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ID: 500115393
 
Record Type: Person
Duchamp, Marcel (French painter, sculptor, and writer, 1887-1968)

Note: French painter, sculptor, and theorist whose work and ideas have served as a starting point for a conceptual approach to art. By refusing to accept the standards and practices of the established art world, Duchamp redefined our understanding of what constitutes an art object. Duchamp was born into a family of artists, and by the age of 15, he turned to painting, executing a series of landscapes in the Impressionist style. From 1910, Duchamp emulated the structural compositions and brushstrokes of Cézanne, and used an intense color palette reminiscent of The Fauves. While living with his brother in Puteaux, a suburb of Paris, Duchamp came in contact with a host of avant-garde writers and poets, notably Léger, Apollinaire, and Kupka, and as a result his painting shifted to incorporate the fragmented style of Cubism. This exposure to Cubism, along with his interest in the photographic sequences of Eadweard Muybridge resulted in the work, "Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2" (1912). Duchamp tried to show the work at the Salon des Indepéndants in Paris, but the title, inscribed on the canvas, was objected to and he withdrew his submission. When it was shown at the Armory Show in New York in 1913, the work gained critical opposition and his name and reputation became forever associated with it. In 1913, Duchamp began to abandon the traditional tools and techniques of painting, attempting to elevate art and the art making process above the purely visual and commercial. During this time, he came in contact with the writing of obscure German philosopher Max Stirner, who believed that the right of an individual was to be held supreme, considered above and beyond the needs of society. It is believed that Duchamp took that notion and applied it to the art object, investigating the possibility of making works of art that were not motivated by aesthetic conditions. It was during this time that he created "Bicycle Wheel," a work created from an inverted bicycle wheel mounted to the seat of a stool. This was one of the first of what he referred to as a "ready-made," a work of art that is deemed so simply through the selection of the artist. In 1915, Duchamp created "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even" (1915-1923) comprised of two large sheets of painted glass in two sections. The "Bride," an anthropomorphic shape, is confined to he top section, and "the bachelors," a composite machine made from a glider and a chocolate grinder at the bottom. The work explores themes of sexual opposition, geometry, physics, and the existing factors of chance. Accompanying the "Glass" was a large series of notes, to be consulted as a type of guide. During the teens and 1920s, Duchamp continued to create "ready-mades," giving them ambiguous titles. From 1923-1942, excluding brief trips to the USA, he remained in France where his interest in chess became increasingly more important than creating art. He maintained a low profile in the art world, even though he participated in various Dada and Surrealist exhibitions in Paris and New York. From 1942-1968, Duchamp lived in New York. For 22 years he worked on, and kept secret, his final work, "Etant donnés: 1 La Chute d'Eau, 2 La Gaz d' éclairage," a three-dimensional installation. Duchamp exerted little influence on the work of his contemporaries, but following the installation of his work in the Arensberg Collection in the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1954, he became a cult figure among the avant-garde, both in Europe and the USA. Subsequently, he has been seen as perhaps the most important figure to affect the shift towards conceptual art in the late 20th century.

Names:
Duchamp, Marcel (preferred,V,index,LC)
Marcel Duchamp (V,display,LC)
Duchamp, Henri-Robert-Marcel (V)
Duchamp, Henri Robert Marcel (V)
Duchamp-Villon, Marcel (V)
Dushan, Marsel (V)
Villon, Marcel Duchamp- (V)
Sélavy, Rrose (V)
Sélavy, Rose (V)
דושאן, מרסל (U)
デユシヤンマルセル (U)
Duxiang (U)
Mutt, R. (U)
R. Mutt (U)

Nationalities:
French (preferred)
Parisian
American
undetermined

Roles:
artist (preferred)
draftsman
painter
photographer
printmaker
sculptor
mixed-media artist
assemblage artist
theorist
writer

Gender: male

Birth and Death Places:
Born:  Blainville-Crevon (Haute-Normandie, France) (inhabited place)
Died:  Neuilly-sur-Seine (Île-de-France, France) (inhabited place)

Events:
active:   Paris (Île-de-France, France) (inhabited place)
active:   New York City (New York state, United States) (inhabited place)

Related People or Corporate Bodies:
associate of ....  Hamilton, Richard  
......................  (English painter, printmaker, and designer, 1922-2011) [500126033]
associated with ....  Szeemann, Harald  
............................  (Swiss curator, 1933-2005) [500196090]
collaborated with ....  Allégret, Marc  
................................  (French film director and photographer, 1900-1973) [500067144]
collaborated with ....  Man Ray  
................................  (American painter and photographer, 1890-1976) [500015030]
colleague of ....  Donati, Enrico  
......................  (American painter and sculptor, 1909-2008, born in Italy) [500020337]
friend of ....  Apollinaire, Guillaume  
................  (French poet and art critic, 1880-1918) [500010539]
friend of ....  Demuth, Charles  
................  (American painter, 1883-1935) [500004441]
friend of ....  Picabia, Francis  
................  (French painter and writer, 1879-1953) [500006325]
influenced by ....  Jarry, Alfred  
........................  (French writer and graphic artist, 1873-1907) [500199881]
member of ....  Collège de 'pataphysique‏  
................  (International association, founded 1948) [500372350]
member of ....  Duchamp family  
................  (French artists, active 19th-20th centuries) [500092478]
member of ....  Society of Independent Artists  
................  (American and European artists' society, active 1916-1944) [500117049]
romantic partner of ....  Wood, Beatrice  
..................................  (American ceramicist, painter, 1893-1998) [500009062]
sibling of ....  Duchamp, Suzanne  
..................  (French painter, 1889-1963) [500030274]
sibling of ....  Duchamp-Villon, Raymond  
..................  (French sculptor, 1876-1918) [500029284]
sibling of ....  Villon, Jacques  
..................  (French painter and printmaker, 1875-1963) [500003616]
spouse of ....  Duchamp, Alexina  
................  (American wife of artist and donor, 1906-1995, active in France) [500060362]
worked with ....  Ernst, Max  
....................  (German painter, sculptor, and author, 1891-1976) [500115729]

