to NA.




    Part of Speech (required-default)



    Indicates the category into which the name would be placed relative to its normal function in a grammatical context, currently set to NA in ULAN.



    Values are derived from a controlled list: N - Noun, A - Adjectival, B – Both; U – Undetermined; N/A – Not Applicable.




    • Noun: The default flag is N/A.




    Vernacular Flag (required-default)



    Flag indicating whether or not the name is the "vernacular" name for a certain artist, "vernacular" referring to the term in the local language(s).



    Values are derived from a controlled list: V - Vernacular, O - Other, U - Undetermined.



    Vernacular refers to the name in the local language of the artist. Most artists' names in ULAN are vernacular names. Vernacular names include transliterated names, even though they are written in the Roman alphabet but the local language uses another alphabet or method of writing.




    • Vernacular: The default flag is Vernacular.

    • Other: If the name is in a language other than the artist's native language, set the flag to Other. This will generally only occur with early artists who are famous (e.g., Raphael), with anonymous artists (e.g., Master of the Ovile Madonna), or with corporate bodies (Audet and Charbonneau for the French firm Agence Audet et Charbonneau).

    • Undetermined: Do not use Undetermined. It is typically reserved for data loaded into the system where the language of the terms/names in the load is unknown.




    Language for Names (required-default)



    The language of the name. A single name may be spelled the same in multiple languages.




    Languages are mapped to AAT terms for language. As of this writing, in VCS they are drawn from a controlled list.

    • 1. Language: Term referring to the language of the name.
    • 2. Language Code: Unique code for the language in VCS. Related languages have codes within a given range, to allow retrieval of related languages.
    • 3. Language Preferred Flag: Indicates whether or not this name is the preferred way to refer to the artist in that language.

        • Examples
          [in VCS]

    [in an end-user display]
    Raphael (preferred, index, O, English-P)
    Raphael Sanzio (O)
    Raphael Santi (V)
    Raffaello (V)
    Raffaello da Urbino (V)
    Raffaello d'Urbino (V)
    Raffaello Sancio d'Urbino (V)
    Raffaello Santi (V)
    Raffaello Sanzio (V, Italian-P)
    Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (V)
    Raffaelo Santi (V)
    Santi, Raffaello (V)



    Controlled by the Languages file (see example below)

        • Example


    New languages may be added to the controlled list only as absolutely necessary. Be certain that the language you need is not already entered in a synonymous form in the controlled list. If you feel you need to add a language, consult with your supervisor.

    • The primary source for language names in ULAN is the following:

        • Brief Citation: Ethnologue (2000)
          Full Citation: Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 14th edition. Barbara F. Grimes, ed. Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 2000.

    • If you wish to add a language found in another source, consult with your supervisor.

    • Sources providing information regarding which language the name represents are the following:

      • Standard general sources for names, as described in Names above.
      • Encyclopedia or another authoritative, general information resources.



    • It is not necessary to flag languages for names, unless there are names in multiple languages for a given artist. This will typically happen with artists who lived or worked in multiple nations, famous early artists who are known by names in various languages, anonymous artists, and corporate bodies.

    • Where known, flag the appropriate language for every name as your expertise, time, and editorial priorities allow.


    Label a language only if your source indicates it or if you are an expert in the given language. Do not guess.

    • If you are uncertain regarding a specific language, use the broader designation. For example, if your source does not specify if the name is Ancient Latin, Medieval Latin, or Liturgical Latin, use the more general designation Latin.


    Preferred English name
    If there is an English version of a name that is different from the ULAN-preferrred name, it is required to flag the preferred English name for the artist. However, the preferred English name will typically be the overall record-preferred name. For the preferred English name, link to "English, Code 70051."

    • For the preferred English name, choose the name most commonly used in American English sources (but flag it "English, Code 70051", not American English Code 70052).

      • American vs. British English: In the extremely rare event that a name is spelled differently in American and British English, label the British spelling with the language British English and the American spelling with language American English. Names with language flag English are presumed to be appropriate for both British English and American English..


    Transliterated names
    Flag the name as representing a particular language, even if the name has been transliterated from another alphabet into the Roman alphabet.


    For Chinese, there are special language designations for the two most common transliteration methods: Pinyin and Wade-Giles. Pinyin is the transliteration method preferred for preferred names in ULAN. If your source indicates which was used for the name, flag the language appropriately. For transliterations other than Pinyin and Wade-Giles, or if you are uncertain what transliteration method was used, label the names as simply Chinese transliterated (provided you are sure that the name is Chinese). Flag names in Chinese characters as Chinese, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (traditiona) or another appropriate designation.





    Preferred Flag for Language (required-default)



    Flag designating whether or not the name is preferred in that language.



    Controlled by a pick list: N - Non Preferred, P - Preferred, U - Undetermined




    • The default for this field is Non-preferred. Change the flag to Preferred if name is the short, commonly-used form of the name in a particular language.

    • There may be only one preferred name per language.




    Language Status (required-default)



    Indicates if the term is a loan term from another language. Given that most personal names are represented in the vernacular language, this flag is currently not being used in ULAN.




    • Language Status: Flag indicating the status of the term as a loan term.



    • Controlled values: Undetermined, N/A, Loan term, Literal translation, or Translation N/A. In ULAN.




