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Cultural Objects Name Authority Online
 
3. Editorial Rules, continued
 

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.7

 

Generic Events

Included in this chapter

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.7.1

   

Event Type

   

 

3.7.1.1

 

 

Definition
Terminology referring to pertinent events in the history of the work, particularly used for exhibitions in which the work was displayed, alternative dating of a work, consecration of a building, or destruction of a work. An event must always be accompanied by a place and/or a date.

 

 

 

3.7.1.2

 

 

Values
Values are controlled by an extensible list. Each event entry in the controlled Event List comprises a numeric code and a term.

 

 

 

3.7.1.3

 

 

Discussion
This field may be used to record circumstances that do not have a proper name (e.g., a generic competition or wedding). It is particularly important to record events or circumstances having to do with the creation or purpose of the work.

Alternative dating, destruction, and inauguration or consecration of a work are also recorded here.

The Events fields are intended to index only a short list of important events for the work, not to provide a complete set of events having to do with the work. Creation and certain other events are recorded in fields specifically dedicated to that topic. An event recorded in this Event field must always be accompanied by a place and/or a date.

If the event listed here has a proper name, link to the event name in the Specific Depicted Subject field (e.g., Marriage of Maria de'Medici, World's Columbian Exposition, or Vietnam War). Named subjects are collected in the CONA Iconography Authority, and linked through subject rather than through General Event. Even if the subject is not depicted per se, link through Specific Depicted Subject, and flag it with Subject Extent related event.

 

 

 

3.7.1.4

 

 

RULES for Event Type

 

 

 

3.7.1.4.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Event Type

Optional: List an event when necessary.

Index only those important events described below. Do not use the Event fields to record dates and places of creation, associative relationships, or other information appropriately indexed in dedicated fields.

 

 

 

3.7.1.4.2

 

 

Choosing event type

  • Apply Event Type terms according to the definitions below.

  • Redundant links must have different places and dates. In CONA, the same Event Type may be used multiple times for the same work. An example is if a work was included in multiple important exhibitions. However, the geographic location and/or dates must be different, to distinguish one exhibition from another.

  • All generic events with dates, having to do with the design, creation, commission, maintenance, or alteration of the work should be recorded with Creation Date, using Date Qualifier.

 

 

3.7.1.4.2.1

 

 

List of Event Types:

Event Types is an extensible list subject to frequent updates. As of this writing, the applicable generic event types are the following:

       

 

 

13001

miscellaneous

Do not use this term. It is used only for problematic data loads.

13006

exhibition

For dates or places relevant when a work was part of an exhibition, which is an organized temporary public display for works of art, crafts, natural history, science, or other items of cultural interest. To name the exhibition as an event, use Depicted Subject.

13140

consecration

For dates, and sometimes places if not the current location, having to do with the ceremonial consecration of the work, usually but not always applicable to religious architecture.

13141

inauguration (building ceremony)

For dates, and sometimes places if not the current location, having to do with the opening or unveiling of the work, usually but not always applicable to architecture or other monumental works.

13150

protected status

For dates, and sometimes places if not the current location, having to do with the bestowing of protected status onto the work, usually architecture.

13161

abandonment

For dates, and sometimes places if not the current location, having to do with the work having been deserted or abandoned; usually architecture.

13162

destruction

For dates, and sometimes places if not the current location, having to do with the work having been destroyed.

13165

relocation

Use when it is important to record the dates when a work was moved from one place to another; usually reserved for architecture, not movable works. Also record the place here, although the place should also be recorded in the Location field, with Location Type former.

13166

original context

Use when it is important to record the dates of the original geographic context of the work. Record the place here, but also record it in the Location with Location Type former. For original architectural contexts, link to the architectural work in CONA as an Associative Relationship instead of an Event.

13200

<events instigating creation or other critical activity>

Guide term. Do not use for indexing.

13251

competition

For dates or places relevant when a work was designed during a competition, which is a formal process by which competing architects or artists submit plans, and often budgets and other information, to the same client or patron for the same architectural or artistic project. To name the competition event, use Depicted Subject.

13260

festival

For dates or places relevant to when a work was created for a festival, which is any gala occasion devoted to community observances, such as harvests or anniversaries of notable persons; also cultural events consisting typically of a series of performances of works in the arts. If the festival has a proper name, name it in Depicted Subject. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject. For the names of donors or patrons who are not depicted, use Related People in the Creator area of the work.

13261

baptism

For dates or places relevant to when a work was created for the baptism or christening of a notable person or patron. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject. For the names of donors or patrons who are not depicted, use Related People in the Creator area of the work.

13263

coronation

For dates or places relevant to when a work was created for the coronation or installment of a king or other noble, or for a noble patron. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject. For the names of donors or patrons who are not depicted, use Related People in the Creator area of the work.

13264

inauguration (cultural ceremony)

For dates or places relevant to when a work was created for the inauguration or installment of a notable person or patron in an office or position.

