Note: Adiabene was a petty kingdom and vassal state of the Parthian Empire (flourished 247 BCE-224 CE). The capital was Arbela. The royal family converted to Judaism in the 1st century CE. Adiabene was frequently attacked by the Romans; Adiabene, as well as the entire Tigris-Euphrates basin of northern Mesopotamia, was incorporated as a province into the Roman Empire ca. 116 CE.