    • Use this flag in ULAN as necessary. The default is set to Undetermined.




    Contributor for Name (required-default)



    A reference to the institution or project that contributed the name.




    • Brief Name: An acronym, initials, or abbreviated name of the institution.

    • Full Name: A full version of the name of the contributing institution or project.


    Controlled by a link to a file of controlled terminology; the list changes as new contributors are added. Sample values are visible in the image below.

        • Example


    Use correspondence with an official representative of the institution or current, official publications of the contributing institution, including its official Web site.

    • If the institution does not have an official acronym, consult with your supervisor when creating a Brief Name.

    • Make sure that the contributor's names are the same in all three vocabularies. Make the numeric Code for the contributor the same in all vocabularies, if possible.


    The Brief Name (acronym, initials, or abbreviated name of the institution) appears in the artist record. The Full Name is linked to the Brief Name in displays for the end users.




    • The following are rules for assigning a contributor to an artist or corporate body ULAN name (not for adding contributors' names to the controlled list).

    • The default Contributor is VP (Vocabulary Program). Editors may change contributors' initials only in very rare cases. If you feel it is necessary to change a link from one contributor to another, consult with your supervisor.

    • If you are adding data by hand, even if the data was given to you in a printout or other form by an institution or project that is a contributor, the contributor should be VP because the Vocabulary Program is actually entering the data (and thus some amount of interpretation is going on). The Source of the name should refer to the institution or project; they are the Source, NOT the Contributor.

        • Example
          [Contributor is VP, not Census because VP editors edited the name that had been loaded into VCS]
    • Contributors' names other than VP will be linked to the name and other data in the record at the time when the data is loaded into VCS, and it virtually never needs to be changed.




    Preferred Flag for Contributor (required-default)



    Flag indicating whether the name is the one preferred by the contributor or a non-preferred name from the contributor.



    The values are derived from a controlled list: P - Preferred, N - Non-preferred.




    • Flag one and only one VP-preferred name for each record. Each contributor may have only one preferred name per subject record.

    • The VP-preferred name should be the same name as the overall Preferred Name (descriptor) for the record.

    • The default flag for a new variant name in VCS is Non-preferred for VP (or any other contributor). If you are adding a preferred name for VP, change the flag to Preferred (which swaps the name to the Preferred position, sequence no. 1).

    • For contributed data, the flag is set when the data is loaded. Editors rarely have to change this flag on data loaded from contributors. If you feel you should do so, please consult with your supervisor. Note that there may be one and only one name preferred by each contributor per record.




    Sources for Names (required)



    A reference to the source used as warrant for the name, typically a published source.




    • Brief Citation: A brief reference to the source. See Appendix C: Citations.

    • Full Citation: A full citation for the source, including the author's name, title, and place and date of publication. See Appendix C: Citations.


    Sources for the citations are title pages of the works.

    • Values are controlled by the Sources file in VCS. A source must be added to the Source file in order to be used in (linked to) the Subject (artist) record. For a discussion of how to add sources to the Sources file, see Appendix C: Citations.

    • For a discussion of which sources are considered authoritative as warrant for specific types of artist names, see Names above.

        • Examples


    The source file is linked to Names, the Descriptive Note, and the Subject (refers to "subject as a whole," used for any information in the record other than Name or Descriptive Note).

    • Sources for names include authoritative publications or museum records. Published and unpublished sources in any and all media may be used. Artist dictionaries and art encyclopedia are sources of many names. Other sources include books on the history of art and architecture, journal articles, newspaper articles, inscriptions on art objects, and catalog records of repositories of art objects.



    • It is required to cite the sources used for the Name. In the Page Field, it is required to cite the volume, page number, date of accessing a Web site, or other appropriate indication of the specific location where the name was found in the source.

    • If there are multiple editions or multiple publication dates for a source, link to the specific source that you are using.

    • Link to the source only if the name is transcribed exactly as found in that source, including punctuation and capitalization.

      • In specific rare cases, as when the name in the source contradicts ULAN editorial rules (e.g., in the source, the name is in an index represented in all caps, or the source lists a heading instead of a name per se), the source may be linked even though the name entered in ULAN does not match it exactly See instructions at Names above.

    • For rules for constructing Brief and Full Citations, see Appendix C: Citations. The Brief Citation should be a short reference to the source. The Full Citation is full reference to the published or unpublished work.


    Preferred sources
    Examples of published sources of creator names are the following:

      • Library of Congress Authorities.
      • Grove Art Online.
      • Thieme, Ulrich and Felix Becker, ed. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart.
      • Bénézit, Emmanuel, ed. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs.
      • Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects.

    • Additional general encyclopedias and dictionaries of creators may be used. In addition, standard textbooks for art history, Web sites for art museums, and authoritative databases can serve as sources for names and biographical information about creators. You may also refer to more specialized sources of creator names, including national sources such as the Dizionario enciclopedico Bolaffi dei pittori e degli incisori italiani dall'XI al XX secolo for Italian artists or the Snodgrass American Indian painters for Native American artists. [2]


       »How to choose the preferred source

    Typically, sources for the preferred name in ULAN should be chosen in the following general order of preference:

    • Standard general reference sources
      • LC Name Authority Headings
      • Grove, Thieme-Becker, Bénézit
      • text books
      • general biographical dictionaries

    • Other official sources
      • repository publications, including catalogues and official Web sites
      • general encyclopedia and dictionaries
      • authoritative Web sites other than museum sites (e.g., university sites)

    • Other sources
      • inscriptions on art objects, coins, or other artifacts
      • journal articles, newspaper articles
      • archives, historical documents, and other original sources
      • authority records of contributors' databases

    • For the preferred name and other information, prefer the most current and authoritative sources to determine which name is currently most commonly used.

