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ID: 7004334
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/tgn/7004334

 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Nürnberg (inhabited place)  Nürnberg (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 49 26 52 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 49.4478  decimal degrees
Long: 011 04 06 E  degrees minutes   Long: 11.0683  decimal degrees

Note: Situated on the Pegnitz River in Bavaria, Germany, the city of Nürnberg is the second-largest city in Bavaria. Founded around a castle in the mid-11th century, it was a thriving commercial link to Italy from the 12th century. It received its first charter in 1219 and quickly became a free imperial city. It flourished as a cultural center of northern Europe from the 15th century. The artist Albrecht Dürer was born there in 1471. It declined after the Thirty Years' War in the 17th century, and came under the rule of Bavaria in 1806. With the industrial revolution its fortunes revived. It was the focus of Hitler's political and industrial effort in the 1930s and 1940s, and as such was heavily bombed by the Allies in World War II. The post-war trials of Nazi war criminals were held here. Much of its historic architecture was destroyed by the bombing, but some of its has been restored or rebuilt, notable the old imperial castle, the Renaissance town hall, the Gothic churches of St. Lorenz and St. Sebald, and the Hospital Church of the Holy Ghost. Its major industries include the manufacture of mechanical and optical equipment, motor vehicles, textiles, and toys, for which it is a world center. It is a transportation center, with links by highway, canal, and air, and an educational center, with several institutions of higher learning, notably the Academy of Arts founded in 1662, and the Ohm Polytechnic Institute. Other institutes include the 600 year-old library and the Pegnesische Blumenorden, a literary society founded in 1644. The Germanisches Nationalmuseum houses a complete collection of Dürer prints. The 2004 estimated population was 495,600.

Names:
Nürnberg (preferred,C,V,German-P,U,N)
Nuremberg (C,O,English-P,U,N)
Noremberg (C,V,German,U,N)
Nurenberg (NA,V)
Nuremburg (NA,V)
Nurenburg (NA,V)
Nuremberga (H,V)

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Deutschland (nation)  ........  Deutschland (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Bayern (state)  ............  Bayern (state) (P)
Hierarchy of Nürnberg (inhabited place)  ................  Nürnberg (inhabited place) (P)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  town grew around existing castle of emperor Henry III, duke of Bayern, in 11th cen.tury chartered in 1219
city (C)
commercial center (C)  ............  since 12th century
industrial center (C)
cultural center (C)  ............  renowned as center of German Renaissance humanists, scientists, publishers, and artists, including Albrecht Dürer
educational center (C)  ............  since the 16th century, beginning with famed "Gymnasium" founded by Protestant scholar Philipp Melanchthon in 1526
political center (H)  ............  noted for Peace of Nürnberg, granting tolerance to Lutherans in 1532; headquarters of National Socialist (Nazi) movement in 1930s, site of international war crime trials after World War II
imperial city (H)  ............  status granted in early 13th century

Sources and Contributors:
Noremberg..........  [VP]
....................  Rand McNally Atlas (1991) I-123
Nuremberg..........  [GRLPSC, VP]
....................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 2:679
....................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-2014) accessed 8 March 2004
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
....................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 143
....................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
....................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 876
Nuremberga..........  [VP]
.......................  Canby, Historic Places (1984)
Nuremburg..........  [VP]
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Nurenberg..........  [VP]
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Nurenburg..........  [VP]
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Nürnberg..........  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
.................  Müllers Deutsches Ortsbuch (1988)
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
.................  Van Marle, Pittura Italiana (1932)
Subject: .....  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 2:679
..................  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-2014) accessed 8 March 2004
..................  LC Name Authority Headings. [online] (2002-) Nuremberg (Germany) NAF80017681, accessed 8 March 2004
..................  Müllers Deutsches Ortsbuch (1988)
..................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-) -1835238
..................  Rand McNally Atlas (1991) I-123
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 143
..................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
..................  Van Marle, Pittura Italiana (1932)
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 876
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 2:679
..........  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-2014) accessed 8 March 2004

 

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