13265

ordination

For dates or places relevant to when a work was created for the conferring of holy orders, or otherwise appointing or admitting a person to the ministry of a priesthood of the Christian church another another religion. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject. For the names of donors or patrons who are not depicted, use Related People in the Creator area of the work.

13266

wedding

For dates or places relevant when a work was created for a marriage or wedding ceremony. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject. For the names of donors or patrons who are not depicted, use Related People in the Creator area of the work.

13267

funeral

For dates or places relevant when a work was created for a funeral or burial ceremony. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject. For the names of donors or patrons who are not depicted, use Related People in the Creator area of the work.

13271

regime change

For dates or places relevant when a work was created for the replacement of one governing administration by another, sometimes but not necessarily referring to the removal of an illegitimate or hostile government by military force. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject. For the names of donors or patrons who are not depicted, use Related People in the Creator area of the work.

13272

war

For dates or places relevant when a work was created to commemorate or document a war or battle. If the event is the depicted subject of the work, or to otherwise name the event, use Depicted Subject.

 

 

 

   
  • Location
    Do not record the location of the work in the Event field in CONA. In ULAN, Events are used to record the locus of activity of people and the location of corporate bodies. In CONA, this information is recorded in a dedicated Location field.
       

3.7.1.4.4

   

Adding new Event Type terms
If you feel that another Event Type is needed, consult with your supervisor.

   

 

3.7.2

   

Preferred Flag for Event

   

 

3.7.2.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether or not the Event Type is preferred among the list of events in this subject record.

     

3.7.2.2

   

Values
The flags are controlled by a pick list in VCS:

preferred
non-preferred

     

3.7.2.3

   

Discussion
If there is one or more Event Type, a preferred Event Type must be flagged.

   

3.7.2.4

   

RULES

   

3.7.2.4.1

   

Minimum requirements

Required-default: The first Event Type is automatically flagged "preferred" by the system. If this is not correct, change the Preferred Flag accordingly.

   

 

 

3.7.3

   

Sequence Number

   

 

3.7.3.1

   

Definition
The Display Order number (or Sort Order number), indicating the sequence of the Event Type in relation to the other Events of a subject record.

   

 

3.7.3.2

   

Values
Values are controlled, integers 1 through n.

   

3.7.3.3

   

RULES for Sequence Number

   

3.7.3.3.1

 

 

Minimum requirements for Sequence Number

Required-default: Sequence Number is required. If there is only one event the default value is 1. If there are multiple events, sort them in an appropriate sequence.

  • Number the events in sequence. Do not skip numbers.

  • Arrange the Events in order of importance from a researcher's point of view. In the rare event that chronology is an issue, order them chronologically.

   

 

 

3.7.4

   

Event Place

   

 

3.7.4.1

   

Definition
The geographic location applicable to the Event Type.

     

3.7.4.2

   

Values
Link to TGN.

   

 

3.7.4.3

   

RULES

   

 

3.7.4.3.1

   

Minimum requirements

Optional: If appropriate based on the definitions of the Event Types above, and if known from an authoritative source, record the place name appropriate for the Event Type.

   

 

3.7.4.3.2

   

Linking to places for events

  • Avoid multiple links to the same place
    It is generally unnecessary to link multiple events to the same place. If you feel you need to do so, consult with your supervisor. Event fields are for critical indexing only; complex discussions of activites and the locations in which they occurred should be noted in the Descriptive Note, not necessarily indexed.

  • Uncertain places
    If sources disagree about the place, prefer the most recent authoritative source. If you cannot resolve the question regarding the place, omit the place.

  • Historical names
    As of this writing, the link to TGN is at the level of record, not individual TGN place name. Therefore, it is not possible to link to historical names in the record for an extant place.

    Anachronisms: If the event occurred in a city for which the name has since changed, or if the historical hiearchical parents differ from the current parents, explain any possible confusion in the Descriptive Note.

    Alternatively, if the Event also has an associated date, the place name could be discussed in Display Date, which may contain information other than date information.

    Exception:
    Note that the names of historical nations are generally separate records in TGN. Link to the historical TGN place when possible (e.g., link to historical Flanders rather than to Belgium for a Medieval are work).

     

3.7.4.3.3

   

Adding new places not already in TGN
Most necessary place names for Events should already be in TGN. If you feel you need to add a new Place, try looking for a synonym. If you still feel you must add the place, add it to TGN and then link to it in CONA.

  • Caveat: Note that there are many homographs in place names. In some cases, a city and its province may have the same name. Be absolutely certain that you link to the correct place.

   

 

 

3.7.5

   

Dates for Events

     

3.7.5.1

   

Definition
Dates delimiting the time period when the event or activity took place, or when the state, status, or situation existed.

   

 

3.7.5.2

   

Fields

  • 1. Display Date: A free-text field to express nuances of the date to the user; it is indexed by the two indexing fields representing the Start and End Dates implied in the free-text date.

  • 2. Start Date: The exact or estimated earliest year implied in the Display Date.

  • 3. End Date: The exact of estimated latest year implied in the Display Date.

