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ID: 7000457
 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Florence (inhabited place)  Florence (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 43 46 00 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 43.7667  decimal degrees
Long: 011 15 00 E  degrees minutes   Long: 11.2500  decimal degrees

Note: The original settlement was a Roman military center at the head of navigation on the Arno river and on the Casian Way. It escaped capture by the Goths in the 5th century, and by the 12th century was a thriving center. It was torn apart in Medieval times by the violent Guelph/Ghibelline rivalry: a series of wars was fought from the mid-13th century through the early 14th century between Guelf-controlled Florence and its allies (Montepulciano, Bologna, and Orvieto) and its Ghibelline opponents (Pisa, Siena, Pistoia, and Arezzo). Florence came under the ostensible (later actual) rule of the Medici family from 1434; historic core named UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982.

Names:
Firenze (preferred,C,V,Italian-P,U,N)
Florence (C,O,LC,English-P,U,N)
Florence (French-P,U,N)
Florencia (C,O,Spanish-P,U,N)
Florenz (C,O,German-P,U,N)
Florentine (C,O,English,U,A)
Fiorenza (H,V,Medieval Latin,U,N)  ............ Medieval spelling
Florentia (H,V,Latin,U,N)  ............ name of the Roman colony on North bank of the Arno

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Italy (nation)  ........  Italy (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Tuscany (region (administrative division))  ............  Tuscany (region (administrative division)) (P,C) part of new kingdom of Italy from 1861
Hierarchy of Firenze (province)  ................  Firenze (province) (P)
Hierarchy of Florence (inhabited place)  ....................  Florence (inhabited place) (P)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  site of ancient settlement, later founded as colony by Romans in 1st century BCE, at foot of Etruscan hill town Fiesole
city (C)
regional capital (C)
provincial capital (C)
commune (administrative) (C)
river settlement (C)  ............  developed on both sides of the Arno river, is subject to periodic flooding; most bridges were destroyed in WW II
tourist center (C)
archiepiscopal see (C)  ............  bishops were established here early; today is famed for huge cathedral, baptistry and for numerous other churches
industrial center (C)  ............  factories located in suburbs produce precision instruments and other items
cultural center (C)  ............  noted as great center of art and literature since Middle Ages, especially flourished 14th-16th centuries
transportation center (C)  ............  for road and river traffic since Roman times, now is also a major hub for rail traffic
craftsman settlement (C)  ............  famed for traditional products, including textiles, glass, ceramics, metal wares, leatherwork, art reproductions & furniture
educational center (C)
financial center (C)  ............  Florentines were leading bankers in Europe by 15th cen.
capital (H)  ............  of duchy of Tuscany
municipium (H)
World Heritage Site (C)  ............  from 1982

Related geographic places:
ally of ....  Bologna .......... (inhabited place)
............  (World, Europe, Italy, Emilia-Romagna, Bologna province) [7004847]
............  Guelf allies during the 13th and 14th centuries
ally of ....  Montepulciano .......... (inhabited place)
............  (World, Europe, Italy, Tuscany, Siena province) [7006345]
............  Guelf allies during the 13th and 14th centuries
ally of ....  Orvieto .......... (inhabited place)
............  (World, Europe, Italy, Umbria, Terni province) [7005124]
............  Guelf allies during the 13th and 14th centuries

Sources and Contributors:
Fiorenza..........  [VP]
.................  Companion Guide: Florence (1979) 14
Firenze..........  [BHA, FDA, GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
.................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
.................  Companion Guide: Florence (1979) 62 ff.
.................  Gallerie degli Uffizi database (1987-)
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 66
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Florence..........  [FDA, GRLPSC, VP]
.................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 1:296
.................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) 4:838
.................  LC Subject Authority Headings. [online] (2002-) n 79027120
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 400
Florencia..........  [VP]
....................  Cassell's Spanish Dictionary (1978) 317
....................  Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-56
Florentia..........  [GRLPSC, VP]
....................  GRI Photo Archive, Authority File (1998) 8354
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
....................  Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1979) 331
....................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 343
Florentine..........  [VP]
.......................  OED2 on CD-ROM (1994)
Florenz..........  [VP]
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
Subject: .....  [BHA, FDA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 1:296
..................  Cassell's Spanish Dictionary (1978) 317
..................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
..................  Companion Guide: Florence (1979) 14; 62 ff.
..................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) IV, 838; 4:838
..................  Gallerie degli Uffizi database (1987-)
..................  GRI Photo Archive, Authority File (1998) 8354
..................  LC Subject Authority Headings. [online] (2002-) n 79027120
..................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-) -117543
..................  NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
..................  OED2 on CD-ROM (1994)
..................  Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1979) 331
..................  Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-56
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 66
..................  Times Atlas of World History (1993) 343
..................  UNESCO World Heritage Centre [online] (1992-) accessed 20 July 2010
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 400
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) accessed 26 Sep 2002
..........  UNESCO World Heritage Centre [online] (1992-) accessed 20 July 2010

 

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