Integrating Archaeology and Conservation

Of the Past, for the Future: Integrating Archaeology and Conservation

Neville Agnew and Janet Bridgland, Editors


376 pages

PDF file size: 54.2 MB


Conservation is a core value for most archaeological societies. It is highlighted in their codes of ethics, statements of mission, and governance. In recognition of this, the World Archaeological Congress, with the Getty Conservation Institute and a consortium of other conservation organizations, brought together scholars working throughout the globe to discuss vital issues that affect archaeological heritage today.

This volume presents the proceedings of the Conservation Theme at the Congress, held in Washington, D.C., June 22–26, 2003. Among the topics discussed are: Innovative Approaches to Policy and Management of Archaeological Sites; Finding Common Ground: The Role of Stakeholders in Decision Making; Archaeology and Tourism: A Viable Partnership?; Preserving the Cultural Heritage of Iraq and Afghanistan; Archaeology and Conservation in China Today; and Managing Archaeological Sites and Rock Art Sites in Southern Africa.

These proceedings should do much to promote and strengthen the relationship between the disciplines of conservation and archaeology.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
    Timothy P. Whalen
  • Introduction
    Neville Agnew
  • PART ONE: Plenary Presentations
    • Looking Forward, Not Backward: Archaeology and the Future of the Past
      Brian Fagan
    • The Monumental and the Trace: Archaeological Conservation and the Materiality of the Past
      Rosemary A. Joyce
  • PART TWO: Innovative Approaches to Policy and Management of Archaeological Sites
    • Introduction
      Douglas C. Comer
    • Ideology, Economics, and Site Management
      Douglas C. Comer
    • NGO and Government Collaboration in Archaeological Site Management: The Case of Petra, Jordan
      Aysar Akrawi
    • Privatization of State-owned Cultural Heritage: A Critique of Recent Trends in Europe
      Gaetano Palumbo
    • Regional Site Management Planning and Training: The SPAFA Example in Southeast Asia
      Pisit Charoenwongsa
    • Interpretation as Preservation: Rationale, Tools, and Challenges
      Neil Silberman and Dirk Callebaut
    • Preservation of Heritage Sites in the Caribbean: The Experience of the Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park of St. Kitts and Nevis
      Larry Armony
  • PART THREE: Conserving Archaeological Sites: New Approaches and Techniques
    • Introduction
      Neville Agnew
    • Making Archaeological Sites: Conservation as Interpretation of an Excavated Past
      Frank Matero
    • Decision Making for Conservation of Archaeological Sites: The Example of the Laetoli Hominid Trackway, Tanzania
      Martha Demas and Neville Agnew
    • Conservation qua Archaeology at Tell Mozan/Urkesh
      Giorgio Buccellati
  • PART FOUR: Finding Common Ground: The Role of Stakeholders in Decision Making
    • Introduction
      Brian Egloff
    • Conservation, Researchers, and Aboriginal Heritage: A Perspective from Coastal Southeastern Australia
      Brian Egloff
    • "It Will Always Be Set in Your Heart": Archaeology and Community Values at the Fonner Dennawan Reserve, Northwestern New South Wales, Australia
      Rodney Harrison
    • Community-based Archaeological Resource Management in Southeast Asia
      Pisit Charoenwongsa
    • Adaptive Management and the Community at El Pilar: A Philosophy of Resilience for the Maya Forest
      Anabel Ford
    • Social Landscapes and Archaeological Heritage in Latin America
      Nelly Robles García
    • Reflections on Archaeological Heritage and Indigenous Peoples in Chile
      Ángel Cabeza
    • Whose Archaeology? Social Considerations in Archaeological Research Design
      Richard Mackay
    • Changing Stakeholders and Community Attitudes in the Côa Valley World Heritage Site, Portugal
      António Pedro Batarda Fernandes and Fernando Maia Pinto
  • PART FIVE: Issues at World Heritage Sites
    • Introduction
      Sharon Sullivan
    • Sustainable Tourism at Archaeological World Heritage Sites
