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ID: 300264342
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300264342

 

Record Type: concept
jani (gate structures, <single built works by function>, ... Built Environment (hierarchy name))

 

Note: In the context of ancient Roman architecture, this term usually refers to passageways that allowed for closure at either end. Originally these structures functioned as bridges or as crossings of the pomerium. The term was later applied to gateways and over time post-and-lintel doors were replaced by arches. Later jani were often vaulted as well. There were several noteworthy jani in Rome, most notably the Janus Geminus, the most important shrine of Janus in the city. The closed gates of the Janus Geminus signaled that Rome was at war and open gates meant that it was at peace. It is not known if all jani were considered sacred in some sense but the term certainly has some religious connotation.
 
Terms:
jani (preferred,C,O,English-P,D,U,PN)
jani (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
jani (Spanish,UF,U,SN)
janus (C,O,English,AD,U,SN)
雅努斯 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
yǎ nǔ sī (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
ya nu si (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
ya nu ssu (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
iani (C,V,Latin,UF,U,N)
ianus (C,V,Latin,UF,U,N)
ianuas (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,PN)
ianua (C,U,Spanish,AD,U,SN)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  V.RK

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Built Environment (hierarchy name)
.... Built Environment (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of Single Built Works (hierarchy name)
........ Single Built Works (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of single built works (built environment)
............ single built works (built environment) (G)
Hierarchy of <single built works by specific type>
................ <single built works by specific type> (G)
Hierarchy of <single built works by function>
.................... <single built works by function> (G)
Hierarchy of gate structures
........................ gate structures (G)
Hierarchy of jani
............................ jani (G)

Additional Parents:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Built Environment (hierarchy name)
.... Built Environment (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of Single Built Works (hierarchy name)
........ Single Built Works (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of single built works (built environment)
............ single built works (built environment) (G)
Hierarchy of <single built works by specific type>
................ <single built works by specific type> (G)
Hierarchy of <single built works by function>
.................... <single built works by function> (G)
Hierarchy of ceremonial structures
........................ ceremonial structures (G)
Hierarchy of religious structures
............................ religious structures (G)
Hierarchy of shrines (structures)
................................ shrines (structures) (G)
Hierarchy of jani
.................................... jani (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 在古羅馬建築中,此詞彙通常指任一端皆可封閉的廊道,這種結構物最早為「順城聖區(pomerium)」的橋樑或十字通道,但此字日後用來稱呼城門。古羅馬城門原有門柱及門楣,爾後逐漸為拱門所取代,因此後來所建的城門,也多具有拱頂造型。羅馬有數座值得一提的雅努斯拱門--最著名的應屬雅努斯‧吉米納斯門(Janus Geminus),該門為城內供奉神祇雅努斯最重要的聖祠。雅努斯‧吉米納斯門一旦關閉,就表示羅馬處於戰爭,門若開啟,則表示羅馬處於和平狀態。目前無法得知雅努斯拱門是否皆具神聖意涵,但此詞彙的確隱含宗教意味。 
Dutch ..... In verband met de antieke Romeinse architectuur verwijst deze term doorgaans naar doorgangen die aan beide uiteinden konden worden afgesloten. Oorspronkelijk fungeerden deze constructies als bruggen of kruisingen van het pomerium. De term werd later gebruikt voor poorten en in de loop der tijd werden stijl-en-kalf-deuren vervangen door bogen. Later werden jani ook overwelfd. Er waren diverse opmerkelijke jani in Rome, waarvan de Janus Geminus de belangrijkste Janus-schrijn van de stad was. Wanneer de poorten van de Janus Geminus gesloten waren, was Rome in oorlog en wanneer ze openstonden, leefde de stad in vrede. Het is niet bekend of alle jani op de een of andere manier heiligdommen waren, maar de term heeft beslist een religieuze bijbetekenis. 

Sources and Contributors:
雅努斯............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
iani............  [VP]
...........  MacDonald, Architecture of the Roman Empire (1986) 309
ianua............  [CDBP-SNPC, VP]
..............  TAA database (2000-)
ianuas............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, VP]
.................  TAA database (2000-)
ianus............  [VP]
..............  MacDonald, Architecture of the Roman Empire (1986) 309
..............  Richardson, New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1992) 205
jani............  [CDBP-SNPC, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
...........  AAT-Ned (1994-)
...........  Holland, Janus and the Bridge (1961) 41
...........  TAA database (2000-)
janus............  [VP]
..............  Holland, Janus and the Bridge (1961) 41
ya nu si............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
ya nu ssu............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
....................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
yǎ nǔ sī............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AAT-Ned (1994-)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... MacDonald, Architecture of the Roman Empire (1986) vol. 2, 75
.......... Richardson, New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1992) 205
.......... Wulffson, The Janus Quadrifrons (2000) 25
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)

 

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