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ID: 7009977
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/tgn/7009977

 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Sofia (inhabited place)  Sofia (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 42 40 00 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 42.6667  decimal degrees
Long: 023 18 00 E  degrees minutes   Long: 23.3000  decimal degrees

Note: Sofiya is the capital and the largest city of Bulgaria, situated in the Sofiya Basin in the Geographical center of the Balkan region. Founded by Thracian tribe of Serdi in the 8th century BCE, it was conquered by Rome after 29 BCE. It thrived under the Emperors Trajan (98-117) and Constantine. It was the site of the Christian condemnation of the Arian heresy in 343. Attila the Hun sacked it in 441. It was seized by the Bulgarian tsar in 809, by the Byzantines in 1018, the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185, then Turks in 1382. The Russian drove out the Turks in 1878 and it was named the capital of the new Bulgarian state in 1879. The Germans occupied it in World War II, but it was liberated by Russia in 1944. Since 1947, Sofiya has become a major industrial city, with food processing, metallurgy, printing, engineering, and the manufacture of textiles and clothing. The city is also a cultural and educational center, with the University of Sofiya, founded 1888, a national theater and opera house, several museums, the national library, and an astronomical observatory. It has several historic churches, notably the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. The 2003 estimated population was 1,088,700.

Names:
Sofiya (preferred,C,V,Bulgarian,U,N)  ............ named after the church of Saint Sofia that was restored by the emperor Justinian in the 6th cen.
Sofija (C,V)
Sofia (C,O,English-P,U,N)
Sophia (C,O)
Sredets (H,V)  ............ medieval Bulgarian
Triaditsa (H,V)  ............ medieval Greek name
Sardica (H,V)  ............ Greek and Roman name
Serdica (H,V)  ............ Roman name

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Bulgaria (nation)  ........  Bulgaria (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Sofiya-Grad (province)  ............  Sofiya-Grad (province) (P)
Hierarchy of Sofia (inhabited place)  ................  Sofia (inhabited place) (P)

Additional Parents:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Thrace (historical region)  ........  Thrace (historical region) (P,H)
Hierarchy of Sofia (inhabited place)  ............  Sofia (inhabited place) (P,H)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  was a Thracian settlement in 8th cen. BC
city (C)
national capital (C)
provincial capital (C)
industrial center (C)
agricultural center (C)
educational center (C)
cultural center (C)

Related geographic places:
capital of ....  Bulgaria .......... (nation)
..................  (World, Europe) [7006413]

Sources and Contributors:
Sardica..........  [VP]
.................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 355
Serdica..........  [VP]
.................  Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1979) 828-829
Sofia..........  [GRLPSC, VP]
..............  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 873
..............  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-2014) accessed 1 July 2004
..............  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Sofija..........  [BHA]
.................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
Sofiya..........  [GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
.................  Britannica Book of the Year (1992) 563
.................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) X, 933
.................  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 186
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Sophia..........  [GRLPSC]
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Sredets..........  [VP]
.................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 356
Triaditsa..........  [VP]
....................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) X, 933
Subject: .....  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  Britannica Book of the Year (1992) 563
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 873
..................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) X, 933
..................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-2014) accessed 1 July 2004
..................  Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1979) 828-829
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 186
..................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 355; 356
..................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-2014) "Sofia," accessed 17 Nov. 2003

 

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