      Eugenio Yunis
    • Presentation and Interpretation of Archaeological Sites: The Case of Tell Mozan, Ancient Urkesh
      Giorgio Buccellati
    • Are We Ready to Learn? Lessons from the South Asian Region
      Gamini Wijesuriya
    • Monitoring of Landscape Change at World Heritage Sites: Prologue to Proactive Management
      Douglas C. Comer
  • PART SIX: Archaeology and Tourism: A Viable Partnership?
    • Introduction
      Eugenio Yunis
    • The New Museum of Altamira: Finding Solutions to Tourism Pressure
      José Antonio Lasheras Corruchaga and Pilar Fatás Monforte
    • Archaeology and Sustainable Tourism in Egypt: Protecting Community, Antiquities, and Environment
      Willeke Wendrich
    • Maya Cities and Tourism
      Wolfgang Wurster
    • Tourism and Cultural Risk ,Management
      Scott Cunliffe
  • PART SEVEN: Challenges in Conserving Archaeological Collections
    • Introduction
      Jerry Podany
    • Archaeological Collections: Valuing and Managing an Emerging Frontier
      S. Terry Childs
    • Archaeological Archives in Britain and the Development of the London
    • Archaeological Archive and Research Centre
      Hedley Swain
    • Working with Native Communities and the Collections of the National Museum of the American Indian: Theory and Practice
      Jessica S. Johnson, Bruce Bernstein, and James Pepper Henry
    • Challenges in Conserving Archaeological Collections
      Kristin Huld Sigurôardóttir
    • Archaeological Conservation in Turkey
      Hande K&oumlaut;kten
  • PART EIGHT: Preserving the Cultural Heritage of Iraq and Afghanistan
    • Introduction
      Claire L. Lyons
    • The Law as a Tool for Cultural Heritage Preservation: The Case of Iraq and Afghanistan
      Patty Gerstenblith
    • Babylon: A Case Study in the Military Occupation of an Archaeological Site
      Zainab Bahrani
    • The National Museum and Archaeology in Afghanistan: Accomplishments and Current Needs
      Abdul Wassey Feroozi and Omara Khan Masoodi
    • Preserving the Cultural and National Heritage of Afghanistan
      Philip L. Kohl and Rita Wright
    • UNESCO’s Mandate and Activities for the Rehabilitation of Afghanistan’s Cultural Heritage
      Christian Manhart
    • Recovery from Cultural Disaster: Strategies, Funding, and Modalities of Action of
    • International Cooperation in Afghanistan
      Jim Williams and Louise Haxthausen
    • Preserving Afghanistan’s Cultural Heritage: What Is to Be Done?
      Osmund Bopearachchi
  • PART NINE: Archaeology and Conservation in China Today: Meeting the Challenges of Rapid Development
    • Introduction
      Neville Agnew
    • China’s Legal Framework for the Protection of Its Material Cultural Heritage
      Yang Zhijun
    • Archaeology, Cultural Heritage Protection, and Capital Construction in China
      Guan Qiang
    • Planning for Conservation of China’s Prehistoric Sites: The Liangzhu Site Case Study
      Chen Tongbin
    • Conservation during Excavation: The Current Situation in China
      Wu Xiaohong
    • Heritage Protection in the Liyie Basin, Hunan Province, the People’s Republic of China
      Yuan Jiarong
    • The Conservation and Presentation of Large-Scale Archaeological Sites in Liaoning, China
      Wang Jingchen
  • PART TEN: Sharing Resources and Experience: Managing Archaeological and Rock Art Sites in Southern Africa
    • Introduction
      Janette Deacon
    • Sharing Resources: Issues in Regional Archaeological Conservation Strategies in Southern Africa
      Janette Deacon
    • Intangible Heritage Management: Does World Heritage Listing Help?
      Phenyo Churchill Thebe
    • Rock Art Tourism in Southern Africa: Problems, Possibilities, and Poverty Relief
      Benjamin Smith
    • Rock Art Management in Eastern and Southern Africa: Whose Responsibility?
      George H. O. Abungo
    • Building the Capacity to Protect Rock Art Heritage in Rural Communities
      Webber Ndoro
    • Conservation of Non-Western Rock Art Sites Using a Holistic Medical Approach
      Johannes Loubser
    • Why "Conserve"? Situating Southern African Rock Art in the Here and Now
      Sven Ouzman
  • The Authors