      • Know your sources. Thieme-Becker and Bénézit tend to include very long, complete names (and the names may be in German or French instead of English), which thus may not be the preferred name in ULAN (the preferred ULAN name should be the short, commonly used name in English sources). Grove and the indices of text books generally indicate a shorter version of the name.


       »Unpublished source

    If there is no published source, you may cite an unpublished source, such as an archival document or correspondence with a scholar.

       »Constructed names

    Occasionally, names are constructed by the Vocabulary Program in order to create names that conform to certain editorial rules (e.g., for creating display names for names that contain "the elder"or "the younger"). The linked source for such names should be the following:

    Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
    Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.


       »Names from a database

    If names are taken out of a contributor's database, special citations are used to refer to the database. Generally, these citations are attached when the records are loaded, thus the editors need not be concerned with them. However, if you are doing a special project, entering names by hand that have been derived from a contributors' data base, consult with your supervisor regarding which citation to use to refer to the database. (Note that the Contributor in this situation will be VP, not the contributing project's acronym. See Contributor above.)

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: BHA, Authority file (2003-)
          Full Citation: J. Paul Getty Trust. Bibliography of the History of Art. Authority file. [unpublished database] Los Angeles, 2003-.


    Citing Sources
    Brief rules for citing sources appear below. For detailed instructions for creating citations, see Appendix C: Sources.

        • Examples
        • Brief Citation: Swank, Pennsylvania Germans (1983)
          Full Citation: Swank, Scott T. Arts of the Pennsylvania Germans. 1st ed. New York: Published for the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum by W. W. Norton and Company, 1983.

        • Brief Citation: Grove Art Online (2003-)
          Full Citation: Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2003-. (1 March 2003)

       »Full Citations

    For the Full Citations, follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 13th edition citation style for the humanities and social sciences. Consult the style sheet in Appendix C.2 for more detailed information.

       »Brief Citations

    A brief citation is a shortened form of the full citation, used for display in the ULAN record (e.g. B$00en$00ezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976); Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986)). It must be unique so as to accurately identify one particular source from all others, including different works having the same title and different editions of the same work. A brief citation generally consists of the author(s)'/editor(s)' last name(s) (if any), a shortened form of the title that includes enough keywords to indicate what the source is about, and the year of publication in parentheses.

       »No author or editor

    If there is no author or editor, record the title as the first element in the Full Citation and Brief Citation.

        • Examples
        • Brief Citation: Anatolian Studies (1951-)
          Full Citation: Anatolian Studies. London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1951-.


       »Citing periodical articles

    The order of citation elements for articles is the following: author, article title, periodical title, volume, issue number (if any), page number range, and date. Volume and number are expressed in Arabic numerals, even if Roman numerals are used on the work. Since the volume, number and pages are given in the full citation in the source file, the Page field generally should be left blank.

    • Punctuation
      Volume and issue number are separated by a forward slash (/). Pages are preceded by a colon (:).
    • Examples
    • Brief Citation: O'Fahey, Tunjur. Sudan Notes (1980)
      Full Citation: O'Fahey, Sean. "The Tunjur: A central Sudanic mystery" Sudan Notes and Records 61:47-52 (Spring 1980).

    • Brief Citation: Lloyd-Jones, Stately homes of Wales. Architectural Planning Research (1993)
      Full Citation: Lloyd-Jones, Emlyn. "Stately homes of Wales: Their architects and landscapists." Journal of Architectural Planning Research 34/3:18-21 (Fall 1993).



       »Multi-volume works

    For citing articles from multi-volume works, such as encyclopedias, the brief citation consists of a condensed version of the title of the complete work, followed by the date of publication of the complete work, and no URL.

    • In VCS, cite the individual essay or article title, volume and page number in the Page field (see below).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Wilkes and Packard, Encyclopedia of Architecture (1989-1990)
          Full Citation: Wilkes, Joseph A. and Robert T. Packard, eds. Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering, and Construction. 5 vols. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989-1990.
          Page: "Apartment buildings, high-rise," 1:219

    • For online encyclopedias, include the URL followed by the date of first access in parentheses at the end of the full citation. Note the article and date of access in the Page Number field (see below).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1997-2002)
          Full Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1997-2002). (4 March 2002).




    Page Number for Name Source (required)

        • Examples



    title page

    276 ff.




    7:89 ff.

    folio 21, verso

    fiche 2


    accessed 24 April 1998

    map 17

    n 79041756

    "Four Ming Masters," accessed 9 July 2012



    A reference to the volume (if applicable) and page number where the name was found in the source. It may also include other information describing the precise place in the source where the name was found (e.g., a URL for an online source).



    A free-text field; values are in Unicode.



    Page Numbers are also discussed under Page Number for Subject Source and Page Number for Descriptive Note Source.





    • Although VCS will allow you to save a record without page numbers, it is required to record them when known.



