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ID: 300266377
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300266377

 

Record Type: concept
crystoleums (photographs) (<photographs by processing or presentation technique>, <photographs by technique>, ... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Distinctive photographs made from a hand-colored positive image process used from the 1880s through 1910, intended to give the appearance of painting on glass. An albumen paper print is adhered to a curved piece of glass and sanded from the back to the emulsion layer. A layer of oil is applied to render it translucent, and detailed color is applied to the back. When dry, a second layer of curved glass is added, and painted with broad fields of color. A layer of white material was applied behind this, and everything bound together. The glass, solutions, and adhesives were available commercially until World War I. The process was based on 18th-century hand-colored engravings known as mezzotint paintings.
 
Terms:
crystoleums (photographs) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,PN)  ............ 1880s-1910
crystoleums (photographs) (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
crystoleum (photograph) (C,U,English,AD,U,SN)
crystoleum (photograph) (Dutch,AD,U,U)
crystoleum (photograph) (French-P,AD,U,SN)
photo-chromes (crystoleums) (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
chromo-crystal (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
chromo-photographs (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
kartaline (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
crystal ivorytypes (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
crystolea (C,U,Dutch,UF,U,U)
chromo-photographie (C,U,French,UF,U,N)
Chromofotografien (fotografische Abzüge) (C,U,German,D,PN)
Chromofotografie (fotografischer Abzug) (C,U,German-P,AD,SN)
Chromophotographie (fotografischer Abzug) (C,U,German,UF,SN)
Chromophotographien (fotografische Abzüge) (C,U,German,UF,PN)
fotografie crystoleum (C,U,Italian-P,D,U,PN)
cristóleo (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,SN)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  V.VC

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Objects Facet
Objects Facet
Hierarchy of Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name)
.... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of Visual Works (hierarchy name)
........ Visual Works (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of visual works (works)
............ visual works (works) (G)
Hierarchy of <visual works by material or technique>
................ <visual works by material or technique> (G)
Hierarchy of photographs
.................... photographs (G)
Hierarchy of <photographs by technique>
........................ <photographs by technique> (G)
Hierarchy of <photographs by processing or presentation technique>
............................ <photographs by processing or presentation technique> (G)
Hierarchy of crystoleums (photographs)
................................ crystoleums (photographs) (G)

Additional Notes:
Dutch ..... Verwijst in specifieke zin naar foto's die zijn gemaakt op basis van een met de hand gekleurd positief beeldprocedé, zoals dat vanaf de jaren 80 van de 19de eeuw tot en met 1920 in gebruik was. Het bedoelde effect is dat van een schilderij op glas. Een albuminedruk wordt gehecht aan een gebogen stuk glas en het papier aan de achterzijde wordt tot aan de emulsielaag weggeschuurd. Dan wordt er een laagje olie aangebracht om het geheel doorschijnend te maken, waarna op de achterzijde de kleuren in detail worden aangebracht. Na het drogen wordt een tweede laag gebogen glas toegevoegd en met kleuren in brede banen beschilderd. Daarachter wordt een laag wit materiaal bevestigd, waarna het geheel aan elkaar wordt gelijmd. Het glas, de oplossingen en de kleefmiddelen waren tot aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog vrij in de handel verkrijgbaar. Het procedé was gebaseerd op 18de-eeuwse met de hand gekleurde gravures, de zogeheten mezzotintschilderijen. 
German ..... Fotografie, die ab den 1880er Jahren bis 1910 in einem handkolorierten Positiv-Bild-Verfahren hergestellt wurden und den Anschein von Glasmalerei erwecken sollten. Ein Albuminpapierabzug wird an einem gebogenen Glasstück befestigt und von der Rückseite bis zur Emulsionsschicht abgetragen. Eine Ölschicht wird aufgetragen, um ihn transparent zu machen, und die Farben werden detailliert auf der Rückseite aufgetragen. Nach der Trocknung wird ein zweites gebogenes Glas hinzugefügt und mit größeren Farbfeldern bemalt. Eine Schicht mit weißem Material wird dahinter befestigt und alles wird zusammen gebunden. Das Glas, die Lösungen und Kleber waren im Handel bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg erhältlich. Das Verfahren basiert auf handkolorierten Stichen des 18. Jahrhunderts, die als Mezzotinto-Zeichnungen bekannt sind. 
Spanish ..... Procedimiento en el cual una impresión fotográfica (habitualmente albúmina) es pegada, con el lado de la imagen hacia abajo, en una placa de vidrio, y el soporte de papel eliminado. La imagen restante se hace translúcida con aceite o cera y puede ser destacada con pintura adicional. Popular desde 1880 hasta cominzos del siglo XX. 

