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ID: 300265172
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300265172

 

Record Type: concept
urushi (lacquer (material), <coating by composition or origin>, ... Materials (hierarchy name))

 

Note: A hard, insoluble coating prepared from the resinous exudation of Toxicodendron vernicifluum and Toxicodendron succedaneum, native to China and Japan. It contains urushiol, hydrourushiol, some polysaccharides, laccase, and water. It thickens and solidifies by oxidative polymerization when exposed to humid air, forming a hard, durable film that takes a high polish or may have a matte finish, and may be carved or inset with inlays. It has been used for at least 6,000 years as a protective and decorative coating, applied to wooden furniture, musical instruments, weapons, jewelry, and household items.
 
Terms:
urushi (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,L,N)
urushi (Dutch-P,D,U,U)
urushi (Spanish-P,D,L,N)
urushi (Japanese (transliterated)-P,D,U,N)
Oriental lacquer (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
Asian lacquer (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
urushi lacquer (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
true lacquer (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
lacquer of the Far East (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
lacquer, Oriental (C,U,English,UF,U,U)
yun (C,U,Burmese-P,D,U,N)
東方瓷漆 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
日本亮漆 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
dōng fāng cí qī (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
dong fang ci qi (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
tung fang tz'u ch'i (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
laca oriental (C,U,Spanish,AD,U,U)
laca japonesa (C,U,Spanish,UF,U,N)
lacca del Giappone (C,U,Italian-P,D,U,U)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  M.MT

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by function>
............ <materials by function> (G)
Hierarchy of coating (material)
................ coating (material) (G)
Hierarchy of <coating by composition or origin>
.................... <coating by composition or origin> (G)
Hierarchy of lacquer (material)
........................ lacquer (material) (G)
Hierarchy of urushi
............................ urushi (G)

Additional Parents:

Hierarchy of Activities Facet
Activities Facet
Hierarchy of Processes and Techniques (hierarchy name)
.... Processes and Techniques (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of <processes and techniques by specific type>
........ <processes and techniques by specific type> (G)
Hierarchy of <additive and joining processes and techniques>
............ <additive and joining processes and techniques> (G)
Hierarchy of <surface covering processes and techniques>
................ <surface covering processes and techniques> (G)
Hierarchy of coating (process)
.................... coating (process) (G)
Hierarchy of lacquering
........................ lacquering (G)
Hierarchy of urushi
............................ urushi (G)
 
Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by composition>
............ <materials by composition> (G)
Hierarchy of organic material
................ organic material (G)
Hierarchy of resin (organic material)
.................... resin (organic material) (G)
Hierarchy of urushi
........................ urushi (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 一種質硬、非溶性的塗層,由漆樹及木蠟樹(中國境內土生,並於日本栽培而得)滲出的樹脂調製而成。東方漆含有漆酚、氫化漆酚、某些多醣、漆酶和水。暴露在潮濕空氣中時,因為氧化聚合反應的影響,亮漆會變稠並固化,形成質硬且持久的薄膜,宛如經過高度磨光。此亮漆的使用歷史至少已6000年,為兼具保護與裝飾的塗層,可用於木製家具、樂器、武器、珠寶和居家用品。 
Dutch ..... Verwijst naar een natuurlijk voorkomend harsachtig exsudaat, gemaakt van het sap van de boom Rhus verniciflua of andere bomen uit de Anacardiaciae-familie die worden aangetroffen in het Verre Oosten. Urushi wordt toegepast in Japans en, in mindere mate, in Chinees lakwerk, evenals in Japanse prenten, de zogeheten 'urushi-e'. Urushi hardt uit door oxidatieve polymerisatie na blootstelling van dunne laklagen aan een hoge vochtigheidsgraad en een matige temperatuur. De term verwijst soms ook naar de objecten die met deze laksoort worden vervaardigd, en naar de laktechniek zelf. 
Spanish ..... Exudación resinosa natural obtenida en determinados árboles que se encuentran en el Lejano Oriente. Laca preparada con la savia del árbol Rhus verniciflua o de otros árboles de la familia Anacardiaciae, empleada en trabajdo de lacas japonesas y en menor medida, china; así como también en grabados japoneses llamados "urushi-e". a veces el término es usado para referirse a objetos hechos con este tipo de laca y las técnicas de preparación de lacas. 

Related concepts:
derived/made from ....  Toxicodendron succedaneum (species)
................................  (Toxicodendron (genus), Anacardiaceae (family), ... Living Organisms (hierarchy name)) [300375637]
derived/made from ....  Toxicodendron vernicifluum (species)
................................  (Toxicodendron (genus), Anacardiaceae (family), ... Living Organisms (hierarchy name)) [300375636]

Sources and Contributors:
東方瓷漆............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
...........  藝術名詞與技法辭典 p. 242
日本亮漆............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  TELDAP database (2009-)
Asian lacquer............  [VP]
..........................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
dong fang ci qi............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.............................  TELDAP database (2009-)
dōng fāng cí qī............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.............................  TELDAP database (2009-)
laca japonesa............  [CDBP-SNPC, VP]
..........................  Fleming and Honour, Diccionario de Artes Decorativas (1987) 451
..........................  Fleming y Honour, Diccionario de Artes Decorativas (1987) 451
..........................  Tesauro de Arte & Arquitectura (TAA) [online] (2000-)
laca oriental............  [CDBP-SNPC]
..........................  Mayer, Materiales y técnicas del arte, 1985 234-235; 158
lacca del Giappone............  [VP]
...................................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
lacquer of the Far East............  [VP]
.........................................  Masschelein-Kleiner, Ancient Binding Media, Varnishes, and Adhesives (1985) 89
lacquer, Oriental............  [VP]
................................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
Oriental lacquer............  [VP]
.............................  Feller et al., On Picture Varnishes, rev. ed. (1971) 3
.............................  Mayer, Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques (1969) 207
.............................  Metropolitan Museum of Art [online] (2001-)
.............................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-) accessed 29 January 2009
.............................  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston [online] (2003)
true lacquer............  [VP]
.......................  Grove Art Online (2003-2008) "Lacquer," accessed 20 January 2005
.......................  Masschelein-Kleiner, Ancient Binding Media, Varnishes, and Adhesives (1985) 89
tung fang tz'u ch'i............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...................................  TELDAP database (2009-)
urushi............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, GCI Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]
.................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
.................  AATA database (2002-) 130162 checked 26 January 2012
.................  Brommelle and Smith, eds., Urushi (1988) illustration, title
.................  Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) accessed 1 February 2001
.................  Quin and Thompson, Urushi (1995) title
.................  TAA database (2000-)
.................  Tesauro de Arte & Arquitectura (TAA) [online] (2000-)
urushi lacquer............  [VP]
.............................  Grove Art Online (2003-2008) "Lacquer," accessed 20 January 2005
yun............  [VP]
...........  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AAT-Ned (1994-)
............  AATA database (2002-) 130162 checked 26 January 2012
............  Grove Art Online (2003-2008) "Lacquer," accessed 20 January 2005
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Grove Art Online (2003-2008) "Lacquer," accessed 20 January 2005
.......... Masschelein-Kleiner, Ancient Binding Media, Varnishes and Adhesives, 2nd ed (1995) 77
.......... MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-) accessed 29 January 2009
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... TELDAP database (2009-)
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
Spanish .......... [CDBP-SNPC]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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