    For pages, do not state "page" or "p." before the numbers. Use the following formats: e.g., 532, 45-53, 12 ff. List the entire number for both numbers in spans of pages (e.g., 691-693, NOT 691-3).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996)
          Full Citation: Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Ian Chilvers, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
          Page: 150-152


    Index, etc.
    "Page" is assumed unless otherwise stated. Therefore, in printed sources, for any reference to a location other than page, clearly indicate the area of the book, using the syntax in the following examples: title page, index, table of contents, inscription, plate 9, note 132.

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Martinelli, Bonanno Pisano (1966)
          Full Citation: Martinelli, Valentino. Bonanno Pisano. Milan: Fratelli Fabbri, 1966.
          Page: title


    LC Names
    For names taken from the Library of Congress Name Authority Files, include the LC control number in the Page field; in addition or instead, include the LCCN Permalink if possible.

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: LC Name Authority Headings [online] (2002-)
          Full Citation: "Name Authority Headings." Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. (12 August 2003).
          Page: n 79041756;

    • If the LC name contains parentheses, do not include them in the ULAN name field. Instead, make the name excluding parentheses the AACR-flagged name, and include the full name with parentheses in the page field. If the second name (implied by the parentheses) is not already in ULAN, add this as a variant; do not flag the second name as the "AACR" name. In the example below, LC lists the name in the authorized heading as: Hidley, Joseph H. (Joseph Henry).

        • Example
        • Name: Hidley, Joseph H.
        • Brief Citation: LC Name Authority Headings [online] (2002-)
          Full Citation: "Name Authority Headings." Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. (12 August 2003).
          Page: NAFL9222610, as "Hidley, Joseph H. (Joseph Henry)," accessed 18 September 2006

          [second name, interpreted from parenthetical part of the name]
        • Name: Hidley, Joseph Henry
    • If there is no LC control number, this means it is an old entry for which a full-fledged authority record has not been made; for the Page field, write "from old catalog."

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: LC Name Authority Headings [online] (2002-)
          Full Citation: "Name Authority Headings." Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. (12 August 2003).
          Page: from old catalog, accessed 8 June 2004

    • If there is no record for the artist in the Authority File, but you have found a name in the Library of Congress Subject Headings, include the verbatim heading and the accessed date in the Page field.

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Library of Congress Subject Headings (2002-)
          Full Citation: Library of Congress Authorities. Subject Headings (LCSH) [online]. 2002-. (13 March 2003).
          Page: "Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475-1564," accessed 8 June 2004

    • For the preferred NAFL name, or if there is no NAF record, for the authoritative heading, flag it with the AACR2 flag set to Yes (see AACR2 Flag below).


    Multiple pagination schemes
    If a source uses multiple schemes of pagination within the same volume, use the numbering convention of the source, even if this means using Roman numerals or other idiosyncratic pagination systems.



    In the rare case when the source has folio numbers instead of pages, include recto or verso (e.g., folio 2, verso).



    If a work is published in volumes, include the volume number and page number. Use Arabic numerals, even if the cited volume actually bears Roman numerals. Note that volumes are listed using the following format: volume number, colon (no space), page numbers (e.g., for volume 2, page 311, it would be 2:311).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: B$00en$00ezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976)
          Full Citation: B$00en$00ezit, Emmanuel, ed. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs. Originally published 1911-1923. Paris: Librairie Gr$04und, 1976.
          Page: 2:311


    For newspaper and journal articles, the page number should appear in the citation and need not be repeated in the Page field (e.g., in the example below, the Full Citation includes page number "A3," so the Page Number field is empty).

        • Example
        • Brief Citation: Smith, Nicholas Krushenick, New York Times (1999)
          Full Citation: Smith, Roberta. "Nicholas Krushenick, 70, Abstract and Pop Artist." New York Times (7 February 1999), A31.


    Online sources
    Record the date when you consulted the Web site in the Page Number field (e.g., accessed 30 March 2001, illustrated below). For newspapers on the web, cite the date of publication in the Full Citation ("10 August 2004" in the example below), not the Page Number field. In the Full Citation, include the designation [online], [online database], [online edition], or a similar phrase if the word online does not appear in the title of the document. You generally do not need to include [online] in the Brief Citation, unless necessary to distinguish between two otherwise identical citations.

        • Examples
        • Brief Citation: Henri Cartier-Bresson, New York Times (2004)
          Full Citation: "Henri Cartier-Bresson Is Dead at 95." New York Times [online] (4 August 2004). (10 August 2004).
          Page: accessed 2 May 2002

        • Brief Citation: London Landscape Guide (2004-)
          Full Citation: Turner, Tom, ed. London Landscape Guide [online]. School of Architecture and Landscape, University of Greenwich. (14 June 2004).
          Page: accessed 30 March 2001


    Encyclopedia and dictionaries
    If the name was the entry form name in the encyclopedia or dictionary do the following: for hard-copy books cite the volume (if applicable) and page number; for online sources, note the access date.

        • Examples
          [for a hard copy source, volume and page number]
        • Brief Citation: New Encyclopedia Britannica (1988)
          Full Citation: New Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1988 printing. 29 vols. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1988.
          Page: 5:303

          [for an online source]
        • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
          Full Citation: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2002-. (1 July 2002).
          Page: accessed 2 May 2004

    • If the name you are sourcing is not the entry-form name in the source, in order to unambiguously refer to the entry, do the following:

      • For hard-copy books, include the entry form name, heading, or title of the entry or article, volume number (if applicable), and page number.

