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ID: 300005095
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300005095

 

Record Type: concept
quadrifrons (gate structures, <single built works by function>, ... Built Environment (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Four-square structures with two intersecting passageways and four façades. The axes are each symmetrically framed by columnar or arcuated architecture. The term is usually used in the context of monumental ancient Roman architecture. Quadrifrons were often built at right-angled crossroads and typically stood free. Quadrifrons could be triumphal or honorific in nature. Quadrifrons were particularly popular in North Africa. Notable examples are the Arch of Marcus Aurelius at Tripoli and the Janus Quadrifrons in Rome. The term can also refer to a sculptural form most often used as architectural ornamentation consisting of four faces or fronts looking out in four directions.
 
Terms:
quadrifrons (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,B)  ............ from the Latin meaning "four-faced" or "four-fronted"
quadrifrons (Latin-P,D,U,B)
tetrapylons (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
quadrifrontes (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
四面門 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
sì miàn mén (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
si mian men (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
ssu mien men (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
quadrifons (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
tetrapyloon (C,U,Dutch,UF,U,U)
tetrapylon (C,U,Greek (transliterated)-P,AD,U,SN)
tetrapylon (French-P,AD,U,SN)
tetrapylon (Spanish,UF,U,SN)
tetrapylones (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,PN)
tetrapylón (C,U,Spanish,AD,U,SN)
tetrápilo (C,U,Spanish,UF,U,SN)
tetrapilo (C,U,Spanish,UF,U,SN)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  V.RK

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Built Environment (hierarchy name)
.... Built Environment (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of Single Built Works (hierarchy name)
........ Single Built Works (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of single built works (built environment)
............ single built works (built environment) (G)
Hierarchy of <single built works by specific type>
................ <single built works by specific type> (G)
Hierarchy of <single built works by function>
.................... <single built works by function> (G)
Hierarchy of gate structures
........................ gate structures (G)
Hierarchy of quadrifrons
............................ quadrifrons (G)

Additional Parents:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name)
.... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of Visual Works (hierarchy name)
........ Visual Works (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of visual works (works)
............ visual works (works) (G)
Hierarchy of <visual works by material or technique>
................ <visual works by material or technique> (G)
Hierarchy of sculpture (visual works)
.................... sculpture (visual works) (G)
Hierarchy of <sculpture by form>
........................ <sculpture by form> (G)
Hierarchy of quadrifrons
............................ quadrifrons (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 具有兩條交錯之走廊和四個正面的四方形建築物,其軸線在柱形或拱形建築中呈對稱分布。此詞彙通常指古羅馬的紀念性建築。四面門多建於道路垂直交會之處,且為獨立建築,最初可能是為慶祝戰勝或彰顯榮耀而建,在北非特別常見。著名的例子包含位於的黎波里(Tripoli)的馬可•奧勒利烏斯凱旋門(the Arch of Marcus Aurelius)以及位於羅馬的雅努斯四面門(Janus Quadrifrons)。此詞彙也可指建築上一種裝飾用的雕塑形式,具有四個正面或朝向四方的臉孔。 
Dutch ..... Constructies met vier vierkanten, twee elkaar kruisende doorgangen en vier façades. De assen zijn elk symmetrisch ingekaderd door architectonische zuilen en bogen. De term wordt doorgaans gebruikt in verband met monumentale antieke Romeinse architectuur. Quadrifrons bogen werden vaak gebouwd bij haakse wegkruisingen en waren meestal vrijstaand. Quadrifrons bogen konden triomf of eerbetoon uitdrukken. Quadrifrons bogen waren met name populair in Noord-Afrika. Beroemde voorbeelden zijn de boog van Marcus Aurelius in Tripoli en de Janus Quadrifrons in Rome. De term kan ook verwijzen naar een vorm van beeldhouwen die meestal werd gebruikt als architectonisch ornament dat bestaat uit vier gezichten of façades die in vier richtingen staan. 
Spanish ..... Estructuras cuadradas con pasajes en intersección y cuatro fachadas. Los ejes están simetricamente enmarcados por una arquitectura de columnas o arcos. El término es generalmente usado en el contexto de arquitectura monumental de la Roma antigua. Los tetrapilones fueron frecuentemente construídos en el ángulo derecho de la encrucijada y tipicamente es de posición libre. Los tetrapylones pueden ser de naturaleza triunfal u honorífico. Los tetrapylones fueron particularmente populares en el norte de Africa. Notables ejemplos son el Arco de Marco Aurelio en Tripoli y el tetrapylon de Jano en Roma. El término puede referirse también a una forma escultórica más frecuentemente usada como ornamentación arquitectónica que consiste en cuatro caras o fachadas en cuatro direcciones 

Sources and Contributors:
四面門............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
quadrifons............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
.......................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
quadrifrons............  [VP Preferred]
.......................  Curl, Encyclopedia of Architectural Terms (1993) 257
.......................  Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture (1985) 495
quadrifrontes............  [VP]
..........................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
si mian men............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
sì miàn mén............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
ssu mien men............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
tetrápilo............  [CDBP-SNPC]
....................  Paniagua, Vocabulario Básico de Arquitectura (1998)
tetrapilo............  [CDBP-SNPC]
....................  Paniagua, Vocabulario Básico de Arquitectura (1998)
tetrapylon............  [CDBP-SNPC, VP]
.......................  BHA, Authority file (1973-2003) accessed 16 December 2004
.......................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
.......................  Krautheimer, Arquitectura Paleocristiana y Bizantina (1996)
.......................  Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture (1985) 495
tetrapylón............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred]
.......................  Paniagua, Vocabulario Básico de Arquitectura (1998)
tetrapylones............  [CDBP-SNPC]
.......................  Comité, Plural del término en singular
tetrapylons............  [VP]
.......................  American Journal of Archaeology (1985-) Vol. 9, No. 1, 121
.......................  Curl, Encyclopedia of Architectural Terms (1993) 257
.......................  Harris, Dictionary of Architecture and Construction (1975) 499
.......................  Harris, Historic Architecture Sourcebook (1977) 530
.......................  Richardson, Pompeii (1988) GLOS
.......................  Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture (1985) GLOS
.......................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961)
tetrapyloon............  [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, VP]
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 9/01
.......... Harris, Illustrated Dictionary of Historic Architecture (1983) 440
.......... MacDonald, Architecture of the Roman Empire (1986) vol. 2, 87-88
.......... Wulffson, The Janus Quadrifrons (2000) 36
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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