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ID: 500115729
 
Record Type: Person
Ernst, Max (German painter, sculptor, and author, 1891-1976)

Note: Max Ernst was one of the most enthusiastic leaders of the Dada movement in Cologne, and later was closely associated with Surrealism. Ernst's Surrealist paintings are steeped in Freudian metaphor, private mythology, and childhood memories. One of his major themes centered on the image of the bird, which often incorporated human elements. He embraced the use of collage, frottage, and decalcomania in his diverse works, and published a series of purely pictorial novels created from collaged found images.

Names:
Ernst, Max (preferred,V,index,LC)
Max Ernst (V,display)
Ernst, Maximilian (V)

Nationalities:
German (preferred)
French
undetermined

Roles:
artist (preferred)
painter
sculptor
author
graphic artist
printmaker
collagist
genre artist

Gender: male

Birth and Death Places:
Born:  Brühl (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) (inhabited place)
Died:  Paris (Île-de-France, France) (inhabited place)

Events:
active:   1946-1953  Sedona (Coconino county, Arizona, United States) (inhabited place)
active:   1955-1964  Chinon (Centre region, France) (inhabited place)
active:   1941-1943  New York City (New York state, United States) (inhabited place)
active:   1919-1921  Cologne (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) (inhabited place)
active:   1922-1938  Paris (Île-de-France, France) (inhabited place)
active:   Bonn (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) (inhabited place)

Related People or Corporate Bodies:
associate of ....  Breton, André  
......................  (French poet and writer, 1896-1966) [500125870]
collaborated with ....  Arp, Hans  
................................  (French sculptor, painter, and collagist, 1886-1966) [500031000]
collaborated with ....  Baargeld, Johannes Theodore  1919-1920
................................  (German collagist, writer, and publisher, 1892-1927) [500108031]
collaborated with ....  Diaghilev, Serge  
................................  (Russian impresario, patron, and collector, 1872-1929) [500078133]
colleague of ....  Man Ray  
......................  (American painter and photographer, 1890-1976) [500015030]
member of ....  Collège de 'pataphysique‏  
................  (International association, founded 1948) [500372350]
parent of ....  Ernst, Jimmy  
................  (American painter, 1920-1984) [500024151]
spouse of ....  Carrington, Leonora  
................  (English painter, sculptor, and author, 1917-2011) [500018196]
spouse of ....  Guggenheim, Peggy  
................  (American collector, 1898-1979) [500117879]
spouse of ....  Tanning, Dorothea  
................  (American painter, lithographer, and sculptor, 1910-2012) [500000210]
worked with ....  Duchamp, Marcel  
....................  (French painter, sculptor, and writer, 1887-1968) [500115393]

List/Hierarchical Position:
 ....  Persons, Artists
 ........  Ernst, Max (I)

Biographies:
(German painter, sculptor, and author, 1891-1976) ..... [VP Preferred]
(German painter, collagist, and author, 1891-1976) ..... [BHA]
(German painter and sculptor, 1891-1976) ..... [GRLPSC]
(German painter, 1891-1976) ..... [PROV]
(German artist, 1891-) ..... [WCP]
(German artist, 1891-1976) ..... [WCI]
(German artist, 1891-1976) ..... [WL-Courtauld]
(German sculptor, 1891-1976) ..... [CL-Courtauld]
(German painter, 1891-1976) ..... [Grove Art]
(artist, 1891-1976) ..... [GRL]
(artist) ..... [GRI Special Collections]
(artist, active 20th century) ..... [GRISC]
(German artist) ..... [PROV]

Sources and Contributors:
Ernst, Max ........ [BHA Preferred, CL-Courtauld Preferred, GRISC Preferred, GRL Preferred, GRLPSC Preferred, Grove Art Preferred, PROV Preferred, VP Preferred, WCI Preferred, WCP Preferred, WL-Courtauld Preferred]
......................  GRI Special Collections Finding Aids databases (1980-) 890164
......................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
......................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
......................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) n 79144795, accessed 7 May 2005
......................  M. Knoedler & Co. records, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2012-)
......................  Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996) 169
......................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
......................  RILA/BHA (1975-2000)
......................  Witt Library, Authority files
Ernst, Maximilian ........ [Grove Art, VP]
....................................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
....................................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-)
Max Ernst ........ [GRISC, PROV, VP]
....................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
....................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
....................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)

Subject: ........ [BHA, CL-Courtauld, Gallery Systems, GRISC, GRL, GRLPSC, Grove Art, PROV, VP, WCI, WCP, WL-Courtauld]
....................  Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon. Internationale Künstlerdatenbank (1993-2006) accessed 23 October 2007
....................  Bénézit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976)
....................  Encyclopedia of World Art (1959-1987)
....................  Gaehtgens, Max Ernst and the Great Masters, Max Ernst Retrospective (2005)
....................  Gallery Systems (2000-) LOC ID: n79144795
....................  Getty Provenance Index Databases [online] (1999)
....................  GRI Special Collections Finding Aids databases (1980-)
....................  Grove Art artist database (1989-)
....................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 29 October 2002
....................  Harald Szeemann papers, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2011-)
....................  Library of Congress Authorities database (n.d.) LOC ID: n79144795
....................  Library of Congress Authorities online (2002-) n 79144795, accessed 7 May 2005
....................  M. Knoedler & Co. records, Finding Aid, GRI Special Collections (2012-)
....................  Marks, World Artists (1984)
....................  New Columbia Encyclopedia (1975)
....................  Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996) 170; 169
....................  Provenance Index Databases, Authority file (1985-)
....................  RILA/BHA (1975-2000)
....................  Witt Library, Authority files
....................  Wood, Surreal Things: Surrealism and Design (2007) 353
 
Note:
English .......... [CL-Courtauld, VP, WL-Courtauld]
.......... Benezit Dictionary of Artists [online] (2011-)
.......... Metropolitan Museum of Art [online] (2003-) accessed 8 November 2006
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