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ID: 7004434
 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Brunswick (inhabited place)  Brunswick (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 52 16 00 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 52.2667  decimal degrees
Long: 010 32 00 E  degrees minutes   Long: 10.5333  decimal degrees

Note: The city of Braunschweig is located on the Oker River some 38 miles southeast of Hanover in the state of Lower Saxony in northern Germany. According to tradition, Bruno of Saxony founded it in the 9th century. Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, gave it its charter and developed it in the 12th century. It joined the Hanseatic League in the 13th century and prospered, but civil unrest caused it to decline. It revived far enough to become the capitol city of the state of Brunswick after the First World War, but then suffered heavy bombardment and severe damage in the Second. It was rebuilt and some of its historic architecture was restored. Medieval buildings include the Romanesque Cathedral of St. Blasius, containing the tomb of Henry the Lion, four medieval churches, the castle Burg Dankwarderode, which houses the Treasures of the Guelph family, and, in the castle square, a large statue of a lion, a memorial to Henry the Lion, carved in 1166. The modern city is known worldwide for its technical and scientific educational institutions. The principal industries are metalworking and the production of vehicles. It is a transportation center with an airport and railway junction. Other notable economic activities are the sugar trade and the production and marketing of asparagus, sausage, and gingerbread. The 2004 estimated population was 245,600.

Names:
Braunschweig (preferred,C,V,German,U,N)
Brunswick (C,O,English-P,U,N)
Brunswyck (NA,V)
Brunswich (H,V)

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Germany (nation)  ........  Germany (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Lower Saxony (state)  ............  Lower Saxony (state) (P)
Hierarchy of Brunswick (inhabited place)  ................  Brunswick (inhabited place) (P)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  by legend, founded ca. 861; chartered in 12th century
city (C)
district capital (C)
industrial center (C)
transportation center (C)
market center (C)
educational center (C)
scientific center (C)  ............  site of internationally renowned institutes for scientific research in physics, technology, biology, and other fields
cultural center (C)  ............  noted for museums of art and natural history
capital (H)  ............  of duchy of Braunschweig, until 1918
religious center (H)  ............  early supporter of Reformed faith and member of Protestant League of Schmalkalden

Sources and Contributors:
Braunschweig..........  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
.......................  BHA, Authority file (1973-)
.......................  Columbia Encyclopedia (1975)
.......................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.......................  Times Atlas of the World. Reprint ed. (1994) 33
.......................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
.......................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Brunswich..........  [VP]
....................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 183
Brunswick..........  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP]
....................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) I, 128
....................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) II, 486
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
....................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Brunswyck..........  [VP]
....................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Subject: .....  [BHA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  BHA, Authority file (1973-)
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) I, 128
..................  Columbia Encyclopedia (1975)
..................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) II, 486
..................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-) -1751596
..................  Times Atlas of the World. Reprint ed. (1994) 33
..................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 183
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-2014) "Braunschweig," Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 2002-. http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=16509&tocid=0&query=braunschweig&ct=eb#TOP (6 July 2004)

 

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