About the Authors

George H. O. Abungu is a Cambridge University-trained archaeologist specializing in urban archaeology and human environment interaction in Africa. He was formerly director general of the National Museums of Kenya. Currently he is chair of the Kenya Cultural Centre, which among other things manages the Kenya National Theatre, and chief executive officer of Okello Abungu Heritage Consultants. During 2004-5, he was a visiting scholar at the Getty Conservation Institute. Abungu is widely published on subjects ranging from archaeology to heritage management and museology.

Neville Agnew is principal project specialist at the Getty Conservation Institute. Prior to joining the Getty Conservation Institute in 1988, he headed the conservation section at the Queensland Museum, Australia. Previously his career had been in academic and research chemistry. Agnew has led or participated in many of the international conservation projects of the GCI. He is a former board member and chair of the U.S. National Park Service’s National Center for Preservation Technology and Training. In 2000 he received the Friendship Award from the People’s Republic of China in acknowledgment of his contribution to heritage conservation.

Aysar Akrawi is executive director of the Petra National Trust in Amman, Jordan, responsible for the preparation and execution of the organization’s many projects and publications. She coordinates with the Jordanian government, nongovernmental organizations, and international donor agencies. In addition, Akrawi serves on the boards of the Petra Archaeological Park, the Petra National Foundation, and the National Committee of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

Larry Armony is general manager of the Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park Society, which is a registered nonprofit membership organization entrusted by legislation to manage the Brimstone Hill Fortress, a World Heritage Site. He was born in St. Kitts (St. Christopher and Nevis) and educated there and at the University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica. Armony has written several articles on cultural, heritage, and historical matters in local magazines and presented numerous lectures on such topics at home and abroad. He is a member and past president of the St. Christopher Heritage Society, a member of ICOM, and the immediate past president of the Museums Association of the Caribbean.

Zainab Bahrani is Edith Porada Associate Professor of Ancient Near Eastern Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University. She is a specialist in the art and architecture of Mesopotamia and has written extensively on the cultural heritage of Iraq. Among her publications are Women of Babylon: Gender and Representation (Routledge, 2001) and The Graven Image: Representation in Babylonia and Assyria (Pennsylvania, 2003).

Bruce Bernstein is assistant director for cultural resources of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., where he oversees all aspects of the museum’s collections and research programs. He was previously chief curator and director at the Indian Arts and Culture/Laboratory of Anthropology in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Bernstein has published broadly and curated numerous exhibitions on American Indian art and the history of museums.

Osmund Bopearachchi is director of research of the French National Centre for Scientific Research in Paris and professor in charge of Central Asian and Indian archaeology and numismatics of the Paris IV Sorbonne University. He is a world authority on central Asian, Indian, and Sri Lankan archaeology and history. He has published seven books, two translations, and more than one hundred research articles in international journals and has edited four volumes.

Giorgio Buccellati is professor emeritus in the Department of History and the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He founded the Institute of Archaeology at UCLA, of which he served as first director and where he is now director of the Mesopotamian Lab. He is currently director of the International Institute for Mesopotamian Area Studies. In addition to archaeology, his research interests include the ancient languages, literature, religion, and history of Mesopotamia. With his wife, Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati, he has worked for many years in the Near East, especially in Syria, Iraq, and Turkey. They are at present codirectors of the archaeological expedition to Tell Mozan/Urkesh in northeastern Syria.

Ángel Emilio Cabeza Monteira is executive secretary of the Chilean National Monuments Council. He is a member of various Chilean scientific and professional institutions, including ICOMOS-Chile. Cabeza has participated in the nomination of World Heritage Sites for Chile and has been adviser to the Getty Conservation Institute in heritage management and preservation projects in many countries. He is the author of a wide range of articles on archaeology, anthropology, environmental education, and preservation.

Dirk Callebaut is acting director of the Institute for the Archaeological Heritage of the Flemish Community of Belgium and executive director of the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation. Since initiating the Ename 974 Project in 1982, he has been involved in the implementation and management of cultural interpretation projects using new technologies. He serves on several international committees dealing with public interpretation and public archaeology policy.

Pisit Charoenwongsa is director of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization’s Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts (SEAMEO-SPAFA), an intergovernmental organization comprising ten member countries devoted to the promotion and development of archaeological and cultural programming in Southeast Asia through collaborative research, training, and publication. Charoenwongsa is president of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association and of the Archaeological Society of Thailand, adviser to the Society for Conservation of National Treasures and Environment, and a member of the ICOMOS Executive Council. He is also a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites.

Chen Tongbin is director of the Institute of Architectural History in the China Architecture Design and Research Academy. She is involved in, among other things, the development of master plans for large sites, including the Palace Museum in Beijing and the Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang. Among Chen Tongbin’s major publications are conservation planning for the new Niuheliang site in Liaoning province, the Dadiwan site in Gansu province, and conservation planning for heritage sites in Turfan, Xinjiang, as well as illustrations of Chinese ancient interior design and Chinese ancient architecture. Recently, her work has also concerned the regulations for conservation planning at Chinese heritage sites.

S. Terry Childs is an archaeologist in the Archeology and Ethnography Program of the U.S. National Park Service. She has used the Internet to draw attention to archaeological collections and related management issues by developing the self-motivated Web course ” She is coauthor, with Lynne P. Sullivan, of Curating Archaeological Collections: From the Field to the Repository, and editor of the volume, Our Collective Responsibility: The Ethics and Practice of Archaeological Collections Stewardship. Childs is chair of the Society for American Archaeology’s Committee on Curation. Her primary research interests are the Iron Age of sub-Saharan Africa and the anthropology of technology.

