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ID: 500115312
 
Record Type: Person
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da (Italian painter, 1571-1610)

Note: An extremely original and influential artist, known for his decorum-defying naturalism, tenebrism, and method of painting 'alla prima.' His naturalism is dervied from Flemish art mediated through 16th-century Veneto-Lombard painting. This naturalism may have influenced his decision to paint in oil in a narrow range of earth colors. He is called 'Caravaggio' after his birthplace near Milan. After an apprenticeship with Simone Peterzano, he moved to Rome circa 1588. His early secular works typically consist of half-length, often androgynous, figures set in a shallow space, typically with prominent, illusionistic still-life elements (he worked in the workshop of the Roman artist Giuseppe Cesari as a fruit and flower specialist). These paintings are often considered homoerotic and may embody poetical, allegorical, or emblematic conceits. Caravaggio had a number of high-ranking ecclesiastical patrons including Cardinal del Monte, who gave him his first monumental commission for the Contarelli chapel in S. Luigi dei Francesi. These paintings ("Calling of St. Matthew," "Martyrdom of St. Matthew," St. Matthew Writing his Gospel" (1599-1600) contain Caravaggio's earliest use of the tenebrism for which he is very well-known. The strong contrasts in light and dark are in keeping with the actual restricted light of the chapel and emphasize the spiritual significance of the painted scenes. Another important commission was for the controversial monumental paintings "Martyrdom of St. Peter" and "Conversion of St. Paul" (1600-01) for the Cerasi chapel in Sta Maria del Popolo. After these commissions, which depicted traditional subject matter in completely new ways, he almost exclusively painted large-scale religious pictures, for which he received many commissions. His turbulent life often led to scandal and in 1606 he fled Rome after killing his opponent in a brawl over a wager on a game of tennis. Wounded, he fled to Naples where he resumed painting monumental devotional works. He went to Malta in 1608 where he joined the Order of St. John; this was short-lived, however, and he was imprisoned after quarreling with a superior. After escaping and spending time in Sicily and again in Naples, he died of malarial fever while returning to Rome in hope of a pardon. His late religious paintings are in a new style in which all inessential elements are removed and the crowded drama and energy of his earlier paintings are replaced by a sense of quiet and contemplation. He had no pupils but he had a plethora of followers (the 'Caravaggisti'). Italian painter.

Names:
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da (preferred,V,index,LC)
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (V,display)
Caravaggio (V)  ....  he is commonly referred to by by this name only
Michelangelo da Caravaggio (V)
Caravaggio, Michelangelo (V)
Merisi, Michelangelo (V)
Caravage, Michel Ange Merisi de (V)
Carravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da (V)
Carravagio, Michelangelo Merisi da (V)
Caravagio, Michelangelo Merisi da (V)
Caravaggi, Michelangelo Merisi da (V)
Caravaccio, Michelangelo Merisi da (V)
Michel Angelo Caravaggio (V)
Michael Angelo da Caravaggio (V)
Carravage, Michel Ange Merisi de (V)
Caravach, Michelangelo Merisi da (V)
Caravege, Michelangelo Merisi da (V)
Michel Ange de Caravage (V)
Michel Ange du Caravage (V)
Michel'Angelo da Caravaggio (V)
Michel'Angelo Caravaggio (V)
Michelange de Caravage (V)
Michelange de Carravage (V)
Michiel Angelo di Caravajo (V)
Michelangelo Amerighi da Caravaggio (V)  ....  formerly, the name "Amerighi" and variants of it were incorrectly added to Caravaggio's name
Michelangelo Amerigi da Caravaggio (V)
Michelangelo Merigi da Caravaggio (V)
Michelangelo Morigi da Caravaggio (V)
Caravaggio, Amerighi (V)
Karavadzho, Mikelʹandzhelo da (U)
Merizi, Mikelʹandzhelo (U)
Amerighi, Michelangelo (U)
Merisio, Michelangelo (U)
Da Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi (U)
Merisi da Caravaggio, Michelangelo (U)
Caravage (U)
Merisi, Michelange (U)
Caravage, Michelange de (U)
Caravaggi, M. de (U)
קרוואג׳יו (U)

Nationalities:
Italian (preferred)

Roles:
artist (preferred)
painter

Gender: male

Birth and Death Places:
Born:  Caravaggio (Bergamo province, Lombardy, Italy) (inhabited place)
Died:  Port'Ercole (Grosseto province, Tuscany, Italy) (inhabited place)

Related People or Corporate Bodies:
apprentice of ....  Peterzano, Simone  apprenticed in 1584
........................  (Italian painter, active 1573-1592, died after 1596) [500031140]
employee of ....  Cesari, Giuseppe  
....................  (Italian painter, 1568-1640) [500115051]
influenced ....  Caravaggisti  
....................  (Italian and Northern European painters, active 17th century) [500355250]
influenced ....  Caroselli, Angelo  
....................  (Italian painter, 1585-1652) [500006506]
patron was ....  Wignacourt, Aloph de  
..................  (Maltese grandmaster and patron, 1547-1622) [500341732]
worked with ....  Manfredi, Bartolomeo  
....................  (Italian painter, 1582-1622) [500019094]

List/Hierarchical Position:
 ....  Persons, Artists
 ........  Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da (I)

