Note: Area in north-central England between the Pennines and the North Sea. Formerly a large county. The region is composed of four broad belts of land stretching from north to south: in the west the high Pennine moorlands dissected by the Yorkshire Dales; in the southeast the central lowlands (including the Vale of York) draining into the River Humber estuary; in the east the North York Moors and Yorkshire Wolds; and, farther southeast, the Holderness plain along the North Sea. Site of prehistoric remains, including earthworks at Stanwick; it was a Roman military stronghold 1st-5th centuries CE. Controlled by indigenous Britons, then part of the kingdom of Deira from the 6th-9th centuries. It was taken by Danes 875 and recaptured by kings of Wessex 954. The region remained strongly Anglo-Scandinavian in culture until the Normans took control in 1069. Important monasteries and estates were established. After the Black Death of the 14th century, most of Yorkshire's crop land became pasture for sheep and woolen manufacture became an important industry. It was the base for Yorkists during War of the Roses (1455-1485) and two of the most important battles were fought here (Wakefield and Towton, 1460 and 1461). The battle at Marston Moor in 1644 was one of the most crucial of the English Civil Wars. Architecture in Yorkshire includes pre-Norman churches; abbeys such as the ruined Rievaulx; castles such as Bolton; the Gothic York Minster; and notable country houses such as 18th-century Castle Howard.