Note: Refers to the eastern Frankish kingdom during the Merovingian period. It comprises the area of modern northeastern France and western and central Germany. It was the home of ancestors of the Carolingian dynasty. It was ruled by Ripuarian (Rhineland) Franks and was a rival of Neustria in the 7th century CE. It gained ascendancy over other Frankish kingdoms when Pepin II defeated the Neustrians. See also the Merovingian Kingdom and the Frankish Empire.