Douglas C. Comer is principal of Cultural Site Research and Analysis, Inc., which provides international archaeological research services and consultation in CRM, with a specialization in cultural site management. Comer has extensive experience in archaeological research, managing archaeological sites, cultural resource management, satellite and aerial remote sensing, and planning and design for site development and protection. He is a former Fulbright Scholar in CRM and has published widely on archaeology and site management.

Scott Cunliffe is a planning consultant specializing in tourism development, planning, risk assessment and risk management, and sustainable approaches to cultural and natural resource conservation. He has undertaken tourism and heritage conservation projects in more than twenty-five countries, primarily in Asia. Among his recent clients are the Asian Development Bank, the World Tourism Organization, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, the United Nations Development Program, and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF-Japan).

Janette Deacon has been involved in archaeological research, teaching, and site management in South Africa for more than forty years, including eleven years as archaeologist at the National Monuments Council. She retired in 2000 but continues to undertake contract work and serve on councils and committees, mainly related to rock art and heritage management. She received her Ph.D. in archaeology from the University of Cape Town.

Martha Demas joined the Getty Conservation Institute in 1990. She is senior project specialist in Field Projects and currently manages the Mosaics Project, which addresses issues of in situ conservation of mosaics, and the China Principles project, which is aimed at developing and applying national guidelines for conservation and management of cultural heritage sites in China. She studied Aegean archaeology at the University of Cincinnati and historic preservation at Cornell University, where she specialized in conservation of archaeological heritage.

Brian Egloff is associate professor of cultural heritage studies at the University of Canberra and president of the International Committee for Archaeological Heritage Management, ICOMOS. He is currently writing a book on the theft and illegal export of the Ambum stone, a prehistoric carved stone artifact that is in the collection of the National Gallery of Australia.

Brian Fagan is emeritus professor of anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He spent his early career in Central and East Africa. Since arriving in the United States in 1966, he has focused on communicating archaeology to general audiences. Fagan’s many books include several university texts and The Rape of the Nile, The Little Ice Age, and The Long Summer, an account of climate changes and human societies over the past fifteen thousand years.

Pilar Fatás Monforte is curator of the State Museums of Spain. Before taking this post, she participated in several archaeological projects at Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites. As museum curator, Fatás has been responsible for the Documentation Department of the Spanish Institute of Historic Heritage, before joining the Altamira Project in 2000, first in the State Museums Directorate of the Ministry of Culture and then in the Museum of Altamira. She has published numerous articles concerning the Altamira Project as well as prehistory and museology.

António Pedro Batarda Fernandes received a degree in archaeology in 1999 from the University of Coimbra and an M.A. degree in management of archaeological sites from University College London in 2003. Since February 2000 he has been working in the Côa Valley Archaeological Park, where he coordinates the conservation program.

Abdul Wassey Feroozi is general director of the National Archaeological Institute of the Ministry of Information and Culture of the Islamic State of Afghanistan and assistant chief researcher in the Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan. He received an M.A. degree in archaeology in 1978 from the Kurukshetra University of India.

Anabel Ford, director of the ISBER/Mesoamerican Research Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, has worked in the Maya forest since 1972. Beginning in Guatemala with surveys between Tikal and Yahxa, she continued her focus on archaeological settlement and environment in the Belize Valley. Now, in Belize and Guatemala, Ford is actively forming the foundation for El Pilar as a model that sustains the culture and nature of the Maya forest through collaboration and community participation.

Patty Gerstenblith has been professor of law at DePaul University College of Law since 1984. She served as editor in chief of the International Journal of Cultural Property (1995-2002)and as a public representative on the President’s Cultural Property Advisory Committee (2000-2003). She is currently co-chair of the American Bar Association’s International Cultural Property Committee. She is an internationally recognized expert in the field of cultural heritage law. Among her most recent articles are “Acquisition and Deacquisition of Museum Collections and the Fiduciary Obligations of Museums to the Public,” 11 Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law 409 (2003), and "Cultural Significance and the Kennewick Skeleton: Some Thoughts on the Resolution of Cultural Heritage Disputes," in Claiming the Stones/Naming the Bones: Cultural Property and the Negotiation of National and Ethnic Identity (2003). Before joining the DePaul faculty, she clerked for the Hon. Richard D. Cudahy of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.

Guan Qiang has been division chief of archaeology in the Department of Protection of Monuments and Sites in China’s State Administration of Cultural Heritage since 1993. His current administrative and management functions relate to archaeology and site conservation, including infrastructure projects such as the Three Gorges Dam, and other major undertakings of the government, such as the gas line from the west to the east of China. His responsibilities also include academic archaeology, liaison with foreign archaeological teams, and large-scale projects of heritage conservation and management. He is a member of the editorial board of the annual publication of the State Administration on significant archaeological discoveries in China. Guan is a graduate of the Department of Archaeology at Beijing University and holds a master’s degree in archaeology from Jilin University. He has studied at Cairo University’s Department of Archaeology and has worked at the Palace Museum in Beijing.

