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ID: 300266789
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300266789

 

Record Type: concept
friars (religious (people), people in religion, ... People (hierarchy name))

 

Note: The term derives from the Latin "frater," the title by which early Christians customarily addressed each other. From the end of the 13th century, it referred to the members of the mendicant orders. Friars are distinguished from "monks" in that friars focus on a sacred ministry of preaching, mixing with their fellow men in the world, soliciting alms, and moving from place to place, while monks live in seclusion in a fixed place; in addition friars' orders originally could possess no fixed revenues, but lived upon the voluntary offerings of the faithful, while the orders of monks could possess property and revenues, although the individual monks took vows of poverty. The orders of friars are usually divided into two classes, the four great orders mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons, Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians, and the lesser orders.
 
Terms:
friars (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,PN)
friar (C,U,English,AD,U,SN)
托缽修士 (天主教的) (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
化緣修士 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
tuō bō xiū shì (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
tuo bo xiu shi (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
t'o po hsiu shih (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
fraters (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
frater (C,U,Dutch,AD,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  H.HG

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Agents Facet
Agents Facet
Hierarchy of People (hierarchy name)
.... People (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of people (agents)
........ people (agents) (G)
Hierarchy of <people by occupation>
............ <people by occupation> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in the humanities>
................ <people in the humanities> (G)
Hierarchy of <people in religion and related occupations>
.................... <people in religion and related occupations> (G)
Hierarchy of people in religion
........................ people in religion (G)
Hierarchy of religious (people)
............................ religious (people) (G)
Hierarchy of friars
................................ friars (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 此一詞彙是由拉丁文的「兄弟」(frater)衍生而來,早期的基督徒習慣如此稱呼彼此。十三世紀末起,則用來指稱托缽修道會教團的成員。化緣修士與「修道士」(monk)不同之處在於,化緣修士專注於牧師的傳道職務,於世結交同胞、行乞,且居無定所,修道士則住在一固定的僻靜之地;此外,化緣修士起初不能夠擁有固定收入,僅能靠著信眾的布施過日子,修道士卻能擁有財產與收入,但也有個別的修道士發誓要貧簡度日。化緣修士教團一般分成兩種等級,也就是第二次里昂會議(the Second Council of Lyons)中提到的四大教團: 道明會(Dominicans)、方濟會(Franciscans)、卡美利會(Carmelites),與奧古斯汀會(Augustinians),以及較次要的諸教團。 
Dutch ..... De term komt uit het Latijn. Met de titel 'frater' spraken de vroege christenen elkaar gewoonlijk aan. Sinds het einde van de 13e eeuw verwees het naar leden van de bedelorden. Fraters zijn te onderscheiden van 'monniken' doordat fraters zich vooral bezighouden met het prediken als geestelijk ambt, zich onder andere mensen in de wereld begeven, om aalmoezen bedelen en zich voortdurend verplaatsen, terwijl monniken op een vaste plek in afzondering leven. Daarnaast mochten de fraterorden oorspronkelijk geen vast inkomen hebben, maar moesten ze leven van de vrijwillige giften van de gelovigen. Monniken daarentegen mochten wel onroerend goed en een inkomen hebben, hoewel er individuele monniken waren die geloften van armoede aflegden. De fraterorden worden meestal verdeeld in twee klassen: de vier grote orden die zijn genoemd in het Tweede Concilie van Lyon (Dominicanen, Franciscanen, Karmelieten en Augustijnen) en de kleinere orden. 

Related concepts:
distinguished from ....  monks (people)
..................................  (religious (people), people in religion, ... People (hierarchy name)) [300025765]
..................................  the terms have distinct meanings, although sometimes they are used interchangeably
work/live in ....  friaries
......................  (religious communities (built complexes), religious complexes, ... Built Environment (hierarchy name)) [300000644]

Sources and Contributors:
托缽修士 (天主教的)............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
.......................  大英百科全書線上繁體中文版 December 8, 2011
.......................  弗萊徹建築史 202
.......................  朗文當代大辭典 689
化緣修士............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
frater............  [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
fraters............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
.................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
friar............  [VP]
..............  Catholic Encyclopedia [online] (2003-)
friars............  [VP Preferred]
.................  American Heritage Dictionary (2000)
.................  Catholic Encyclopedia [online] (2003-) accessed 17 November 2007
.................  Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1986)
t'o po hsiu shih............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.............................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
tuo bo xiu shi............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.............................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
tuō bō xiū shì............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.............................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  Van Dale Engels-Nederlands
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Catholic Encyclopedia [online] (2003-)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)

 

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