Related concepts:
provide context ....  albumen prints
............................  (<photographic prints by process>, photographic prints, ... Visual and Verbal Communication (hierarchy name)) [300127121]

Sources and Contributors:
chromo-crystal............  [VP]
.............................  Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic Processes (1989) 80
Chromofotografie (fotografischer Abzug)............  [IfM-SMB-PK Preferred]
.................................................................  Heidtmann, Bibliographie Der Photographie (1989) 792
.................................................................  Jahrbuch für Photographie, Kinematographie und Reproduktionsverfahren (1928-1933) 12:326
.................................................................  Zvorykin und Ludloff, Geschichte der Technik (1967) 340
Chromofotografien (fotografische Abzüge)............  [IfM-SMB-PK]
.................................................................  AAT-Deutsch (2012-)
chromo-photographie............  [VP]
...................................  Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA) [online] (1990-). accessed 9 September 2004
Chromophotographie (fotografischer Abzug)............  [IfM-SMB-PK]
....................................................................  Jahrbuch für Photographie, Kinematographie und Reproduktionsverfahren (1928-1933) 9:638
Chromophotographien (fotografische Abzüge)............  [IfM-SMB-PK]
.......................................................................  AAT-Deutsch (2012-)
chromo-photographs............  [VP]
...................................  Brothers, Photography (1892) 87
...................................  Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic Processes (1989) 80
cristóleo............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred]
....................  Enciclopedia Focal de Fotografía (1975) I:373
crystal ivorytypes............  [VP]
...................................  Gihon, Photographic Colorist (1878) 64
crystolea............  [RKD, AAT-Ned]
....................  RKD-Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis, Den Haag
crystoleum (photograph)............  [RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
.........................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
.........................................  Brothers, Photography (1892) 87
.........................................  Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic Processes (1989) 80
.........................................  Nederlandse Film en televisieacademie
crystoleums (photographs)............  [GCI Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
............................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
............................................  AATA database (2002-) 122508 checked 26 January 2012
............................................  Brothers, Photography (1892) 87
............................................  Focal Encyclopedia of Photography (1993) 177
............................................  Haberstich, Photographs Thesaurus for SIBIS (1988) 41
............................................  Haller, Collecting Old Photographs (1979) 111
............................................  Jones, Cassell's Cyclopedia of Photography, reprint ed. (1974) 154
............................................  Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic Processes (1989) 80
............................................  Nederlandse Film en televisieacademie
............................................  Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-) accessed 30 April 2007
fotografie crystoleum............  [Biblio Arc USI Preferred]
......................................  Chiesa, Gabriele and Paolo Gosio. Dagherrotipia, ambrotipia, ferrotipia (2013) 203
kartaline............  [VP]
....................  Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic Processes (1989) 80
photo-chromes (crystoleums)............  [VP]
...............................................  Gihon, Photographic Colorist (1878) 64
 
Subject: .....  [Biblio Arc USI, CDBP-SNPC, GCI, IfM-SMB-PK, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AAT-Ned (1994-)
............  AATA database (2002-) 122508 checked 26 January 2012
............  Biblio Arc USI database
............  Brothers, Photography (1892)
............  Contributed as a candidate term JPGCEN - 9/92; crystoleum photographs
............  Focal Encyclopedia of Photography (1993)
............  Gihon, Photographic Colorist (1878)
............  Jones, Cassell's Cyclopedia of Photography (1911) crystoleums
............  Jones, Cassell's Cyclopedia of Photography, reprint ed. (1974)
............  Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic Processes (1989)
............  Nederlandse Film en televisieacademie
............  O'Connor, Draft photographic thesaurus, unpub. (1987) 30; crystoleum photographs
............  Roger Kockaerts, Johan M. Swinnen, De kunst van het fotoarchief: 170 jaar fotografie en erfgoed, Asp / Vubpress / Upa, 2010
............  Zinkham and Parker, Descriptive Terms for Graphic Materials (1986) 29; crystoleum photographs
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Focal Encyclopedia of Photography (1993) 177
.......... Jones, Cassell's Cyclopedia of Photography, reprint ed. (1974) 154
.......... Nadeau, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic Processes (1989) 80
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Nederlandse Film en televisieacademie
German .......... [IfM-SMB-PK]
.......... IfM Berlin
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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