      • For online sources, include the entry form name, heading, or title of the entry or article, and access date.

        • Examples
          [for a hard copy source]
        • Brief Citation: Oxford Companion to Art (1996)
          Full Citation: Oxford Companion to Art. Harold Osborne, ed. Melbourne; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
          Page: "Eiffel, Gustave," 367

          [for an online source]
        • Brief Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002)
          Full Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art (online edition). Jane Turner, ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1999-2002. (3 December 1999).
          Page: "Laurens, Jean-Paul," accessed 5 August 2002


    When the page number field may be left empty
    The Page Number field may be left empty when an article and page are fully cited in the full citation, when the entry-form name in a hard-copy encyclopedia or dictionary entry is the same as the preferred name in a ULAN record, and for references to contributors' databases (unless an access date is applicable) or to the Vocabulary Program's "Term warranted…" reference (below):

        • Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
          Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.




    Preferred Flag for Source (required-default)



    Flag indicating whether or not this name is the preferred form of the name for this person or corporate body in the source.



    Controlled by a pick list: P - Preferred, N - Non-preferred, A - Alternate Preferred, U - Unknown




    • The non-preferred setting is the default for new names created in VCS. Change this flag if necessary, as described below.

    • Preferred: If the name is preferred by the source, mark the name Preferred for that source. There may be only one name preferred by the source per record. A name is preferred by the source when one of the following is true: it is the primary entry in an index, title, or table of contents; it is an entry-form name or title name for an entry or article in a dictionary or encyclopedia; it is the name predominantly used in a text; it is the primary form indicated in an index.

    • Non-Preferred: Flag the name as a non-preferred Name if it is a variant or alternate form of the name for the person or corporate body in that source. Sources may indicate this in various ways, including placing the variant name in parentheses after the preferred name, using a phrase such as "also called" or "also spelled" or the like, or noted with a "see" reference back to the preferred name.

    • Alternate Preferred: Flag the name as an Alternate Preferred name if it is apparently preferred equally by the source, for example, if a source is bilingual and both French and English name forms are treated with equal preference.

    • Unknown: Editors typically should not use this flag, because they should be able to make a judgment regarding the name preferred in the source at hand. This flag is primarily used for data loaded from contributors' systems in which the preference was not captured. Much of the legacy data from the old ULAN system was loaded with Source preference as "Unknown" because this information was not consistently tracked in the old system.




    Dates for Names




    • Dates delimiting the time period when the name was or is still used.



    • 1. Display Date: A free-text field to express nuances of the date or other information to the user; it is indexed by the two indexing fields representing the Start and End Dates implied in the free-text date.
    • 2. Start Date: The exact or estimated earliest year implied in the Display Date.
    • 3. End Date: The exact of estimated latest year implied in the Display Date.

        • Example
          [from the VCS Subject Edit window]


    Display Date is a free-text field; values are in Unicode.

    • Start Date and End Date must contain valid years, as controlled by VCS.


    The dates should be determined using the same standard reference works that supply other information about the name.



    There may be a Display Date associated with the name. Although it usually refers to a period or date, the Display Date field may contain notes that do not reference dates per se.

    • Display Dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date, which are integers representing years of an estimated broadest span implied by the display date. Dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.



    • Enter dates for people or corporate body' names only when the date is significant. If it is simply the name that an artist had for his or her entire life, do not include the date. Examples of significant dates for names include the following:

      • For nicknames or pseudonyms, include dates for the appellation by which an artist was known during a portion of his or her life.

      • For married names, include dates for the period of the marriage. Dates may also be included for any other legal name changes made by the artist.

      • For corporate bodies that have changed their names over time, include dates during which a particular name was used.

    • In the free-text Display Date field, record a phrase referring to a year, a span of years, or period that describes the specific or approximate date in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Index this free-text date with Start and End Dates delimiting the appropriate span. If the name is still in use to refer to this artist, the end date should be "9999" (not the death date of the artist). The Display Date may contain a note that does not refer to a date per se, but it must still be indexed with Start and End Dates.

    • Dates are not required. However, if you enter data in any of the three date fields, you must enter data in ALL three of the fields.

    • A short set of rules appears below. For further discussion of Dates, see Appendix B.


    Display Date

       »State only what is known

    Where ambiguity exists, use natural word order to clearly state what is known (only what is known; do not surmise). Follow the style of existing Display Dates.

        • Examples
          [for the name "Palmer, Sir James"]
        • Display Date: knighted in 1629
          Start Date: 1629 End Date: 1658

          [for the name "Almanack," in the record for Wouter Crabeth II]
        • Display Date: Crabeth's 'bent-name' given by the Schildersbent
          Start Date: 1623 End Date: 1644

          [for the name "Benozzo di Lese"]
        • Display Date: name used in some documents during his lifetime
          Start Date: 1430 End Date: 1497

          [for the name "Le Corbusier," the name by which he is commonly known]
        • Display Date: pseudonym adopted in 1920
          Start Date: 1920 End Date: 9999

        • [for the name "Raverat, Gwendolen," which is a married name and also the name by which she is today most commonly known]
        • Display Date: married name
          Start Date: 1903 End Date: 9999



    Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation. If the Display Date could be ambiguous because it contains more than one phrase, separate phrases with a semi-colon for clarity. If you refer to a name, enclose it in quotation marks (if you are using a name to refer to a person, do not use quotation marks).

