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ID: 500002921
 
Record Type: Person
Rubens, Peter Paul (Flemish painter, 1577-1640)

Note: Rubens was an important and influential artist, as well as an international diplomat, successful businessman, devout Catholic, and an intellectual fluent in six languages. After study with local Antwerp painters, Rubens studied in Italy, copying works from antiquity and Renaissance masters. Rubens is famed for an energetic Baroque style that blends northern European realism with the grandeur and monumentality of Italian art. His work is characterized by a free, expressive technique that seemed to captured the feeling of 'joie de vivre.' His workshop was extremely prolific, with its many assistants helping to produce great numbers of paintings of many subjects, book illustrations, tapestry designs, festival decorations, and engraved reproductions of his paintings. He greatly influenced contemporary artists and later generations as well.

Names:
Rubens, Peter Paul (preferred,V,index,LC)
Peter Paul Rubens (V,display)
Rubens, Sir Peter Paul (V)
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (V)
Rubens, Pieter Paul (V)
Ruebens, Peter Paul (V)
Peter Paul Reubens (V)
Pierre Paul Rubens (V)
Peter Paolo Rubens (V)
Pedro Pablo de Rubenes (V)
Pedro Pablo Rubenes (V)
Petro Paulo Rubes (V)
Pietro Paolo Rubbens (V)
Pietro Paolo Rubens (V)
Pietro Paulo Rubens (V)
Pietro Pauolo Rubens (V)
Pietropaolo Rubenz (V)
Ruben, Peter Paul (V)
Rubenns, Peter Paul (LU,V)
Rubens, Peeter Pauwel (LU,V)

Nationalities:
Flemish (preferred)

Roles:
artist (preferred)
diplomat
draftsman
director (administrator)
painter
collector
writer
author

Gender: male

Birth and Death Places:
Born:  Siegen (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) (inhabited place)
Died:  Antwerp (Antwerpen province, Flanders, Belgium) (inhabited place)

Events:
active:   Antwerp (Antwerpen province, Flanders, Belgium) (inhabited place)
knighted:   in 1630, by Charles I of England

Related People or Corporate Bodies:
apprentice was ....  Wouters, Frans  1634
..........................  (Flemish painter, 1612/1614-1659) [500029248]
assisted by ....  Boeckhorst, Jan  
....................  (Flemish painter, draftsman, 1605-1668, born in Germany) [500016468]
assisted by ....  Luyckx, Frans  
....................  (Flemish painter, 1604-1668, active in Austria) [500014615]
assisted by ....  Rombouts, Theodoor  in 1635 on the decorations for the "Pompa Introitus Ferdinandi"
....................  (Flemish painter and printmaker, 1597-1637) [500006497]
court artist to ....  Vincenzo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua  ca. 1600-ca. 1608
..........................  (Mantuan duke, 1562-1612) [500115124]
employee was ....  Quellinus, Erasmus, II  
......................  (Flemish painter and draftsman, 1607-1678) [500117086]
friend of ....  Richardot, Guillaume  
................  (Flemish chancellor, born late 16th century) [500093981]
master of ....  Thomas, Jan  
................  (Flemish painter and engraver, 1617-1678) [500002707]
patron was ....  Arundel, Thomas Howard, Earl of  
..................  (English peer, collector, 1586-1646) [500057345]
patron was ....  Charles I, King of England  
..................  (British king, 1600-1649) [500272099]
patron was ....  Louis XIII, King of France  
..................  (French king, 1601-1643) [500059708]
patron was ....  Louis XIV, King of France  
..................  (French king, 1638-1715) [500122256]
patron was ....  Marie de Médicis, Queen consort of Henry IV  
..................  (French queen consort, 1573-1642) [500122326]
patron was ....  Spinola family  
..................  (Italian patrons, active late 12th-19th centuries) [500326342]
sibling by marriage (in-law) of ....  Fourment, Susanne  
......................................................  (Flemish gentlewoman, 1599-1628) [500106809]
sibling of ....  Rubens, Philippe  
..................  (Flemish archaeologist, philologist, 1573-1611) [500092259]
spouse of ....  Brandt, Isabella  married in 1609
................  (Flemish gentlewoman, 1591-1626) [500112619]
teacher of ....  Dyck, Anthony van  
..................  (Flemish painter, 1599-1641, active in England) [500115190]
teacher of ....  Faydherbe, Lucas  
..................  (Flemish architect and sculptor, 1617-1697) [500002228]
teacher of ....  Horst, Nikolaus van der  
..................  (Dutch draftsman and and painter, born 1587 or 1598, died 1646) [500115542]
teacher of ....  Vorsterman, Lucas  ca. 1617-1620
..................  (Flemish printmaker, 1595-1675) [500014123]
teacher of ....  Wolfvoet, Victor  
..................  (Flemish painter, 1612-1652) [500029340]
worked with ....  Brueghel, Jan, the elder  
....................  (Flemish painter and draftsman, 1568-1625) [500007095]
worked with ....  Schut, Cornelis, I  in Antwerp, in 1635
....................  (Flemish painter and printmaker, 1597-1655, active in Italy) [500029273]
worked with ....  Snyders, Frans  
....................  (Flemish painter, 1579-1657) [500115396]

