Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals

David A. Scott


176 pages

PDF file size: 8.40 MB


Much of the scientific research on the structure and morphology of ancient and historic metallic materials has been inaccessible, scattered throughout the international literature, or unpublished; this volume, although not exhaustive in its coverage, fills an important need by assembling much of this information in a single source.

Jointly published by the Getty Conservation Institute and the J. Paul Getty Museum, the book deals with many practical matters relating to the mounting, preparation, etching, polishing, and microscopy of metallic samples and includes an account of the way in which phase diagrams can be used to assist in structural interpretation. The text is supplemented by an extensive number of microstructural studies carried out in the laboratory on ancient and historic metals. The student beginning the study of metallic materials and the conservation scientist who wishes to carry out structural studies of metallic objects of art will find this publication quite useful.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • List of Color Plates and Figures
  • Color Plates
  • The Nature of Metals
  • The Microstructure of Ancient Metals
  • Two-phased Materials
  • The Microstructure of Tin Bronzes
  • Notes on the Structure of Carbon Steels
  • Martensite in Low-carbon Steels
  • The Tempering of Martensite
  • Structure and Properties of Cast Iron
  • Corroded Microstructures
  • Reflected Polarized Light Microscopy
  • Grain Sizes of Ancient Metals
  • Metallography and Ancient Metals
  • Metallographic Sampling of Metals
  • Mounting and Preparing Specimens
  • Recording Results
  • Etching and Etching Solutions
  • Mounting Resins
  • Microhardness Testing
  • A Appendix: Common Microstructural Shapes
  • B Appendix: Microstructure of Corroded Metals
  • C Appendix: Microhardness Values for Different Alloys and Metals
  • D Appendix: Alloys Used in Antiquity
  • E Appendix: Terms and Techniques in Ancient Metalworking
  • F Appendix: Metallographic Studies
  • G Appendix: Phase Diagrams
  • Glossary
  • Bibliography
  • Index