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ID: 7006984
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/tgn/7006984

 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Groningen (inhabited place)  Groningen (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 53 13 00 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 53.2167  decimal degrees
Long: 006 33 00 E  degrees minutes   Long: 6.5500  decimal degrees

Note: Located at the junction of the canalized Drentsche Aa and Hunze Rivers, in 1040 German king and later Emperor Heinrich II granted the town permission to mint coins and levy taxes for St. Maartenskerk in Utrecht. When the bishop's authority waned by the mid-13th century, it developed into an important commercial center and provided ships for Crusades in 12th century. It was a Hanseatic city from 1282. Survived Spanish sieges and a siege by the troops of the Bishop of M√ľnster.

Names:
Groningen (preferred,C,V,Dutch,U)
Groningue (C,V,French-P,U,N)

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Netherlands (nation)  ........  Netherlands (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Groningen (province)  ............  Groningen (province) (P)
Hierarchy of Groningen (inhabited place)  ................  Groningen (inhabited place) (P)

Additional Parents:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Flanders (former nation/state/empire)  ........  Flanders (former nation/state/empire) (P,H)
Hierarchy of Groningen (inhabited place)  ............  Groningen (inhabited place) (P,H)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  probably established in 9th century
city (C)
provincial capital (C)
regional capital (C)

Sources and Contributors:
Groningen..........  [BHA, FDA, GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
....................  Columbia Encyclopedia (1975)
....................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) 5:509
....................  National Gallery of Art database, Washington (1987-)
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
....................  Times Atlas of the World (1988)
....................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 77
....................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Groningue..........  [VP]
....................  Benezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976) 10, 644
Subject: .....  [BHA, FDA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  Benezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976) 10, 644
..................  Columbia Encyclopedia (1975)
..................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) V, 509; 5:509
..................  National Gallery of Art database, Washington (1987-)
..................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-) -2145032
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1988)
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 77
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Phaidon Art Guide: Holland (1987) 109

 

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