List/Hierarchical Position:
 ....  Persons, Artists
 ........  Rubens, Peter Paul (I)

Biographies:
(Flemish painter, 1577-1640) ..... [VP Preferred]
(Flemish painter, 1577-1640) ..... [BHA]
(Painter, draughtsman, collector, writer, 1577-1640) ..... [CENSUS]
(Flemish painter, 1577-1640) ..... [GRLPSC]
(Flemish, 1577-1640) ..... [JPGM]
(Netherlands artist, 1577-1640) ..... [WCI]
(Flemish artist, 1577-1640) ..... [WCP]
(Flemish artist, 1577-1640) ..... [WL-Courtauld]
(Flemish artist, 1577-1640) ..... [AVERY]
(Flemish painter, 1577-1640) ..... [Grove Art]
(artist, 1577-1640) ..... [GRL]
(artist) ..... [GRISC]
(Flemish artist, 1577-1640) ..... [PROV]

Additional Names:
Ruuenes, Peter Paul (V)
Paolo Rubens (V)
Rubens, Sir (V)
Rubens, Pierre-Paul (U)
Rubens, Pieter-Pauwel (U)
Rubens, Pietro Paolo (U)
Rubens, P. P. (U)
רובנס, פטר פאול (U)
Rubens (U)
Bubens (LU,U)
Buddens (LU,U)
Chev. Pet. Paul. Rubens (LU,U)
Pablo Rubes (LU,U)
Paulo Rubbens (LU,U)
Paul Reubens (LU,U)
Paul Rubens (LU,U)
Pedro Paulo Rubbens (LU,U)
Peter Poulo Ribbens (LU,U)
Pet. Paul Rubens (LU,U)
Petri Paulo Rubbens (LU,U)
Petro Paulo Rubbens (LU,U)
petro paulo rubes (LU,U)
Petro Paul Rubens (LU,U)
petrus paul rubens (LU,U)
Petrus Paulus Rubbens (LU,U)
Petrus Paulus Rubens (LU,U)
Pieree Paul Rubens (LU,U)
Piere Paul Rubens (LU,U)
Pierre Paul Rubbens (LU,U)
Pierre-Paul Rubbens (LU,U)
Pierre-Paul Rubens (LU,U)
Pierre Rubens (LU,U)
Pieter Paulo Rubbens (LU,U)
Pieter Paul Rubbens (LU,U)
pieter paul rubens (LU,U)
Pieter Paulus Rubbens (LU,U)
Pietro Paolo (LU,U)
Pietro Paolo Fumino (LU,U)
Pietro Pauolo (LU,U)
Pietro Robino (LU,U)
P.o Pablo Rubens (LU,U)
P. Paolo Rubens (LU,U)
P. Pauel Rubens (LU,U)
P. Paulo Rubbens (LU,U)
P. Paul Rubens (LU,U)
P. Paulus Rubbens (LU,U)
P. P. Reubens (LU,U)
P. P. Rubbens (LU,U)
P: P: Rubbens (LU,U)
P.P. Rubbens (LU,U)
P.P. Rubeens (LU,U)
P.P. Rubens (LU,U)
P. P. Rubens (LU,U)
P.-P. Rubens (LU,U)
P.P Rubens (LU,U)
PP. Rubens (LU,U)
P. Reuben (LU,U)
P. Ribbens (LU,U)
P. Rubbens (LU,U)
P. Rubens (LU,U)
P. v. Rubens (LU,U)
Reuben (LU,U)
Reubens (LU,U)
Rhubens (LU,U)
Ribbens (LU,U)
rrubes (LU,U)
Rubben (LU,U)
Rubbens (LU,U)
Rubeen (LU,U)
Ruben (LU,U)
Rubenes (LU,U)
Rubenns (LU,U)
Rûbens (LU,U)
Ruben's (LU,U)
Rubens d'Anversa (LU,U)
Rubenso fiamengo (LU,U)
Rubens ou dans sa maniere (LU,U)
Rubens ou sa manière (LU,U)
Rubens Peter Paul (LU,U)
Rubens, Peter Paul, Sir (LU,U)
rubens, petrus paulus (LU,U)
Rubens Pietro Paolo (LU,U)
rubens p. p. (LU,U)
Rubens, P.P. (LU,U)
Rubens, Sir Peter Paul, Flem. (LU,U)
Rubin (LU,U)
Rubins (LU,U)
Ruebens (LU,U)
Rupens (LU,U)
Rurens (LU,U)
Ruvenes (LU,U)
Ruvens (LU,U)
Ruwens (LU,U)
Sir P. Paul Rubens (LU,U)
Sir P.Paul Rubens (LU,U)
Sir P. P. Rubens (LU,U)
Sir P.P. Rubens (LU,U)
Sir P. Reuben (LU,U)
Ubens Fiammingo (LU,U)