        • Example
          [for the name "Rembrandt van Rijn"]
        • Display Date: "Rijn" refers to a geographic place, the site of the mill owned by his father in Leyden
          Start Date: 1606 End Date: 9999

          [for the name "Rembrandt"]
        • Display Date: from 1632 onwards he signed his works with only the forename "Rembrandt"; in documents, however, he continued to sign "Rembrandt van Rijn"
          Start Date: 1632 End Date: 9999

          [for the name "Bisschop, Suze"]
        • Display Date: married name; in 1892 she married Richard Bisschop
          Start Date: 1892 End Date: 1922


       »Capitalization and abbreviation

    Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names. Avoid abbreviations, except with the word circa (ca.), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE.

       »Calendar in Display Date

    Display Dates should generally be listed by reference to years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction. If indicated in a source, dates may be expressed according to systems other than the proleptic Gregorian calendar (e.g., Julian, Napoleonic, Islamic, or other calendars). This should be clearly designated, also noting the year in the proleptic Gregorian calendar to avoid end-user confusion (e.g., 946 anno Hegirae (1540 CE)). All dates should be indexed in the Start and End Dates using the proleptic Gregorian calendar for consistency in retrieval.

       »Span of years

    If a precisely delimited span of dates is applicable, list the beginning year of the span first, followed by the end of the span, with the years separated by a hyphen. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., 1924-1946, not 1924-46).

        • Example
          [for the name "Stieglitz, Mrs. Alfred"]
        • Display Date: used 1924-1946
          Start Date: 1924 End Date: 1946

    • Caveat: Do not state specific dates in the Display Date if there is broadly defined information, ambiguity, or uncertainty. For example, instead of 1500-1599, use 16th century if that is what is meant.



       »BCE in Display Dates

    Dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar should be indicated as Before Common Era, which should be abbreviated BCE. For dates after the year 1, it is generally not necessary to include the designation CE (Current Era) except where confusion may occur. For example, for very early years CE, especially if a span of dates begins BCE and ends CE, include both BCE and CE in the free-text date (e.g., 75 BCE-10 CE). Avoid using BC (Before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini). Dates BCE should be indexed with negative numbers in Start and End Dates (see below).

       »Uncertain dates

    If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient) or words such as documented, ca., and probably. Note that the first year when a name was documented is not necessarily the year when the name was first used; therefore, you must create a sufficiently early Start Date.

        • Example
          [for the name "Jan van Leyen"]
        • Display Date: meaning "Jan from Leyden," documented in 1503 and probably referring to Jan de Cock
          Start Date: 1490 End Date: 1527

          [for the name "Moncada, Sofonisba de"]
        • Display Date: married name; she married the nobleman Fabrizio de Moncada ca. 1571
          Start Date: 1570 End Date: 1584


       »Acceptable scope of information in the Display Date

    Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date. However, the Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the name; occasionally, it may not even refer to a date per se. However, given that Start and End dates are required for Display Dates, you should have a period or date in mind when you write the Display Date.

        • Example
          [for the name "Pilgrim, Johann Ulrich"]
        • Display Date: name used in England
          Start Date: 1500 End Date: 1526

          [for the name "Nukaya Shichibei"]
        • Display Date: family name used when an innkeeper, from the mid-1760s
          Start Date: 1763 End Date: 9999


       »Dates refer to the name, not to the person or corporate body

    Caveat: Note the dates refer to the name itself, not the date of the person or corporate body (life dates would be recorded in Birth and Death Dates). If a name is still used to refer to the person (even when the person is no longer living), the end date is 9999. For names that do not apply to the entire life of the person or corporate body, or, with anonymous artists for names that were invented later, the Start Date for the name may not be the birth date of the artist or corporate body.



    Start Date and End Date

       »Delimiting the span

    Record years that delimit the span of time when the name was in use, as referenced in the Display Date. It is better to delimit the span too broadly than too narrowly.

    • Start Date must represent some year earlier than or equal to End Date.

       »Do not use punctuation

    Express years without commas or other punctuation. An exception is the hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers (dates BCE).

       »Gregorian calendar

    Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

       »Month and day

    If a specific month and day are referenced in the Display Date, index with the year. For the display date, the preferred syntax is day, month, year with no punctuation. The alternative syntax - month, day, comma, year - is found in many legacy records. Do not bother editing records that already contain this syntax, except in order to make the record consistent when you are editing the record.

        • Example
        • Display Date: married name, from 18 April 1949 until 29 April 1954
          Start Date: 1949 End Date: 1954

       »Dates BCE

    Express dates BCE with negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

        • Example
          [for the name "Euemporos"]
        • Display Date: possibly his Greek name
          Start Date: -450 End Date: 9999


       »Estimating Start and End Dates

    Record the dates for usage of the name, not necessarily dates for the life span of the artist. For a name currently in use, use the End Date 9999. The preferred name should always have End Date 9999. For a name used during the artists' lifetime but not commonly used now to refer to him or her, record the death date for End Date. When in doubt if the name is currently in use, record the End Date 9999.