Biographies:
(Italian painter, 1571-1610) ..... [VP Preferred]
(Italian painter) ..... [AVERY]
(Italian painter) ..... [AVERY]
(Italian painter, 1571-1610) ..... [AVERY]
(Italian painter, 1571-1610) ..... [VP]
(Italian painter, 1571/2-1610) ..... [BHA]
(artist, 1573-1610) ..... [GRL]
(Italian painter, 1571-1610) ..... [Grove Art]
(Italian artist, 1571-1609/1610) ..... [WL-Courtauld]

Sources and Contributors:
Amerighi, Michelangelo ........ [GRL]
..............................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Caravaccio, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [PROV, VP]
...................................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Caravach, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [PROV, VP]
...............................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Caravage ........ [GRL]
...................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Caravage, Michelange de ........ [GRL]
..............................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Caravage, Michel Ange Merisi de ........ [VP]
............................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Caravaggi, M. de ........ [GRL]
................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Caravaggi, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [PROV, VP]
.................................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Caravaggio ........ [AVERY, GRL, VP]
.......................  Avery Authority files (1963-)
.......................  J. Paul Getty Museum, collections online (2000-)
.......................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Caravaggio, Amerighi ........ [WL-Courtauld]
..........................................  Witt Library, Authority files
Caravaggio, Michelangelo ........ [AVERY, VP]
..................................................  Avery Authority files (1963-)
..................................................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [AVERY Preferred, BHA Preferred, GRL Preferred, GRLPSC Preferred, Grove Art Preferred, PROV Preferred, VP Preferred, WCI Preferred, WL-Courtauld]
...................................................................  Avery Authority files (1963-)
...................................................................  Bénézit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976) 2:514
...................................................................  Database for the Witt Checklist of Painters c. 1200-1976 (1978-)
...................................................................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
...................................................................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 11 December 2002
...................................................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
...................................................................  Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996) 90
...................................................................  RILA/BHA (1975-2000)
...................................................................  Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986) 5/570
...................................................................  Witt Library, Authority files
Caravagio, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [PROV, VP]
.................................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Caravege, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [PROV, VP]
...............................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Carravage, Michel Ange Merisi de ........ [VP]
..............................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Carravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [PROV, VP]
.....................................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Carravagio, Michelangelo Merisi da ........ [PROV, VP]
...................................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Da Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi ........ [GRL]
....................................................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Karavadzho, Mikelʹandzhelo da ........ [GRL]
..........................................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Merisi da Caravaggio, Michelangelo ........ [GRL]
...................................................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Merisi, Michelange ........ [GRL]
......................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Merisi, Michelangelo ........ [GRL, Grove Art, VP]
..........................................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
..........................................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 11 December 2002
..........................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Merisio, Michelangelo ........ [GRL]
............................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Merizi, Mikelʹandzhelo ........ [GRL]
..............................................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558
Michael Angelo da Caravaggio ........ [PROV]
.......................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michel Ange de Caravage ........ [PROV]
.............................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michelange de Caravage ........ [PROV]
............................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michelange de Carravage ........ [PROV]
..............................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michel Ange du Caravage ........ [PROV]
.............................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michelangelo Amerighi da Caravaggio ........ [PROV, VP]
.....................................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
.....................................................................  Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986) 5/570
Michelangelo Amerigi da Caravaggio ........ [VP]
...................................................................  Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986)
Michel Angelo Caravaggio ........ [PROV]
.................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michel'Angelo Caravaggio ........ [PROV]
...................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michel'Angelo da Caravaggio ........ [PROV]
.......................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michelangelo da Caravaggio ........ [PROV]
....................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michelangelo Merigi da Caravaggio ........ [VP, WL-Courtauld]
.................................................................  Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986)
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio ........ [PROV, VP]
.................................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
Michelangelo Morigi da Caravaggio ........ [VP, WL-Courtauld]
.................................................................  Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986)
Michiel Angelo di Caravajo ........ [PROV]
...................................................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
קרוואג׳יו ........ [GRL]
....................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) n 50000558

Subject: ........ [AVERY, BHA, GRL, GRLPSC, Grove Art, PROV, VP, WCI, WCP, WL-Courtauld]
....................  Bolaffi, Dizionario dei pittori italiani (1972-1976)
....................  Bénézit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976) 2:514
....................  Cinotti, Vita del Caravaggio, Quaderni di Palazzo Venezia (1989)
....................  Database for the Witt Checklist of Painters c. 1200-1976 (1978-)
....................  Dizionario biografico degli Italiani (1960)
....................  Encyclopedia of World Art (1959-1987)
....................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
....................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
....................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
....................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 11 December 2002
....................  J. Paul Getty Museum, collections online (2000-)
....................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.)
....................  Metropolitan Museum of Art, Age of Caravaggio (1985)
....................  Moir, Caravaggio (1982)
....................  Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996) 90; 99
....................  RILA/BHA (1975-2000)
....................  Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986) 5/570
....................  ULAN 500115312
....................  Witt Library, Authority files
 
Note:
English .......... [AVERY, GRLPSC, WL-Courtauld]
.......... Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996) 90
.......... ULAN 500115312
.......... Yale Dictionary of Art and Artists (2000) 124
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