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ID: 300012939
Page Link: http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300012939

 

Record Type: concept
gamboge (resin and pigment) (resin (organic material), organic material, ... Materials (hierarchy name))

 

Note: Translucent golden-colored resin composed of a yellow resinous component and a clear water-soluble gum, produced by several trees of the genus Garcinia native to India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Gamboge was used as a yellow pigment as early as the 8th century in Asia and Japan. It was regularly imported to Europe in the 17th century. It is marketed in the form of dull, brownish-yellow cakes or lumps that, when powdered, have a rich golden color. The carbohydrate gum acts as a natural binder. Gamboge is used as a transparent colorant in glazes, varnishes, and watercolors. The yellow color fades when exposed to light or ozone. In some cases it has recovered its color when placed in the dark.
 
Terms:
gamboge (resin and pigment) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,N)
gumboge (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gumbooge (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gumbouch (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
guti ambar (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gutto gumbo (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
Cadie gum (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
cambodiam (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gambogium (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gamma gitta (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gummi Gamgoia (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gummi gutti (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gutagamba (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
gutagamba (resina) (Spanish,AD,U,U)
rattan yellow (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
wisteria yellow (C,U,English,UF,U,N)
藤黃 (樹脂與顏料) (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
雌黃 (C,U,Chinese (traditional),UF,U,U)
téng huáng (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
teng huang (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
t'eng huang (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
guttegom (hars en pigment) (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
gittegom (C,U,Dutch,UF,U,U)
gomme-gutte (C,U,French-P,D,U,N)
gomme gutte (C,U,French,UF,U,N)
Gummigutt (C,U,German-P,D,U,N)
gomma gutta (C,U,Italian-P,D,U,N)
gamboji (C,U,Japanese (transliterated)-P,D,U,U)
gomaguta (C,U,Portuguese-P,D,U,U)
gomaguta (Spanish-P,D,U,N)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  M.MT

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by composition>
............ <materials by composition> (G)
Hierarchy of organic material
................ organic material (G)
Hierarchy of resin (organic material)
.................... resin (organic material) (G)
Hierarchy of gamboge (resin and pigment)
........................ gamboge (resin and pigment) (G)

Additional Parents:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (hierarchy name)
.... Materials (hierarchy name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (substances)
........ materials (substances) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by function>
............ <materials by function> (G)
Hierarchy of colorant (material)
................ colorant (material) (G)
Hierarchy of pigment
.................... pigment (G)
Hierarchy of <pigment by color>
........................ <pigment by color> (G)
Hierarchy of brown pigment
............................ brown pigment (G)
Hierarchy of organic brown pigment
................................ organic brown pigment (G)
Hierarchy of gamboge (resin and pigment)
.................................... gamboge (resin and pigment) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 由黃色樹脂狀成分與一種清澈的水溶性樹膠所構成的半透明金色樹脂,係幾種原生於印度、泰國、柬埔寨、越南及斯里蘭卡的山竹子屬喬木所產。藤黃早在西元八世紀時便在亞洲與日本作為黃色顏料,而在十七世紀時便定期地輸出至歐洲,市場上販售的形式為黯淡的棕黃色塊狀或團狀物,而磨成粉後可呈現鮮豔的金色。這種碳水化合物樹膠可作為天然黏結劑,亦可加入釉料、清漆或水彩顏料中作為透明的著色劑。藤黃暴露於光線下或臭氧中會褪色,若再放回黑暗處有可能回復原本的金黃色。 
Dutch ..... een doorschijnende goudkleurige hars die bestaat uit een gele harsachtige component en een heldere in water oplosbare gom, geproduceerd door verschillende bomen van het geslacht Garcinia afkomstig uit India, Thailand, Cambodja, Vietnam en Sri Lanka. Guttegom werd als een gele pigment al in de 8e eeuw in Azië en Japan. Het werd regelmatig naar Europa geïmporteerd in de 17e eeuw. Het wordt verkocht in de vorm van doffe, bruin-gele cakes of klontjes die, wanneer in poedervorm, een rijke gouden kleur hebben. De gom uit koolhydraat fungeert als een natuurlijke bindmiddel. Guttegom wordt gebruikt als een transparante kleurstof in glazuren, vernissen en waterverven. De gele kleur verdwijnt bij blootstelling aan licht of ozon. In sommige gevallen kan de kleur herstellen wanneer in het donker geplaatst wordt. 

