Note: The town of Dachau is located on a hill on the Amper River in Bavaria, Germany. The town existed by the 9th century CE. It remained small market town until the 20th century, when in 1933 it became the site of the first Nazi concentration camp, notorious for medical experiments and enormous mass executions. A museum and various chapels commemorate the site and the events that took place there. Other historic buildings include the castle of the Wittelsbachs and a parish church dating to 1625. The 2004 estimated population was 39,500.