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ID: 300018739
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300018739

 

Record Type: concept
Majapahit (East Javanese periods, East Javanese, ... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Refers to the period of the Javanese Majapahit empire (1292- c.1500 CE). The period is characterized by the re-emergence of pre-Hindu elements. The sculptural style in this period is most noted for the relief panels depicting the punakawan, clownish characters from Javanese poems. Prominent examples of architectural styles in the period are Candi Brahu, featuring brick construction, Candi Tikus, featuring bathing pools, Candi Wringin Lawang, featuring a gate type known as candi blntar ("split gate"), and Candi Sukuh, featuring a truncated pyramidal structure. Late in the period, temple styles evolved to include cylindrical bodies, square foundational bases, complex stepped sanctuaries, and horned banaspati head sculptures that supported the cornices.
 
Terms:
Majapahit (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,A)
Majapahit (Spanish-P,D,U,U)
Majapahit (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
Madjapahit (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
Majaphit (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
滿者伯夷 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
麻喏巴歇 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
mǎn zhě bó yí (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
man zhe bo yi (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
man che po i (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
Mojopahit (C,U,Dutch,UF,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  F.FL

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Styles and Periods Facet
Styles and Periods Facet
Hierarchy of Styles and Periods (hierarchy name)
.... Styles and Periods (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <styles, periods, and cultures by region>
........ <styles, periods, and cultures by region> (G)
Hierarchy of Asian
............ Asian (G)
Hierarchy of Southeast Asian
................ Southeast Asian (G)
Hierarchy of Indonesian (culture or style)
.................... Indonesian (culture or style) (G)
Hierarchy of <Indonesian regional styles and periods>
........................ <Indonesian regional styles and periods> (G)
Hierarchy of Javanese (culture or style)
............................ Javanese (culture or style) (G)
Hierarchy of East Javanese
................................ East Javanese (G)
Hierarchy of East Javanese periods
.................................... East Javanese periods (G)
Hierarchy of Majapahit
........................................ Majapahit (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 指爪哇滿者伯夷王國的統治時代(西元1292年至1500年前後)。前印度教元素於此時代再次興盛。本時代的雕刻風格以描繪浦蘭卡浣(punakawan)的浮雕板最為著名,浦蘭卡浣是出自爪哇詩文的丑角。本時代的顯著雕刻風格包括:巴拉胡寺(Candi Brahu)、堤卡斯寺(Candi Tikus)、菱羅寺(Candi Wringin Lawang)、蘇庫寺(Candi Sukuh)。巴拉胡寺以磚造結構最具特色,堤卡斯寺以浴池聞名,菱羅寺以坎迪入口(candi blntar,裂道)作為特色,蘇庫寺以截去頂端的金字塔結構最具代表性。本時代後期的寺廟風格進一步發展,包括了圓柱體、方形基底、複合階梯式聖殿、支撐飛簷並刻著森林之神角首的雕刻。 
Dutch ..... Verwijst naar de periode van het Javaanse Majapahit-rijk (1292- circa 1500 n. Chr.). Deze periode wordt gekenmerkt door de heropleving van pre-hindoe-elementen. De bouwkundige stijl in deze periode is het meest bekend om de reliëfpanelen die de punakawan afbeelden, clowneske personages uit Javaanse gedichten. Prominente voorbeelden van bouwkundige stijlen uit deze periode zijn Candi Brahu, met een constructie van baksteen, Candi Tikus, met zijn zwembaden, Candi Wringin Lawang, met een poorttype dat bekend is als candi bentar ('gespleten poort') en Candi Sukuh, met zijn afgeknotte piramidestructuur. Later in deze periode werden in de tempelstijlen cilindrische lichamen toegepast, vierkante basementen, complexe sanctuaria met trappen en beeldhouwwerken van gehoornde banaspatihoofden die de kroonlijsten ondersteunden. 
Spanish ..... Se refiere al período del Imperio Javanés de Majapahit (1292 - ca. 1500 d.C). El período se caracteriza por la re-emergencia de elementos pre-hindúes. El estilo escultural en este período es conocido por los paneles de relieve que representan punakawan, personajes bufonescos de los poemas Javaneses. Ejemplos prominentes de estilos arquitectónicos en el período son Candi Brahu, que presenta construcción de ladrillo, Candi Tikus, que ofrecen piscinas, Candi Wringin Lawang, que presenta un tipo de entrada conocido como candi blntar ("puerta dividida"), y Candi Sukuh, presentando una estructura piramidal truncada. Más tarde en el período, los estilos de templo evolucionaron para incluir cuerpos cilíndricos, bases fundacionales cuadradas, complejos de santuarios escalonados y esculturas de cabeza banaspati con cuernos que sostienen las cornisas. 

Sources and Contributors:
滿者伯夷............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
麻喏巴歇............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  大英百科全書線上繁體中文版 July 24, 2012
Madjapahit............  [VP]
.......................  Wagner, Indonesia (1959) 239
Majapahit............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
....................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
....................  Cofmaraswamy, History of Indian and Indonesian Art (1927) 280
....................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
....................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) "Indonesia: Architecture: Late Classical period: Majapahit" Accessed 7/17/00
....................  TAA database (2000-)
....................  University of Michigan Slide Classification (n.d.)
....................  Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (1990)
Majaphit............  [VP]
.................  Pearman, CMA Slide Library Classification (1980s) 24.9
man che po i............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
man zhe bo yi............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
..........................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
mǎn zhě bó yí............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
..........................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Mojopahit............  [Rijksmuseum Preferred, VP]
....................  Rijksmuseum XML files (2012) accessed 5 September 2012
....................  Rijksmuseum [online] (2000-) http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/collectie/AK-RAK-1988-18/deel-van-spaarvarken; accessed 5 September 2012
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (1990)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
.......... Legacy AAT data
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (1990)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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