Rodney Harrison is a research fellow with the Centre for Cross-Cultural Research at the Australian National University in Canberra. The work presented here was undertaken while he was employed in the cultural heritage research unit of the Department of Environment and Conservation, New South Wales (previously the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service) in Sydney. His research has focused on contact archaeology, the historical archaeology of the pastoral (cattle and sheep ranching) industry in Australia, collaborative and community-based archaeologies, and the role of material culture in negotiating cross-cultural encounters. He is the author of Shared Landscapes (UNSW Press, 2004), and editor (with Christine Williamson) of After Captain Cook (University of Sydney, 2002; AltaMira Press, 2004). He is currently working on a project that examines the concepts of memory and value in cultural heritage assessment in Australia. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Western Australia.

Louise Haxthausen has worked for UNESCO since 1993. She currently serves as focal point for the Middle East in the Office of the Director-General, at UNESCO Headquarters (Paris). Previously, she spent one and a half years in Kabul, Afghanistan, on secondment from UNESCO to the Ministry of Information and Culture of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan. Her tasks consisted of giving advice and assistance to the Ministry of Information and Culture and to the National Afghan Olympic Committee on foreign aid management and coordination in the field of culture, media, and sports. Haxthausen has an academic background in international public law and political science.

James Pepper Henry, a member of the Kaw Nation of Oklahoma and Muscogee Creek Nation, is assistant director for Community Services at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), Washington, D.C. For the past decade, he has been active in Native American repatriation efforts for the Kaw Nation as director of the tribe’s Kanza Museum and historic preservation officer and as the former repatriation program manager for NMAI. He has worked to promote Native American art, culture, and heritage as interim curator at the Institute of Alaska Native Arts in Fairbanks and the Portland Art Museum.

Kristin Huld Sigurdardóttir is director of the Archaeological Heritage Agency of Iceland and a lecturer in archaeology at the University of Iceland. Previously, she was an associate professor in objects conservation at the University of Oslo, Norway, conservator at the National Museum of Iceland, and an archaeologist at various excavations in Iceland. She received a Ph.D. in archaeology from University College London in 1999 and a diploma in business administration from the University of Iceland in 2003. She completed a teachers’ training course in Oslo in 2001. She has been a member of ICOM since 1984 and was on the board of ICOM-Iceland. She has been a member of the IIC-Nordic Section since 1984 and of ICOMOS since 2003. She was a founding member of the Association of Icelandic Archaeologists in 1987. She has published various articles on conservation and archaeology.

Jessica S. Johnson is senior objects conservator for the National Museum of the American Indian. Previously, she was the conservator for the Museum Management Program of the U.S. National Park Service. For eleven years she was also the head of the Gordion Objects Conservation Program for the Gordion Project in Turkey, sponsored by the University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania. She has an M.A. in anthropology from the University of Arizona and received her conservation training at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London.

Rosemary A. Joyce is professor of anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Her archaeological fieldwork, since 1977 conducted in Honduras, employs ceramic analysis, household archaeology, and settlement pattern studies to understand how material culture shapes identity, especially ethnicity, sex and gender, and age. Her engagement with cultural heritage issues stems from her experiences as assistant director of the Peabody Museum, Harvard (1986-89) and director of the Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley (1994-99).

Philip L. Kohl is professor in the Department of Anthropology at Wellesley College in Massachusetts. In 1999 he was appointed Kathryn Wasserman Davis Professor of Slavic Studies. He received an M.A. degree in 1972 and a Ph.D. in 1974, both in anthropology from Harvard University. Kohl is a corresponding member of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut and the recipient of numerous honors and research grants from, among others, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and the National Geographic Society. He has conducted fieldwork in southern Daghestan, Russia, and Azerbaijan, and in August 2003 he visited archaeological sites in Mongolia as a Fulbright Senior Specialist. He has published more than 135 articles and book reviews and has written and edited numerous books.

Hande Kökten is associate professor and director of Baskent Vocational School, Ankara University, Turkey, where she has taught since 1991. She has a Ph.D. in classical archaeology and a certificate in conservation from the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. Her professional interests are archaeological conservation, preventive conservation, conservation training, field conservation and legal issues, and the conservation of mosaics.

José Antonio Lasheras Corruchaga is director of the National Museum and Research Center of Altamira. He is the founder and director of the museological program for the new Museum of Altamira, which was inaugurated in 2001, as well as of the facsimile reproduction of Altamira Cave, the neocave that is exhibited at the museum. Lasheras has published more than forty articles and monographs on archaeology and museology, most recently, Rediscover Altamira, the first research monograph on Altamira Cave, and Altamira: Forever and Ever, a television documentary and DVD that is available in six languages.