 

     

3.7.5.3

   

Values
Display Date is a free-text field. It may include Unicode characters and numbers.

  • Start Date and End Date must contain numbers representing valid years, validated by VCS. Dates BCE are indicated with negative numbers.
     

3.7.5.4

   

Sources
The dates should be determined using the same standard reference sources that supply other information about the Event.

     

3.7.5.5

   

Discussion
The Display Date for the Event Type may refer to a date range, a year, or a day-month-year. The display date must be indexed using two numbers representing years in Start Date and End Date.

     

3.7.5.6

   

RULES

     

3.7.5.6.1

   

Minimum requirements for Event

Optional:
Dates for event are not required, however, either a link to TGN or a date is required, or both are possible. If there is no pertinent place to which to link, date indeed must be included.

  • Include dates as indicated based on authoritative sources.

  • If you enter data in any of the three date fields, you must enter data in all three of the date fields.
     

3.7.5.6.2

   

Explaining the Event
Use the Display Date to explain an Event, as necessary.

  • Context
    When used to explain or provide context, Display Date notes should still implicitly refer to a date or datable condition or event, because you are required to include a Start Date and End Date with every Display Date.

  • Proper names
    Use Display Date to name the exhibition or other proper name associated with the event. Display date is note field; the proper name is not indexed by listing it here.

    • Example
    • Display Date: 1889, Salon des Indépendants of 1889
      Start Date: 1889 End Date: 1889

    To index a proper name: If the proper name refers to a related entity that is a corporate body, it may be recorded with Related People in the Creation area of the record.

    Alternatively, if the proper name is appropriate for the CONA Iconography Authority, it may be added to the IA and link to it in Depicted Subject.

  • Indexing display dates
    Display dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date, as illustrated above. Start and End Dates are controlled by special formatting; dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.
     

3.7.5.6.3

   

Display Date

  • State only what is known
    If a precise span of dates is known, state it. Where ambiguity exists, use natural word order to clearly state what is known (and only what is known; do not surmise). Follow the style of existing display dates.

      • Example
      • Event Type: competition
        Place: Rome (Roma province, Lazio, Italy)
        Display Date: ca. 1675-1677
        Start Date: 1665 End Date: 1677
     
   
  • Be objective
    Express all information in a neutral tone. Do not write from a subjective or biased point of view, even if your source expresses a fact in a subjective way. See the discussion of this topic in chapter 3.4 Descriptive Note.

  • Punctuation
    Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation. If the Display Date could be ambiguous because it contains more than one phrase, separate the phrases with a semi-colon for clarity.

  • Capitalization and abbreviation
    Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names. Avoid abbreviations, except ca. (for circa), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE.

  • Calendar in Display Date
    Display Dates should generally be listed by reference to years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction.

  • Span of years
    If a precisely delimited span of dates is applicable, list the beginning year of the span first, followed by the end of the span, with the years separated by a hyphen. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., 1921-1924, not 1921-24).

    Caveat: Do not state specific dates in the Display Date if there is broadly defined information, ambiguity, or uncertainty. For example, instead of 1500-1599, use 16th century if that is what is meant.
     
   
  • BCE in Display Dates
    Dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar should be indicated as Before Common Era, which should be abbreviated BCE. Dates BCE should be indexed with negative numbers in Start and End Dates (see below).

  • Uncertain dates
    If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation, in accordance with common art historical practice.

  • Acceptable scope of information in the Display Date
    Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date associated with the Event Type. In some cases, Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the Event (such as the name of a prize or award). However, dates should be implicit because if you record a Display Date, Start and End Dates are required.
     

3.7.5.6.4

   

Start Date and End Date

  • Delimiting the span
    Record years that delimit the span of time when the Event happened, as referenced in the Display Date.

    Start Date must represent a year earlier than the End Date. In rare cases, the start date and end date may be the same year.

    Uncertainty: If the years are uncertain (as when a qualifier such as ca. is used in the Event display date), calculate approximate years to be used for Start and End Dates for indexing.

    These indexing dates should represent the broadest possible span of time represented by the display date; it is better to delimit the span too broadly than too narrowly.
     
   
  • Do not use punctuation
    Express years without commas or other punctuation. An exception is the hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers (dates BCE).

  • Gregorian calendar
    Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

  • Ongoing Events
    For an Event that describes an activity that is still ongoing, use the value 9999 as end date.

  • Month and day
    If a specific month and day are referenced in the Display Date, index with the year in Start and End Dates. For the display date, the preferred syntax is day, month, year with no punctuation. The alternative syntax - month, day, comma, year - is found in many legacy records. Do not bother editing records that already contain this syntax, except in order to make the record consistent when you are editing the record.

  • Dates BCE
    Express dates BCE by negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

  • Estimating Start and End Dates
    Use available information to estimate Start and End Dates. In many cases, the years will be approximate. When in doubt, it is better to estimate too broad a span rather than too narrow a span. See Appendix B: Dates for approximate dates of historic events and entities.
       

Last updated 22 June 2016
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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