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ID: 300157460

 

Record Type: concept
studios (organizations) (organizations (groups), Organizations (Hierarchy Name))

 

Note: In the context of the visual and decorative arts, refers to groups comprising a master artist or architect and his or her assistants. A studio typically includes a number of assistants and pupils, who were usually talented or adept artists who were honing their skills under the direction of the master. The term is typically applied to groups active in the 17th century and later. The meaning of the term overlaps with "workshops (organizations)," although there is often a subtle distinction in usage: "Workshops (organizations)" typically refers to groups active prior to the mid-17th century, where the emphasis is on organized collaboration, smooth teamwork, a division of labor, and where apprentices are learning a trade rather than being trained as "artists" in the modern sense of the term. "Studios (organizations)" typically refers to later groups in which the master artist or architect took on pupils rather than apprentices, and the emphasis of the pupil was on honing his native artistic skills rather than on learning a trade. The phrases "studio of" or "workshop of" are often used to signify a work produced by persons in an artist's studio or workshop, but without the direct participation of the master's hand.
 
Terms:
studios (organizations) (preferred,C,U,English-P,D,U,PN)
studio (organization) (C,U,English,AD,U,SN)
studio (organisatie) (Dutch,AD,U,U)
工作室 (組織) (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
gōng zuò shì (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
gong zuo shi (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
kung tso shih (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
studio's (organisaties) (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,U)
estudios (organizaciones) (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,PN)
estudio (organización) (C,U,Spanish,AD,U,SN)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  H.HN

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Agents Facet
Agents Facet
Hierarchy of Organizations (Hierarchy Name)
.... Organizations (Hierarchy Name) (G)
Hierarchy of organizations (groups)
........ organizations (groups) (G)
Hierarchy of studios (organizations)
............ studios (organizations) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 在視覺與裝飾藝術領域中,此詞彙指由一位藝術或建築師傅及其助手組成的團體,一般用於指稱活躍於十七世紀及其後的團體。一個工作室通常具有數位助手與弟子,常為天資聰穎或內行的藝術家,在師傅的指導下磨練技能。此詞彙的意義與「作坊 (組織)」重疊,但通常在用法上有些微差異。「作坊 (組織)」一般指活躍於十七世紀中葉以前的團體,強調組織性的合作、流暢的團隊合作與分工;因此以現代對「藝術家」這個詞彙的觀念來說,此處的學徒主要目的在學習職業技能,而非受訓成為「藝術家」。「工作室(組織)」通常指活躍於十七世紀中葉後的團體,藝術或建築師傅招收弟子而非學徒,弟子的重點放在磨練本身的藝術技巧,而非學習職業技能。「…工作室」或「…工坊」等用語通常表示作品是由一位藝術家的工作室或工坊集體製作而成,師傅並未親手參與製作。 
Dutch ..... In de context van beeldende kunsten en kunstnijverheid een groep die bestaat uit een meesterkunstenaar of -architect en zijn of haar assistenten. In de studio waren vaak een aantal assistenten en leerlingen werkzaam, meestal talentvolle en bedreven kunstenaars die onder leiding van de meester hun vaardigheden aanscherpten. De term wordt meestal gebruikt voor groepen die actief waren in de 17de eeuw en later. De betekenis van de term komt deels overeen met 'werkplaatsen (organisaties)', maar er is vaak een subtiel onderscheid in gebruik: 'werkplaatsen (organisaties)' verwijst meestal naar groepen die actief waren voor het midden van de 17de eeuw en waarin de nadruk lag op georganiseerde samenwerking, goed functionerend teamwerk en arbeidsverdeling. Ook leerden de leerjongens hier een vak en werden ze niet opgeleid tot kunstenaar in de moderne zin van de term. 'Studio's (organisaties)' verwijst meestal naar latere groepen waarin de meesterkunstenaar of -architect geen leerjongens maar leerlingen opleidde en waarin de nadruk voor de leerlingen lag op het aanscherpen van artistieke vaardigheden en niet op het leren van een vak. De termen 'studio van' of 'werkplaats van' worden vaak gebruikt om aan te geven dat een werk is geproduceerd in de studio of werkplaats van een kunstenaar, zonder dat de meester er zelf aan heeft gewerkt. 
Spanish ..... Úsese para grupos consistentes de un artista maestro o un arquitecto y sus asistentes o pupilos, especialmente en los siglos XIX y XX; anterior, use taller (organización). 

Related concepts:
distinguished from ....  manufactories
..................................  (organizations (groups), Organizations (Hierarchy Name)) [300264603]
distinguished from ....  workshops (organizations)
..................................  (organizations (groups), Organizations (Hierarchy Name)) [300026026]
work/live in ....  studios (work spaces)
......................  (<work and instructional spaces>, <rooms and spaces by function>, ... Components (Hierarchy Name)) [300007725]

Sources and Contributors:
estudio (organización)............  [CDBP-DIBAM, VP]
.........................................  Moliner, Diccionario de uso del español (2004) I:1238
estudios (organizaciones)............  [CDBP-DIBAM Preferred, VP]
............................................  TAA database (2000-)
gōng zuò shì............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica
gong zuo shi............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......................  AS-Academia Sinica
kung tso shih............  [AS-Academia Sinica]
..........................  AS-Academia Sinica
studio (organization)............  [RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
......................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
......................................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
studios (organizations)............  [GCI Preferred, VP Preferred]
.........................................  AATA database (2002-) 129341 checked 26 January 2012
.........................................  Avery Index (1963-) studios
.........................................  Canaday, Mainstreams of Modern Art (1981) 105; studios
.........................................  Candidate term Candidate term - FDA - 7/89; studios
.........................................  Getty Vocabulary Program rules
.........................................  Pevsner, Academies of Art (1940) 92; studios
.........................................  Pierce, From Abacus to Zeus (1987) studios
.........................................  RILA, Subject Headings (1975-1990) studios
studio's (organisaties)............  [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred]
.........................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
工作室 (組織)............  [AS-Academia Sinica Preferred]
.................  中央研究院中英雙語知識本體詞網 March 13, 2012
.................  國家教育研究院-雙語詞彙、學術名詞暨辭書資訊網 March 13, 2012
.................  朗文當代大辭典 p. 1753
.................  牛津當代大辭典 p. 1823
 
Subject: .....  [AS-Academia Sinica, CDBP-DIBAM, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP]
............  AAT-Ned (1994-)
............  AATA database (2002-) 129341 checked 26 January 2012
............  Avery Index (1963-) precoor.; Artists' studios; precoor. (source AAT); Filmmakers' studios; photographers' studios; Photographic studios
............  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-) precoor.; Artists' studios; Photography--Studios and dark rooms
............  RIBA, Architectural Keywords (1982) Drawing offices; Studios: artists;' Studios: architects;' Offices: architects;' precoor.; Photographic studios; Artists' houses & studios
............  RILA, Subject Headings (1975-1990) precoor.; Artists' studios
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002) "Studios." Accessed 02//06/2002.
.......... Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-) Accessed 02/06/2002.
Chinese (traditional) .......... [AS-Academia Sinica]
.......... AS-Academia Sinica
Dutch .......... [RKD, AAT-Ned]
.......... AAT-Ned (1994-)
.......... Bureau AAT, RKD
Spanish .......... [CDBP-DIBAM]
.......... TAA database (2000-)

 

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