Johannes (Jannie) Loubser earned his Ph.D. in archaeology at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. He also holds a postgraduate diploma in rock art conservation and management jointly presented by the Getty Conservation Institute and the University of Canberra. Loubser established the Rock Art Department at the National Museum in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Since the end of 1993 he has been working as a CRM archaeologist and rock art specialist at New South Associates, Stone Mountain, Georgia. AltaMira Press has recently published his archaeology textbook, Archaeology: The Comic.

Claire L. Lyons is collections curator of the history of archaeology and ancient art at the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles. She received her Ph.D. in classical archaeology from Bryn Mawr College in 1983. A specialist in Italian archaeology, Lyons has published on the site of Morgantina in Sicily, on ancient gender and sexuality, and on the archaeology of colonialism. She is an active contributor to issues of cultural heritage, collecting, and the illicit antiquities trade, and she has published articles in Antichià sellza provenienza II (2000) and Claiming the Stones/Naming the Bones: Cultural Property and the Negotiation of National and Ethnic Identity in the American and British Experience (2003). She is the author of “Archaeology, Conservation, and the Ethics of Sustainability,” in Theory and Practice in Mediterranean Archaeology: Old and New World Perspectives (2003). Lyons sits on the advisory boards of the International Journal of Cultural Property, the Journal of the History of Collections, and the American Journal of Archaeology.

Richard Mackay is managing director of Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd., a specialist archaeological and heritage management consulting company based in Sydney, Australia. He is an adjunct professor in the Archaeology Program at La Trobe University, Melbourne. He has served on state and national committees and councils related to archaeology and heritage management. Mackay’s research interests include urban archaeology and colonial history. He is currently chair of the World Heritage-listed Jenolan Caves. He was made a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) in 2003 for services to archaeology and heritage management.

Fernando Maia Pinto is an architect who has devoted his professional activities to the management and protection of cultural heritage sites. He has been director of the Côa Valley Archaeological Park in Portugal since 1996.

Christian Manhart, art historian and archaeologist (University of Munich and Sorbonne in Paris), joined UNESCO in 1986) where he worked as program specialist in the Culture Sector and the Executive Office of the Director General. Currently, he is in charge of seventeen member states in the Europe-Asia region at the Division of Cultural Heritage, including Afghanistan. His tasks consist of direct assistance to these countries in the development of policies and strategies for the preservation of their cultural heritage, in particular through fund-raising, preparation, implementation, and evaluation of extrabudgetary projects. Within UNESCO’s mandate, assigned by the Afghan government and the United Nations for the rehabilitation of Afghanistan’s cultural heritage, he is acting as secretary of the International Coordination Committee for the Safeguarding of Afghanistan’s Cultural Heritage.

Omara Khan Masoodi has worked at the National Museum in Kabul, Afghanistan, since 1976. When the museum was bombed and looted in 1993, he inspired other members of the staff to assist him in safeguarding whatever was possible and assessing and recording the damage. Taking extraordinary risks to preserve the most important items, secretly removing some to safe places and disguising others, Masoodi was directly responsible for saving a large proportion of what remains of the museum’s unique collections. In 2001 he was named director of the National Museum. He has continued his efforts to rehabilitate the museum building and restore its collections, as well as prevent the plunder of Afghanistan’s important historical and cultural sites. He is president of the ICOM National Committee of Afghanistan and recipient of the Prince Claus award for his courage and his continuing commitment to defending and promoting culture in the most extreme circumstances.

Frank G. Matero is professor of architecture, chair of the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation at the Graduate School of Design, and director and founder of the Architectural Conservation Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania. He is also a member of the Graduate Group in the Department of Art History and is a research associate of the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. His teaching and research is focused on historic building technology and the conservation of masonry and earthen structures, surface finishes, and archaeological sites, and issues related to preservation and appropriate technology for traditional societies and places.

Webber Ndoro is working for ICCROM in the Africa 2009 Programme, which seeks to develop capacity to manage and conserve sub-Saharan Africa’s immovable heritage. From 1994 to 2002 he taught heritage management at the University of Zimbabwe, and before that he was involved with the conservation program at the Great Zimbabwe World Heritage Site.

Sven Ouzman is former head of the Rock Art Department, National Museum, South Africa (1994-2002), and currently a Fulbright Scholar at the University of California, Berkeley. His research interests include contemporary visual culture, nonvisual aspects of artifacts, indigenous intellectual property rights, rock art, and origin sites. His conservation interests center on developing nonurban sites for community empowerment.