List/Hierarchical Position:
 ....  Persons, Artists
 ........  Duchamp, Marcel (I)

Biographies:
(French painter, sculptor, and writer, 1887-1968) ..... [VP Preferred]
(French artist, 1887-1968) ..... [AVERY]
(French artist, 1887-1968) ..... [BHA]
(Paris painter 1887-1968) ..... [GRLPSC]
(French painter, 1887-1968) ..... [PROV]
(French artist, 1887-1968) ..... [WCP]
(French artist, 1887-1968) ..... [WCI]
(French artist, 1887-1968) ..... [WL-Courtauld]
(French sculptor, 1887-1968) ..... [CL-Courtauld]
(French artist, 1887-1968) ..... [AVERY]
(French painter, 1887-1968) ..... [Grove Art]
(artist, 1887-1968) ..... [GRL]
(artist) ..... [GRI Special Collections]
(artist, active 20th century) ..... [GRISC]
(Unknown artist) ..... [GRISC]

Sources and Contributors:
דושאן, מרסל ........ [GRL]
......................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
デユシヤンマルセル ........ [GRL]
....................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
Duchamp, Henri-Robert-Marcel ........ [Grove Art, VP]
............................................................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
............................................................  Tomkins, Duchamp (1996) 18
Duchamp, Henri Robert Marcel ........ [GRL, VP]
........................................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
........................................................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) NAFL80057220, accessed 23 October 2007
Duchamp, Marcel ........ [AVERY Preferred, BHA Preferred, CL-Courtauld Preferred, GRISC Preferred, GRL Preferred, GRLPSC Preferred, Grove Art Preferred, PROV Preferred, VP Preferred, WCI Preferred, WCP Preferred, WL-Courtauld Preferred]
................................  Avery Authority files (1963-)
................................  Bénézit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976)
................................  GRI Special Collections Finding Aids databases (1980-) 890164; 980063
................................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
................................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
................................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) NAFL80057220, accessed 23 October 2007
................................  M. Knoedler & Co. records, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2012-)
................................  Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996) 155
................................  Witt Library, Authority files
Duchamp-Villon, Marcel ........ [GRL, VP]
...............................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
...............................................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) NAFL80057220, accessed 23 October 2007
Dushan, Marsel ........ [GRL, VP]
..............................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
..............................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) NAFL80057220, accessed 23 October 2007
Duxiang ........ [GRL]
.................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
Marcel Duchamp ........ [GRISC, PROV, VP]
..............................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
..............................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
..............................  GRI Special Collections Finding Aids databases (1980-) 890164
..............................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
Mutt, R. ........ [GRISC, VP]
..................  GRI Special Collections Finding Aids databases (1980-) 890164
R. Mutt ........ [GRISC, VP]
................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
Sélavy, Rose ........ [VP]
..........................  Tomkins, Duchamp (1996) 234
Sélavy, Rrose ........ [BHA, GRL, VP]
............................  BHA, Authority file (1973-)
............................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
............................  Tomkins, Duchamp (1996)
Villon, Marcel Duchamp- ........ [GRL, VP]
...............................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 80057220
...............................................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) NAFL80057220, accessed 23 October 2007

Subject: ........ [AVERY, BHA, CL-Courtauld, Gallery Systems, GRISC, GRL, GRLPSC, Grove Art, PROV, VP, WCI, WCP, WL-Courtauld]
....................  Bénézit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976)
....................  BHA, Authority file (1973-)
....................  Gallery Systems (2000-) LOC ID: n80057220
....................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
....................  GRI Special Collections Finding Aids databases (1980-)
....................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
....................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 24 March 2003
....................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
....................  LCNAF Library of Congress Name Authority File [n.d.]
....................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) LOC ID: n80057220
....................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) NAFL80057220, accessed 23 October 2007
....................  M. Knoedler & Co. records, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2012-)
....................  Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996) 155
....................  RILA/BHA (1975-2000)
....................  Tomkins, Duchamp (1996) 18; 234
....................  Witt Library, Authority files
....................  Wood, Surreal Things: Surrealism and Design (2007) 353
 
Note:
English .......... [AVERY, CL-Courtauld, VP, WL-Courtauld]
.......... Grove Dictionary of Art (1996) v. 9, p. 354
.......... LCNAF Library of Congress Name Authority File [n.d.]
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