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ID: 7004446
 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Cologne (inhabited place)  Cologne (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 50 56 00 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 50.9333  decimal degrees
Long: 006 57 00 E  degrees minutes   Long: 6.9500  decimal degrees

Note: The western German city of Cologne is situated on the west bank of the Rhine. The fourth-largest city in Germany, it serves the entire Rhine region as its historical, economic, and cultural center. The first settlement on the site was a Roman fortification. Franks captured it in 456. It became the seat of a powerful archbishop, and became independent in 1288. A member of the Hanseatic League, it declined in the Thirty Years' War of the 17th century. Prussia took it over in 1815. The heavy shipping traffic of the Rhine and the intersection of major east-west trade routes at the city caused it to recover and prosper. The inner city was almost entirely destroyed in World War II. The city has been rebuilt and continues as a commercial center. Some historic architecture survives, notables the great Gothic cathedral in the middle of the inner city, which was designated as a World Heritage site in 1996. Cologne has a wealth of museums and galleries, notably the Wallraf-Richartz and Ludwig museum complex, whose collection encompasses medieval art to modern works, the Rautenstrauch-Joest Museum, and the Schnütgen Museum of medieval ecclesiastical art. Educational institutions include the University of Cologne, founded in 1388. The modern city has a highly diversified economy, and serves as a banking center as well as a manufacturing city, notably producing motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and the city's famous eau de cologne, made since the beginning of the 18th century. The population estimate for 2004 was 969,500.

Names:
Köln (preferred,C,V,German,U,N)
Cologne (C,O,English-P,U,N)
Colonia (C,O)
Coln (C,O)
Keulen (C,V)  ............ Dutch name
Augusta Ubiorum (NA,V)
Cöln (NA,V)
Colonia Claudia Agrippina (NA,V)
Koeln (NA,V)
Agrippina colonia (H,O)
Colonia Agrippina (H,V)  ............ Roman, so-called from ca. 50 AD at request of Agrippina (wife of Claudius & mother of Nero) who was born here
Colonia Agrippinensis (H,V)  ............ ancient
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (H,V)
Oppidum (H,V)
Oppidum Ubiorum (H,V)  ............ Roman name, referring to Ubii tribe who colonized site with Romans
Ubiopolis (H,O)
Ubiorum (H,V)

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Germany (nation)  ........  Germany (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of North Rhine-Westphalia (state)  ............  North Rhine-Westphalia (state) (P)
Hierarchy of Cologne (inhabited place)  ................  Cologne (inhabited place) (P)

Additional Parents:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Roman Empire (former nation/state/empire)  ....  Roman Empire (former nation/state/empire) (P,H)
Hierarchy of Germania Inferior (province)  ........  Germania Inferior (province) (P,H) ca. 27 BCE-ca. 451 CE
Hierarchy of Cologne (inhabited place)  ............  Cologne (inhabited place) (P,H)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  settled by Romans and German Ubii tribe in 1st century BCE, city wall built in 1180
city (C)
district capital (C)
port (C)
manufacturing center (C)  ............  produces eau de cologne, textiles, chemicals, and electrical equipment
commercial center (C)
archiepiscopal see (C)  ............  established by Charlemagne in 785, archbishop was elector of empire from 1356, territories secularized in 1803
university center (C)  ............  founded 1388, dissolved in 1798 but refounded in 1919
cultural center (C)  ............  under archbishops, was famed medieval seat of art and learning, today noted for opera house and zoological and botanical gardens
episcopal see (H)  ............  established in the 4th century, raised to archbishopric in 785
capital (H)  ............  of Postumus's empire comprising Gaul, Britain and Spain after 258 CE
colony (H)  ............  of Roman veterans, status conferred in 50 CE

Sources and Contributors:
Agrippina colonia..........  [VP]
................................  Orbis Latinus (1971) 8
Augusta Ubiorum..........  [VP]
.............................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Coln..........  [VP]
...........  ARLIS/NA: Ancient Site Names (1995)
Cöln..........  [VP]
...........  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Cologne..........  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP]
.................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 48
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 277
Colonia..........  [VP]
.................  Orbis Latinus (1971) 8
.................  Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-38
Colonia Agrippina..........  [VP]
................................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
................................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 277
Colonia Agrippinensis..........  [GRLPSC, VP]
......................................  GRI Photo Archive, Authority File (1998) 64
......................................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
......................................  Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1979)
Colonia Claudia Agrippina..........  [VP]
............................................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium..........  [VP]
...........................................................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) XVI, 568-570
Keulen..........  [VP]
.................  Avery Authority Files
Koeln..........  [VP]
..............  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Köln..........  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
...........  GRI Photo Study, Authority File (1989)
...........  Müllers Deutsches Ortsbuch (1988)
...........  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
...........  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 103
...........  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 277
...........  World Gazetteer [online] (1990-2006) (12 Dec. 2004)
Oppidum..........  [VP]
.................  ARLIS/NA: Ancient Site Names (1995)
Oppidum Ubiorum..........  [VP]
.............................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) I, 194
Ubiopolis..........  [VP]
....................  Orbis Latinus (1971) 8
Ubiorum..........  [VP]
.................  ARLIS/NA: Ancient Site Names (1995)
Subject: .....  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  ARLIS/NA: Ancient Site Names (1995)
..................  Avery Authority Files
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) I, 194
..................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
..................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) XVI, 568-570
..................  GRI Photo Archive, Authority File (1998) 64
..................  GRI Photo Study, Authority File (1989)
..................  Müllers Deutsches Ortsbuch (1988)
..................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-) -1810561
..................  Orbis Latinus (1971) 8
..................  Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1979)
..................  Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-38
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 103; 48
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 277
..................  World Gazetteer [online] (1990-2006) (12 Dec. 2004)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 1:194
..........  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) "Cologne." http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article?tocId=61371 (12 Dec. 2004)
..........  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 277
..........  World Gazetteer [online] (1990-2006) (12 Dec. 2004)

 

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