Gaetano Palumbo is director of archaeological conservation for Africa, Europe, and the Middle East at the World Monuments Fund and Honorary Lecturer at the University College London. Previously, he taught management of archaeological sites at the University College London and was a project specialist at the Getty Conservation Institute. He has consulted for UNESCO, ICOMOS, the World Bank, and the European Community on training, site management, site interpretation, and development.

Jerry Podany is head of antiquities conservation at the J. Paul Getty Museum. His archaeological conservation fieldwork has included projects in Syria, Egypt, Greece, Peru, Italy, and Tanzania. He has led collections management projects and training seminars related to protecting collections from earthquake damage for the Turkish Ministry of Culture at the Topkapi Palace and the National Archaeological Museum; conducted seismic risk assessments for museums in Taiwan and in Kobe, Japan; and has advised a number of U.S. museums on seismic mitigation for exhibitions. He currently serves on the Board of Heritage Preservation, a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., dedicated to advancing the preservation of cultural heritage. In addition, he is an adjunct professor at the University of Southern California and an advisor to the Cultural Affairs Council of the City of Los Angeles.

Nelly Robles Garcia is senior researcher with the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) in Mexico and Director of the archaeological zone of Monte Alban, a World Heritage Site. She was trained as an archaeologist at the National School of Anthropology and History in Mexico City, in pre-Hispanic architectural restoration at the National School of Conservation, Restoration, and Museums in Mexico City, and as an anthropologist at the University of Georgia. Her professional interests lie in the areas of Mesoamerican archaeology, archaeological heritage conservation, management of archaeological resources, cultural tourism, and the history of Mesoamerican archaeology. She is an active member of ICOMOS and ICAHM and a member of the Society for American Archaeology Board of Directors. She is a member of the governing council of ICCROM and of INAH’s Council of Archaeology.

Neil Silberman is coordinator of International Programs at the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium. He is a historian with a special interest in the politics and policy of public heritage. He served for ten years as a contributing editor for Archaeology magazine in the United States and is a frequent contributor to other archaeological and general-interest periodicals.

Benjamin W. Smith is director of the Rock Art Research Institute and acting head of the Archaeology Division of the School of Geography, Archaeology, and Environmental Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. He is treasurer and secretary of the Association of Southern African Professional Archaeologists and the African Representative for the Society of Africanist Archaeologists. Smith was educated at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (B.A. hons., 1991) and Cambridge University (Ph.D., 1995). His research interests include cognitive archaeology, theory and method in rock art studies, rock art management, and the past and present meanings of the rock arts of Africa.

Sharon Sullivan is adjunct professor in the School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, University of Queensland, and adjunct professor in the Department of Archaeology and Paleoanthropology, School of Human and Environmental Studies, University of New England. Previously, Sullivan was deputy executive director of the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service and executive director of the Australian Heritage Commission. She is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities and a member of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. She has worked extensively in the field of cultural heritage management.

Hedley Swain is head of Early London History and Collections at the Museum of London and has worked in London archaeology for many years. He is an honorary lecturer at the Institute of Archaeology, University College, and also teaches at Birkbeck College, University of London and Royal Holloway, University of London. He is currently chair of the British Society of Museum Archaeologists and Archaeological Archives Forum. In 1998 he published a major survey of archaeological archives in England.

Phenyo Churchill Thebe is senior curator of archaeology at the Botswana National Museum, responsible for coordinating the Research and Rock Art Unit. Previously, he was site manager at Tsodilo, where he was responsible for the successful implementation of the Tsodilo Management Plan and the nomination of the monument as a World Heritage Site. He received a B.A. degree from the University of Botswana in October 1966. In September 2002 he was a Fulbright Scholar at the graduate school of the University of Texas at Austin. Among Thebe’s research interests are lithic micro-wear studies and cultural resource management.

Wang Jingchen has been director of the Liaoning Provincial Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute since 2000 and is executive chief editor of Liaoning Provincial Cultural Relics Journal. For some seventeen years prior to that, he worked as director, deputy director, and a staff member in the Liaoning Provincial Cultural Relics Management Office and was responsible for several national- and provincial-level protected sites. He is a graduate of the Department of History, Liaoning University, and has published on the stele of Liaoning and the restoration of Zhaoyang Pagoda and has compiled publications on Liaoning archaeology.

Willeke Wendrich is associate professor of Egyptian archaeology at the University of California, Los Angeles. She codirected the excavations at the Greco-Roman Red Sea harbor town of Berenike for eight years (1994-2001) and at present is co-director of a large survey and excavation project in the Fayum. Wendrich received her Ph.D. in 1999 from Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Gamini Wijesuriya is project manager, Heritage Settlements, at ICCROM. Prior to November 2004 he was principal regional specialist with the Department of Conservation of the Government of New Zealand. From 1983 to 1999 he was director of conservation, Department of Archaeology, for the Government of Sri Lanka. He has worked closely with the World Heritage Centre and the two advisory bodies, ICOMOS and ICCROM, and is currently vice president of the World Archaeological Congress.

