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ID: 7004333
 

Record Type: administrative
Hierarchy of Munich (inhabited place)  Munich (inhabited place)

Coordinates:
Lat: 48 09 00 N  degrees minutes   Lat: 48.1500  decimal degrees
Long: 011 35 00 E  degrees minutes   Long: 11.5833  decimal degrees

Note: Capital of Bavaria and the third-largest city in Germany; situated on both sides of the Isar River, north of the Alps. Henry the Lion, duke of Bavaria, established Munich in 1157 as a mint and market for Benedictine monks from Tegernsee. It suffered declined during the 17th century under the Swedish occupation and the plague epidemic of the Thirty Years' War. It revived under the Bavarian king Ludwig I, whose building and urban planning activities defined the character that the city has today. The city witnessed the rise to power of the Nazi party in the 1920s and 1930s, and was heavily damaged in World War II, when Allied bombing destroyed about 40% of its buildings. Still, a great deal of historic architecture survives, much of its rebuilt or restored, including the church the Frauenkirche, built 1468-1488. The city boasts seven old city gates, and many fine building built in the 19th century under Ludwig I. Munich is an active cultural center for the whole of Europe, with many libraries, theaters, museums, art galleries, and concert venues. It has several of the largest breweries in Germany and is renowned for its annual Oktoberfest celebrations. Light industry and tourism are major economic activities. The 2004 estimated population was 1,241,100.

Names:
München (preferred,C,V,German-P,U,N)  ............ meaning "Home of the Monks," name used in some form since 12th century
Munich (C,O,English-P,U,N)
Monaco (C,O,Italian,U,N)
Monaco di Baviera (C,O,Italian-P,U,N)
Muenchen (NA,V)
Munichen (H,O)

Hierarchical Position:
Hierarchy of World (facet)    World (facet)
Hierarchy of Europe (continent)  ....  Europe (continent) (P)
Hierarchy of Germany (nation)  ........  Germany (nation) (P)
Hierarchy of Bavaria (state)  ............  Bavaria (state) (P)
Hierarchy of Oberbayern (national district)  ................  Oberbayern (national district) (P)
Hierarchy of Munich (inhabited place)  ....................  Munich (inhabited place) (P)

Place Types:
inhabited place (preferred, C)  ............  founded near an older settlement in 1157, fortified in 13th century, modern city was planned and built under Ludwig I in 19th century
city (C)
state capital (C)  ............  of Bayern, first under Wittelsbachs in 1255
district capital (C)
market center (C)  ............  established in 1157; is still one of the largest market centers in Europe, for fruit, vegetables and animal products
industrial center (C)
cultural center (C)  ............  flourished since rise of Wittelsbachs, especially in 19th century when Ludwig II financed stage and music, was patron of Richard Wagner
commercial center (C)  ............  especially for book publishing and printing and motion-picture production
financial center (C)
transportation center (C)
university center (C)  ............  university moved here from Landshut in 1826, there are also other educational institutions in the city
political center (H)  ............  was site of attempted revolt by Hitler in 1923 & headquarters of early Nazi party
noble seat (H)  ............  of Wittelsbach family, from 1255 until abdication of Ludwig III in 1918
regional capital (C)

Sources and Contributors:
Monaco..........  [VP]
.................  Enciclopedia Europea (1978) 7:716
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
Monaco di Baviera..........  [VP]
................................  Cambridge Italian Dictionary (1962) I-487
Muenchen..........  [VP]
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
München..........  [BHA, FDA, GRLPSC, VP Preferred]
.................  Baedekers: München (1955)
.................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) 8:417
.................  GRI Photo Study, Authority File (1989)
.................  Müllers Deutsches Ortsbuch (1988)
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 134
.................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Munich..........  [BHA, FDA, GRLPSC, VP]
.................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
.................  National Gallery of Art database, Washington (1987-)
.................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-)
.................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 134
.................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 801
Munichen..........  [VP]
.................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 2:628
Subject: .....  [BHA, FDA, GRLPSC, VP]
..................  Baedekers: München (1955)
..................  Cambridge Italian Dictionary (1962) I-487
..................  Canby, Historic Places (1984) 2:628
..................  Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961)
..................  Enciclopedia Europea (1978) 7:716
..................  Encyclopaedia Britannica (1988) 8:417
..................  GRI Photo Study, Authority File (1989)
..................  Müllers Deutsches Ortsbuch (1988)
..................  National Gallery of Art database, Washington (1987-)
..................  NGA/NIMA database (2003-) -1829149
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1992) 134
..................  Times Atlas of the World (1994) 134
..................  USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
..................  Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) 801
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
..........  Encyclopaedia Britannica Online (2002-) "Munich," accessed 17 March 2004
..........  World Gazetteer [online] (1990-2006) accessed 17 March 2004

 

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