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ID: 300012934

 

Record Type: concept
amber (fossil resin) (fossil resin, resin (organic material), ... Materials (Hierarchy Name))

 

Note: A yellowish, hard, glassy, translucent fossil tree resin found in largest deposits on the Baltic coast and dating 40-60 million years old. Types of amber are classified by location. Amber is composed of complex mixtures of oxidized and polymerized resin acids and resin alcohols. It has been gathered or mined since Paleolithic times. It is easy to carve and was often used in its natural state for jewelry, beads, amulets, and small vessels. It was also used as an ingredient in paint; dark color oil and amber varnishes are made by dissolving melted amber in amber oil, turpentine oil, or a drying oil. It develops an electrical charge when rubbed with a cloth. It is also valued because very ancient insects and plants may be preserved in the amber.
 
Terms:
amber (fossil resin) (preferred,C,U,LC,English-P,D,U,N)
amber (fossiele hars) (Dutch,UF,U,U)
琥珀 (C,U,Chinese (traditional)-P,D,U,U)
hǔ pò (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Hanyu Pinyin)-P,UF,U,U)
hu po (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Pinyin without tones)-P,UF,U,U)
hu p'o (C,U,Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles)-P,UF,U,U)
barnsteen (C,U,Dutch-P,D,U,N)
rav (C,U,Danish-P,D,U,N)
rav (Norwegian (Nynorsk)-P,D,U,N)
ambre (résine fossile) (C,U,French-P,D,U,N)
Bernstein (C,U,German-P,D,U,N)
ambra (resina fossile) (C,U,Italian-P,D,U,N)
âmbar (resina fóssil) (C,U,Portuguese-P,D,U,N)
ámbar (resina fósil) (C,U,Spanish-P,D,U,U)
bärnsten (C,U,Swedish-P,D,U,N)

Facet/Hierarchy Code:  M.MT

Hierarchical Position:

Hierarchy of Materials Facet
Materials Facet
Hierarchy of Materials (Hierarchy Name)
.... Materials (Hierarchy Name) (G)
Hierarchy of materials (matter)
........ materials (matter) (G)
Hierarchy of <materials by composition>
............ <materials by composition> (G)
Hierarchy of organic material
................ organic material (G)
Hierarchy of resin (organic material)
.................... resin (organic material) (G)
Hierarchy of fossil resin
........................ fossil resin (G)
Hierarchy of amber (fossil resin)
............................ amber (fossil resin) (G)

Additional Notes:
Chinese (traditional) ..... 一種呈黃色、質硬似玻璃、半透明的化石樹脂,最大沉積物見於四到六千萬年以前的波羅的海海岸(Baltic coast)。琥珀種類以地點區分,包括波羅的海琥珀(名succinite)、羅馬尼亞琥珀(名rumanite)、西西里島琥珀(名simetite)、緬甸琥珀(名burmite)等。琥珀為氧化和聚合樹脂酸及樹脂醇所構成之複雜混合物,自舊石器時代即開始採集及開礦。琥珀易於雕刻,過去常以天然形態製成珠寶、珠子、幸運物及小型器皿,也可做為油漆成分。在琥珀油、松節油或乾性油中分解已熔化之琥珀,可製成深色油和琥珀亮光漆。與布料磨擦會產生電荷。琥珀之所以具價值,也是因為內部可能保存古代昆蟲或植物標本。 

Sources and Contributors:
âmbar (resina fóssil)............  [VP]
......................................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-)
ámbar (resina fósil)............  [CDBP-DIBAM Preferred]
...................................  Fleming y Honour, Diccionario de Artes Decorativas (1987) 22
amber (fossil resin)............  [GCI Preferred, RKD, AAT-Ned, VP Preferred]
...................................  AAT-Ned (1994-)
...................................  AATA database (2002-) 120351 checked 26 January 2012
...................................  CDMARC Subjects: LCSH (1988-) amber
...................................  Fleming and Honour, Penguin Dictionary of the Decorative Arts (1989) 25
...................................  Mayer, Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques (1969) amber
...................................  National Museum of American Art, Media Thesaurus (1980s) amber
...................................  RILA, Subject Headings (1975-1990) amber
ambra (resina fossile)............  [VP]
.........................................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-)
ambre (résine fossile)............  [CHIN Preferred, VP]
.........................................  CHIN database (1988-)
barnsteen............  [VP]
....................  AAT-Ned (1994-) okayed in spreadsheet from AAT-Ned
....................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-)
bärnsten............  [VP]
.................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-)
Bernstein............  [VP]
....................  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-)
hǔ pò............  [TELDAP-now AS]
..............  TELDAP database (2009-)
hu po............  [TELDAP-now AS]
..............  TELDAP database (2009-)
hu p'o............  [TELDAP-now AS]
.................  TELDAP database (2009-)
rav............  [VP]
...........  MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-)
琥珀............  [TELDAP-now AS Preferred]
...........  國立編譯館學術名詞資訊網 January 29, 2010
...........  大英百科全書線上繁體中文版 September 23, 2011
...........  大英視覺藝術百科全書 Vol. 9,pp. 170
...........  寶石圖鑑 p. 159
...........  岩石與礦物圖鑑 p. 246
...........  智慧藏百科全書網 September 23, 2011
...........  朗文當代大辭典 p. 45
...........  朗文英漢雙解科技大辭典 p. 53
...........  牛津當代大辭典 p. 49
...........  玻璃陶瓷名詞辭典 p. 10
...........  藝術名詞與技法辭典 p. 19
...........  輔仁服飾辭典 p. 11
 
Subject: .....  [CDBP-DIBAM, CHIN, GCI, RKD, AAT-Ned, TELDAP-now AS, VP]
............  AATA database (2002-) 120351 checked 26 January 2012
............  CHIN database (1988-)
............  Polytechnisch woordenboek En-Ne (1991)
 
Note:
English .......... [VP]
.......... Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-) accessed 13 November 2007
.......... MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-) accessed 16 January 2009
.......... Oxford English Dictionary Online (2002-) accessed 13 November 2007
Chinese (traditional) .......... [TELDAP-now AS]
.......... TELDAP database (2009-)

 

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