Note: Ancient province of Syria on the Euphrates river in south-central Turkey. It was ruled by Assyria and Persia, gaining independence from the Seleucid kings of Syria ca. 62 BCE. Commagene reached its apex of power under Antiochus I (ca. 69-34 BCE). In 17 CE it was annexed by Rome; after a brief restoration (38-72), it was permanently incorporated into the Roman province of Syria in 72 CE.