Related concepts:
derived/made from ....  Garcinia (genus)
................................  (Clusiaceae (family), Malpighiales (order), ... Living Organisms (hierarchy name)) [300311535]

Sources and Contributors:
藤黃 (樹脂與顏料)............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
.......................  國家教育研究院-雙語詞彙、學術名詞暨辭書資訊網 December 18, 2009
.......................  牛津當代大辭典 722
.......................  藝術名詞與技法辭典 189
雌黃............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
...........  藝術名詞與技法辭典 189
Cadie gum............  [VP]
....................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
cambodiam............  [VP]
....................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
gamboge (resin and pigment)............  [GCI Preferred, VP Preferred]
...............................................  AATA database (2002-) 124070 checked 26 January 2012
...............................................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.) gamboge
...............................................  Harley, Artists' Pigments c.1600-1835 (1982) illustration, 103; gamboge
...............................................  Mayer, Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques (1969) 161; gamboge
...............................................  Personal Communication Elisabeth West Fitzhugh, Smithsonian, conservation scientist, ret., December 1991; gamboge
...............................................  Wehlte, Materials and Techniques of Painting (1982) 94; gamboge
gambogium............  [VP]
....................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
gamboji............  [VP]
.................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
gamma gitta............  [VP]
.......................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
gittegom............  [RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
.................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
.................  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
.................  Van Dale Engels-Nederlands (1989)
gomaguta............  [VP]
.................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.) ESP
.................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
gomma gutta............  [VP]
.......................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.) ITA
gomme gutte............  [CHIN / RCIP, VP]
.......................  CHIN database (1988-)
.......................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
.......................  Wehlte, Materials and Techniques of Painting (1982) 94
gomme-gutte............  [CHIN / RCIP Preferred, VP]
.......................  CHIN database (1988-)
.......................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.) FRA
.......................  Personal Communication Elisabeth West Fitzhugh, Conservation Scientist, Smithsonian, ret., December 1991
gumboge............  [VP]
.................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
gumbooge............  [VP]
.................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
gumbouch............  [VP]
.................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
gummi Gamgoia............  [VP]
..........................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
Gummigutt............  [VP]
....................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.) DEU
....................  Personal Communication Elisabeth West Fitzhugh, Conservation Scientist, Smithsonian, ret., December 1991
....................  Wehlte, Materials and Techniques of Painting (1982) 94
gummi gutti............  [VP]
.......................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
gutagamba ()............  [CDBP-SNPC Preferred, VP]
.......................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.) ESP
.......................  Mayer, Materiales y técnicas del arte, 1985 46-47
guti ambar............  [VP]
.......................  Wehlte, Materials and Techniques of Painting (1982) 94
guttegom (hars en pigment)............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
...............................................  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
...............................................  Van Dale Engels-Nederlands (1989)
gutto gumbo............  [VP]
.......................  Wehlte, Materials and Techniques of Painting (1982) 94
rattan yellow............  [VP]
..........................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
..........................  Personal Communication Elisabeth West Fitzhugh, Conservation Scientist, Smithsonian, ret., December 1991
teng huang............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
téng huáng............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
t'eng huang............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica data (2014-)
wisteria yellow............  [VP]
.............................  Fitzhugh, ed., Artists Pigments, vol.3 (unpub.)
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-SNPC, CHIN / RCIP, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AATA database (2002-) 124070 checked 26 January 2012
............  CHIN database (1988-)
............  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
............  Van Dale Engels-Nederlands (1989)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) accessed 8 January 2008
.......... Mayer, Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques (1991) 169
.......... MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online: CAMEO (2005-)
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
.......... Van Dale Engels-Nederlands (1989)

 

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