Sources and Contributors:
רובנס, פטר פאול ........ [GRL]
............................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561
Bubens ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Buddens ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Chev. Pet. Paul. Rubens ........ [PROV]
..............................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pablo Rubes ........ [PROV]
........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Paolo Rubens ........ [PROV]
..........................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
..........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Paulo Rubbens ........ [PROV]
............................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Paul Reubens ........ [PROV]
..........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pedro Pablo de Rubenes ........ [PROV]
...........................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
...........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pedro Pablo Rubenes ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pedro Paulo Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Peter Paolo Rubens ........ [PROV]
.....................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Peter Paul Reubens ........ [PROV]
.....................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Peter Paul Rubens ........ [GRISC, GRL, PROV, VP]
...................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
...................................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
...................................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
...................................  J. Paul Getty Museum, collections online (2000-)
...................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Peter Poulo Ribbens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pet. Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
.................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Petri Paulo Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Petro Paulo Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Petro Paulo Rubes ........ [VP]
...................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
petro paulo rubes ........ [PROV]
................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Petro Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
...................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
petrus paul rubens ........ [PROV]
..................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Petrus Paulus Rubbens ........ [PROV]
...........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Petrus Paulus Rubens ........ [PROV]
.........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pieree Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
.....................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Piere Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
...................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pierre Paul Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pierre-Paul Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pierre Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
.....................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.....................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pierre-Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pierre Rubens ........ [PROV]
............................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pieter Paulo Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pieter Paul Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
pieter paul rubens ........ [PROV]
..................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pieter Paulus Rubbens ........ [PROV]
...........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Paolo ........ [PROV]
..........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Paolo Fumino ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Paolo Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.........................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Paolo Rubens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietropaolo Rubenz ........ [PROV]
......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Paulo Rubens ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Pauolo ........ [PROV]
............................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Pauolo Rubens ........ [PROV]
.........................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Pietro Robino ........ [PROV]
............................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P.o Pablo Rubens ........ [PROV]
.................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Paolo Rubens ........ [PROV]
...............................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Pauel Rubens ........ [PROV]
...............................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Paulo Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
.............................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Paulus Rubbens ........ [PROV]
...................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. P. Reubens ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. P. Rubbens ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P: P: Rubbens ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P.P. Rubbens ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P.P. Rubeens ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P.P. Rubens ........ [PROV]
.........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. P. Rubens ........ [PROV]
.........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P.-P. Rubens ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P.P Rubens ........ [PROV]
.......................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
PP. Rubens ........ [PROV]
.......................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Reuben ........ [PROV]
....................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Ribbens ........ [PROV]
......................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Rubbens ........ [PROV]
......................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. Rubens ........ [PROV]
....................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
P. v. Rubens ........ [PROV]
........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Reuben ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Reubens ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rhubens ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ribbens ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
rrubes ........ [PROV]
..............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubben ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubbens ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubeen ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ruben ........ [PROV]
.............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubenes ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubenns ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubenns, Peter Paul ........ [VP]
