Note: The city of Herne is situated at the junction of the Rhein-Herne and Dortmund-Ems canals in the German industrial district of the Ruhr. The site was known since the 10th century, initially under the name of Haranni. Only a small village until the 19th century, it developed rapidly with the discovery of coal deposits and the growth of mining. It was officially chartered in 1897. In 1975 it absorbed the neighboring town of Wanne-Eikel, also an industrial center. Today the local economy is based on coal mining, foundries and textile factories. The 2004 population estimate was 173,500.