    • For the Start Date, you may record the birth date of the artist, if appropriate.

        • Example
          [for the name "Phocas, Suzanne," which is a pseudonym, thus indexed with a Start Date later than her birth date]
        • Display Date: pseudonym
          Start Date: 1915 End Date: 9999

      • If a display date is qualified by ca., probably, etc., estimate Start and End Dates accordingly. For example, if ca. applies to the Start Date, subtract five years or so from the display date.

        • Example
          [for the name "Tatoti, Antonio"]
        • Display Date: changed his surname after his arrival in Rome ca. 1656
          Start Date: 1650 End Date: 9999

    • Use biographical information, the dates of art works, and other information to estimate dates.

        • Example
          [for the name "Labille, Ad$00ela$04ide"]
        • Display Date: maiden name, used until her first marriage in 1769
          Start Date: 1749 End Date: 1769




    Display Name Flag (required-default)



    Flag designating whether or not the name is to be used in natural order displays or in an alphabetical list.



    Controlled by a pick list: I - Index, NA - Not Applicable, Y - Yes




    • Not Applicable: Use this default value for most names, if the name is not the Display or Index name.
    • Yes: If the name is the display name, that is the natural order form of the preferred name, to be used in wall labels and other displays, use the Yes flag. There may be only one name marked Yes per record. See also Constructed Names: Display Name above.

    • Index: If the name is the inverted form that should appear in alphabetical lists and indexes, flag it as Index.

        • Example





    LC Flag (AACR Flag)



    Flag indicating if the name is the authorized heading in the Library of Congress Subject Headings.



    Controlled by a pick list: Y - Yes, NA - Not Applicable



    Library of Congress Authorities. (do a search in both the Name Authority Headings and the Subject Authority Headings).



    When the AACR2 flag is used, it means that the name is the authorized form found in an LC heading. The Name in ULAN is NOT the same thing as a heading in LC sources; the "heading" often contains information other than the name.

    • When you search the LC Subject Headings or Name Headings, you will typically retrieve many results. You must figure out which heading is appropriate. In the example below, the authorized heading for Michelangelo Buonarroti is listed as no. 14. Other names in that list are variant names ("references") for this artist or names for another person with a similar name. The life dates and other information will help you decide which is the name you need.

        • Example



    • If you are creating a new ULAN record from scratch, it is required to look up the name in LC Authorities. However, if you are editing contributed records, searching the LC Authorities is not required (although it is recommended). When editing existing records, look the name up in LC Authorities as time and editorial priorities allow.

    • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if the name is the authorized LC heading.

    • Yes: Flag the name as the AACR2 form if the heading in which you found it is noted as an "authorized heading" on the LC Authorities Web site (note that the AACR2 flag is a misnomer; it really indicates the authorized heading, not simply a name formulated using AACR). There should be one and only one name with the AACR2 flag in each record.

    • The name from the LC Authorized Heading is generally - but not always - the preferred name in ULAN; the preferred name in ULAN is the most commonly used name in scholarly sources in American English.

        • Example
    • In the Page field, put the LC Control Number for the heading and the date of access (e.g., n 85061125; accessed 1 December 2004). Be sure that you are citing the heading for the person or corporate body itself, not a heading for some other topic that contains the name.

        • Example
    • If you find other variant names in the full LC Authority Record ("references," or in the 451 field), and those names are not already in ULAN, add them to ULAN, citing the source as Library of Congress Name Authority Headings or Library of Congress Subject Headings, but do not flag the variant LC name with the LC flag.




    Other Flags



    Flags designating an official name for the person or corporate body.



    Controlled by an extensible list: Not Applicable, Official name, Pseudonym, Birth name, Abbreviation, Common name, Full name, Signature, Misspelling, Standard name, Married name, Art name, Regnal name, Religious name, Adult name, Posthumous name, Chosen name, Changed name, Alternate name, Appellation, Deprecaated name, Avoid use, Pejorative name



    The official name is generally a full form of the name, including titles, if any. For the official names of people, use standard, general encyclopedias. For the official names of corporate bodies, use the Web site or other official publication of the corporate body, if possible.




    If warranted, use an Other Flag based on the following criteria.

    Values in this field are not repeatable, even though the values are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, indexers must use a decision tree. In brief, if multiple values could apply, choose the value that is most important. If a name is determined to be Avoid use or Pejorative name, either of these flags is more important than other possible flags. In another examaple, if Official name applies, this flag could supersede others such as Signature in importance. (We hope that in a future data model, the flag will be repeatable.)

    • Official name: For the name by which the person prefers to be known, or which is used in official contexts (e.g., James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn).

    • Pseudonym: For any name or appellation that is not their real name but is used by others or by the person in reference to themself, including pseudonyms, bynames, nicknames, sobriquets, or street names (e.g., Masaccio is a pseudonym for Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone). You may use the Display Date Note to indicate the type of pseudonym (e.g., for the Dutch painter Pieter van Laer's pseudonym Il Bamboccio, the Note could explain "sobriquet 'bent name' (of the Bentvueghels group)." Note that both individuals and corporate bodies may have pseudonyms. For special names assumed by an artist, particularly East Asian artists, see Art name.