.......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Ruben, Peter Paul ........ [VP]
...................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Rubens ........ [GRL, PROV]
...............  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rûbens ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ruben's ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens d'Anversa ........ [PROV]
..................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubenso fiamengo ........ [PROV]
.................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens ou dans sa maniere ........ [PROV]
.............................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens ou sa manière ........ [PROV]
.....................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, Peeter Pauwel ........ [PROV, VP]
...........................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
...........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, Peter Paul ........ [BHA Preferred, CENSUS Preferred, GRISC Preferred, GRL Preferred, GRLPSC Preferred, Grove Art Preferred, JPGM Preferred, PROV Preferred, VP Preferred, WCI Preferred, WL-Courtauld Preferred]
.....................................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
.....................................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
.....................................  J. Paul Getty Museum, collections online (2000-)
.....................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561; nr 92035158
.....................................  M. Knoedler & Co. records, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2012-)
.....................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
.....................................  RILA/BHA (1975-2000)
.....................................  Witt Library, Authority files
Rubens Peter Paul ........ [PROV]
...................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, Peter Paul, Sir ........ [PROV]
..............................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
rubens, petrus paulus ........ [PROV]
........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, Pierre-Paul ........ [GRL, PROV]
.........................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561
.........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, Pieter Paul ........ [GRL, PROV]
.......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.......................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, Pieter-Pauwel ........ [GRL]
.............................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561
Rubens, Pietro Paolo ........ [GRL]
.........................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561
Rubens Pietro Paolo ........ [PROV]
.......................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, P. P. ........ [GRL, PROV]
...........................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 79055561
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
rubens p. p. ........ [PROV]
......................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, P.P. ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubens, Sir ........ [WL-Courtauld]
........................  Witt Library, Authority files
Rubens, Sir Peter Paul ........ [AVERY, CENSUS, VP, WCP Preferred]
............................................  Avery Authority files (1963-)
............................................  Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals (1963-)
............................................  Census of Antique Art and Architecture Known to the Renaissance database
Rubens, Sir Peter Paul, Flem. ........ [PROV]
.........................................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubin ........ [PROV]
.............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rubins ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ruebens ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ruebens, Peter Paul ........ [VP]
.......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Rupens ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Rurens ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ruuenes, Peter Paul ........ [VP]
.......................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Ruvenes ........ [PROV]
.................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ruvens ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ruwens ........ [PROV]
...............  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Sir Peter Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
..........................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
..........................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Sir P. Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
....................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Sir P.Paul Rubens ........ [PROV]
....................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Sir P. P. Rubens ........ [PROV]
................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Sir P.P. Rubens ........ [PROV]
................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Sir P. Reuben ........ [PROV]
...........................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
Ubens Fiammingo ........ [PROV]
................................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)

Subject: ........ [AVERY, BHA, CENSUS, Gallery Systems, GRISC, GRL, GRLPSC, Grove Art, JPGM, PROV, VP, WCI, WCP, WL-Courtauld]
....................  Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals (1963-)
....................  Census of Antique Art and Architecture Known to the Renaissance database
....................  Gallery Systems (2000-) LOC ID: n79055561
....................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
....................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
....................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
....................  J. Paul Getty Museum, collections online (2000-)
....................  LCNAF Library of Congress Name Authority File [n.d.]
....................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) LOC ID: n79055561
....................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) accessed 5 March 2012
....................  M. Knoedler & Co. records, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2012-)
....................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
....................  RILA/BHA (1975-2000)
....................  Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Künstler (1980-1986)
....................  Witt Library, Authority files
....................  Wurzbach, Niederländisches Künstler-Lexikon (1974)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP, WL-Courtauld]
.......... Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) Accessed 08/15/2002.
.......... J. Paul Getty Museum, collections online (2000-) Accessed 08/15/2002.
.......... LCNAF Library of Congress Name Authority File [n.d.]
.......... Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
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The J. Paul Getty Trust
The J. Paul Getty Trust