Jim Williams, art historian, anthropologist, and archaeologist (National Autonomous University of Mexico and University of Paris, Sorbonne), has worked for UNESCO since 1990, first as a consultant in culture and education and in the Executive Office of the Director-General and later as program specialist in the Culture Sector. For two years, he was UNESCO culture adviser in Afghanistan. Currently, he is head of the Africa Unit, which includes all the sub-Saharan Africa member states and is also in charge of sixteen European member states, including the Russian Federation, in the Europe-Africa region at the Division of Cultural Heritage. His tasks consist of direct assistance to these countries in the development of policies and strategies for the preservation of their cultural heritage through fund-raising, preparation, implementation, and evaluation of extrabudgetary projects. Williams is an expert in antique oriental carpets, and in 1990, after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, he undertook a mission for UNESCO to Kabul and Mazar-i Sharif to reintroduce natural dyes and traditional designs to the Afghan carpet industry. This program was repeated in Herat in 1994 and is still ongoing and self-sufficient.

Rita Wright has conducted archaeological research in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan and is currently assistant director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project and director of the Beas Regional Survey. Her principal areas of research are urbanism and state development and the negotiation of power relations on local (gender, class, ethnicity, and age) and regional and interregional levels (technology, social boundaries, trade, and exchange). Wright is also associate professor of anthropology at New York University, where she teaches courses in cultural heritage, stewardship, and ethical issues in archaeology, and president of the New York City Society of the Archaeological Institute of America.

Wu Xiaohong is associate professor and vice director of the Department of Conservation Science and laboratory director at the School of Archaeology and Museology, Beijing University, China. She has a Ph.D. in chemistry. Wu’s special field of interest is archaeological sciences. She has been involved in a variety of nationally ranked research projects and has published many academic research papers.

Wolfgang W. Wurster received a diploma in architecture from the Technical University in Munich. He later specialized in archaeological investigations, the history of architecture, and town planning. He doctoral research was on a classical Greek temple at Aegina. After field research in Greece, Italy, and Turkey with the German Archaeological Institute, he dedicated his research to the pre-Hispanic cultures of Latin America, especially Ecuador, Peru, and Guatemala. In 1980, after directing the excavation of the Dionysos theater in Athens for the Greek government, he became scientific director of KAVA, the Commission for Extra-European Archaeology of the German Archaeological Institute. He was the first director of this institution from 1992 until his death in late 2003. He published 130 articles and 5 books, mainly on historical architecture, archaeology, and town planning.

Yang Zhijun is director of the Department of Protection of Monuments and Sites in China’s State Administration of Cultural Heritage. Previously, he was deputy director of the Heilongjiang Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau and director of the Heilongjiang Provincial Museum. A graduate of Beijing University’s Department of History with a major in archaeology, Yang Zhijun has expertise in archaeological survey and excavation, survey and research at the national level, museum interpretation and exhibition, and conservation administration and management. He has published widely in the field of archaeology, particularly with regard to sites in northeastern China.

Yuan Jiarong has been director of the Hunan Provincial Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute since 1982. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Department of Archaeology at Beijing University. From 1975 to 1982, he conducted archaeological work at the Hunan Provincial Museum. His expertise is in the Paleolithic period, specifically the environment in the Hunan area. He is also a visiting researcher at the Ancient Civilization Research Center of the Chinese Social Science Academy, the Lingnan Archaeology Center of Zhongshan University, and the Longgupo Wushan Ape-man Research Institute. Under his guidance, some two hundred Paleolithic sites were discovered, making Hunan province one of the most well documented Paleolithic regions in China. Among these, the Dao County Yuchanyan site project was selected as one of the top ten archaeology projects in 1995. He has published more than thirty works, on topics ranging from the origins of rice to Hunan Paleolithic stoneware.

Eugenio Yunis is a civil engineer and development economist who worked for many years as consultant throughout the world, advising governments, local authorities, and the tourism industry on development, marketing, organization, and the environment. From 1982 to 1989 he was in charge of the World Tourism Organization’s (WTO’s) activities in the Americas and Europe and was deputy director for technical cooperation. In 1990 he was appointed director general of the National Tourism Board of Chile, his home country. Yunis returned to the WTO in 1997 to head the Sustainable Development of Tourism Section. He is responsible for the organization’s program on the development and management of all forms of sustainable tourism. He handles WTO relationships with UN agencies involved in sustainable development matters, including the preparation and outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. He directed WTO’s activities related to the International Year of Ecotourism and the World Ecotourism Summit.