    • Birth name: For the name under which the person was registered at birth; intended to distinguish such a name from married names, names with titles, and other names that may have been accumulated during life. To clarify the meaning, you may use the Display Date Note, for example, if the documentation is a baptismal certificate rather than birth document, you could enter "Baptismal name" in the Note.

    • Abbreviation: For a significantly shortened form of a full name, including initials and abbreviated names (e.g., SOM is the abbreviation for the firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill).

    • Common name: For the less formal name by which the person or corporate body is known, flagged to distinguish it from long, official, formal or full names (e.g., Karsen, Ed is the Common name for Karsen, Eduard, which is the preferred name for this artist).

    • Full name: For the long form of the name including middle names and titles of honor, flagged to distinguish it from common names or abbreviations e.g., Agate, Alfred Thomas is the Full name for the artist having a preferred name Agate, Alfred T.). If a full name is also the official name, flag it as Official name, particularly for distinction where there are multiple full versions of a name.

    • Signature: For a name as used in one or more signatures by the person. This field contains a transcription of the signature; a link to an image of the signature may be included in the Media field.

    • Misspelling: For a name found in published sources or archival documents, where the name is clearly misspelled in the document (e.g., Georgia O'Keefe with one "f" is a common misspelling). Note that historically names were spelled variously and phonetically, thus such names are not considered misspellings. Also, transliterations of names may occur in various forms, including phonetically, and thus are not misspellings.

    • Standard name: For the form of the name considered correct by scholars or authoritative sources, even if it is not the most often-used form of the name; for example, Moteuczoma II is the Standard name for Montezuma II, Emperor of Mexico.

    • Married name: For a personal name that includes the last name, title, or other names acquired by the person through marriage, usually a woman in Western tradition (e.g., Stieglitz, Mrs. Alfred).

    • Art name: For a name or appellation used by visual artists, poets and writers to identify themselves as responsible for the works, typically used for East Asian names (e.g., Sōri is an art name used by Katsushika Hokusai). To indicate a specific type of Art name, use the Display Date Note (e.g., you could enter "gō name used in early career, named taken from his Rinpa-school master").

    • Regnal name: For a name adopted by monarchs, popes, or other rulers during their reigns and by which they are subsequently referenced in history (e.g., Pope Leo X is the Regnal name of Giovanni di Lorenzo de'Medici).

    • Religious name: For a personal name acquired when the person assumed religious orders or otherwise was assigned to the person for religious reasons (e.g., Sister Mary Corita is the Religious name for Frances Elizabeth Kent).

    • Adult name: For a name assigned or taken in various cultures at puberty or adulthood, for example, recorded at a coming of age ceremony and intended to distinguish from the Birth name.

    • Posthumous name: For a name or appellation used to reference people who have died, for example honorary names given to a person after death in East Asia (e.g., Duke Xi of Lu is the Posthumous name of Ji Shen).

    • Chosen name: For a name that a person has chosen, as distinguished from a name given to them at birth (e.g., Elbe, Lili is the Chosen name of the transgender artist formerly known as Wegener, Einar).

    • Changed name: For personal names changed or added during a lifetime, whether legally established or as is common in naming traditions of various cultures (e.g., Jumping Badger had a changed name of Sitting Bull); also used for names of corporate bodies that are added or changed, but that do not warrant creating a separate record under the separate name.

    • Alternate name: General desingation for Non-Preferred names that are particularly significant "also known as" (Used For names), but not already accounted for in Other Flags. You may note the specific circumstance or description of surrounding the Alternate name in the Display Date note. For example, for the artist Fra Angelico, Alternate name Giovanni da Fiesole could be noted as "topnymic," and Alternate name Guido di Piero da Mugello could be noted as "patronymic."

    • Appellation: For words or phrases used in place of a formal or official name (e.g., unknown Delhi Sultanate). See also "Pseudonym."

    • Deprecated name: Use for a name that was formerly a Preferred name, but that is now no longer preferred. Commonly applied to recently changed spellings or recent changes in preference; do not apply to historical names.

    • Avoid use: Choose this designation for a name that should not be used in indexing, but that may be used for retrieval in research and discovery because the name is found in certain historical or otherwise obsolete materials. If a name is flagged Pejorative term, this would also mean the name should not be used for indexing. Some Avoid use names are also Pejorative terms, however all Pejorative terms are Avoid use.

    • Pejorative name: For names that are included for access, research, and discovery, but that are considered pejorative, derogatory, or offensive and thus should always be avoided in new indexing. That is, neither Pejorative term or Avoid use names should be used for indexing, but only for retrieval.

        • Example




    Assigned To



    Indication of the person assigned to research this name. (Currently not used.)



    Free text.



    Editor logins.




    • Do not use this field unless otherwise instructed by your supervisor.

    • See also Assigned To flag for the entire subject record: Chapter 3-8.



    [1]"Required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set, but should be changed by the editor as necessary. Some required-default values are system-generated and may not be edited.


    [2]Dizionario enciclopedico Bolaffi dei pittori e degli incisori italiani dall'XI al XX secolo. Turin: Giulio Bolaffi, 1972-1976. Snodgrass, Jeanne O. American Indian Painters; a Biographical Directory. New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1968.


    Last updated 4 April 2022
    Document is subject to frequent revision


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