1. See ICISS, The Responsibility to Protect (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2001); and Thomas G. Weiss and Don Hubert, eds., The Responsibility to Protect: Research, Bibliography, Background (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2001).
  2. Hugh Eakin, “Use Force to Stop ISIS’ Destruction of Art and History,” New York Times, 3 April 2015.
  3. Ban Ki-moon, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect, Report of the Secretary-General, UN document A/63/677, 12 January 2009.
  4. She used the term in December 2014 in UNESCO, Heritage and Cultural Diversity at Risk in Iraq and Syria, 3 December 2014, available at
  5. Memo from James Cuno to the authors, 11 May 2017.
  6. UNESCO, “Reinforcement of UNESCO’s Action for the Protection of Culture and the Promotion of Cultural Pluralism in the Event of Armed Conflict,” document number C38/49, November 2015, paragraph 5, available at
  7. For a theoretical discussion of why such destruction can be interpreted in strategic terms, see Matthew Clapperton, David Martin Jones, and M. L. R. Smith, “Iconoclasm and Strategic Thought: Islamic State and Cultural Heritage in Iraq and Syria,” International Affairs 93, no. 5 (2017): 1205–31.
  8. A. Dirk Moses, “Raphael Lemkin, Culture, and the Concept of Genocide,” in The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies, ed. Donald Bloxham and A. Dirk Moses (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 19–41.
  9. “Letter dated 31 March 2016 from the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council,” UN document S/2016/296, available at
  10. A research project under the auspices of the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute, titled “Modeling the Antiquities Trade in Iraq and Syria” (MANTIS), is working to accurately determine the value and purpose of the international trade in looted antiquities from Iraq and Syria. See
  11. Graciana del Castillo, Obstacles to Peacebuilding (London: Routledge, 2017).
  12. Commission on Global Governance, Our Global Neighbourhood (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 90.
  13. For ongoing legal debates about whether or not nonstate actors are bound to the terms of the 1954 Convention and its Second Protocol, see Zoë Howe, “Can the 1954 Hague Convention Apply to Non-State Actors? A Study of Iraq and Syria,” Texas International Law Journal 47, no. 2 (2012): 403–25; Kristin Hausler, “Culture under Attack: The Destruction of Cultural Heritage by Non-State Armed Groups,” Santander Art and Culture Law Review 2, no. 1 (2015): 117–45; and Patty Gerstenblith, “Beyond the 1954 Hague Convention,” in Cultural Awareness in the Military: Developments and Implications for Future Humanitarian Cooperation, ed. Robert Albro and Bill Ivey (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 83–99.
  14. UNESCO, “Expert Meeting on the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ as Applied to the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict, Final Report,” Paris, 26–27 November 2015, available at For a summary, see Sabine von Schorlemer, “The Usefulness of the ‘Respon- sibility to Protect’ as Applied to the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict,” in Cultural Heritage Law and Ethics: Mapping the Recent Developments (Geneva: Art-Law Centre, 2017), 71–93. For a recent over- view of UNESCO’s work in this arena, see Mounir Bouchenaki, Patrimoines mutilés: Ces trésors de l’humanité défigurés par la folie des hommes (Paris: Erickbonnier, 2016).
  15. UNESCO,“Reinforcement of UNESCO’s Action for the Protection of Culture and the Promotion of Cultural Pluralism in the Event of Armed Conflict,” 2 November 2015, available at
  16. UNESCO, CLT/HER/EPR/16/7945, October 2016, available at
  17. Available at
  18. UNESCO, “Decisions Adopted by the Executive Board at Its 201st Session,” 201 EX/Decisions, 5 June 2017, 42–43, available at
  19. “Press Kit: Visit by the President of the French Republic to Abu Dhabi,” available at
  20. Security Council Report, “Briefing and Draft Resolution of Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflicts,” What’s in Blue, 23 March 2017, available at
  21. See Rama Mani and Thomas G. Weiss, eds., Responsibility to Protect: Cultural Perspectives in the Global South (London: Routledge, 2011); and Mónica Serrano and Thomas G. Weiss, eds., The International Politics of Human Rights: Rallying to the R2P Cause? (London: Routledge, 2014).
  22. ICOMOS, ICOMOS World Report 2006/2007 on Monuments and Sites in Danger (Altenburg, Ger.: E. Reinhold-Verlag, 2008), 37–38, available at
  23. Kofi Annan, “Two Concepts of Sovereignty,” The Economist, 16 September 1999.
  24. Larry Minear et al., Humanitarianism under Siege: A Critical Review of Operation Lifeline Sudan (Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1991).
  25. John Henry Merryman, “Two Ways of Thinking about Cultural Property,” American Journal of International Law 80, no. 4 (1986): 831–53.
  26. Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Whose Culture Is It?,” in Whose Culture? The Promise of Museums and the Debate over Antiquities, ed. James Cuno (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009), 71.
  27. See James Cuno, Who Owns Antiquity? Museums and the Battle over Our Ancient Heritage (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008), 50–51, 65, 68–71, 124–26; and James Cuno, Museums Matter: In Praise of the Encyclopedic Museum (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 11–31.
  28. John Henry Merryman, “The Nation and the Object,” in Cuno, Whose Culture?, 183–203.
  29. Neil MacGregor, “To Shape the Citizens of ‘That Great City, the World,’” in Cuno, Whose Culture?, 43.
  30. Appiah, “Whose Culture Is It?,” 75.
  31. See Thomas G. Weiss,“The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Modern Diplomacy,” in The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, ed. Andrew Cooper, Jorge Heine, and Ramesh Thakur (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 763–78.
  32. ICISS, The Responsibility to Protect; and Weiss and Hubert, eds., The Responsibility to Protect: Research, Bibliography, Background.
  33. For interpretations by commissioners, see Gareth Evans, The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008); and Ramesh Thakur, The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017). For commentaries, see Alex J. Bellamy, Responsibility to Protect: The Global Effort to End Mass Atrocities (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009); Anne Orford, International Authority and the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011); and Aidan Hehir, The Responsibility to Protect: Rhetoric, Reality, and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention (Houndmills, Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012). The interpretation of one of this paper’s authors can be found at Thomas G. Weiss, Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas in Action, 3rd ed. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2016).
  34. Francis M. Deng, “Frontiers of Sovereignty,” Leiden Journal of International Law 8, no. 2 (1995): 249–86; and Francis M. Deng, “Reconciling Sovereignty with Responsibility: A Basis for International Humanitarian Action,” in Africa in World Politics: Post–Cold War Challenges, ed. John W. Harbeson and Donald Rothschild (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995), 295–310. For more details, see Thomas G. Weiss and David A. Korn, Internal Displacement: Conceptualization and Its Consequences (London: Routledge, 2006).
  35. A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility (New York: United Nations, 2004); and Kofi A. Annan, In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security, and Human Rights for All (New York: United Nations, 2005).
  36. UN, 2005 World Summit Outcome, General Assembly resolution 60/1, 24 October 2005.
  37. Ban, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect.
  38. See Mohamed Sahnoun, “Foreword,” in Mani and Weiss, Responsibility to Protect, xx–xxii.
  39. Quoted by Robert Bevan, The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War, 2nd ed. (London: Reaktion Books, 2016), 15.
  40. Thomas G. Weiss, Tatiana Carayannis, and Richard Jolly, “The ‘Third’ United Nations,” Global Governance 15, no. 1 (2009): 123–42.
  41. Middle East Institute, Asia Society, and the Antiquities Coalition, “Culture under Threat: Recommendations for the U.S. Government,” April 2016, available at